Ancient Kyoto: Shimogamo Shrine
Location: Kyoto, Japan, Asia
Theme: Places of Worship
This classic Shinto shrine shares ancient traditions with neighboring Kamigamo Shrine.
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Ancient Kyoto: Shimogamo Shrine
Kyoto was the main centre for the evolution of religious and secular architecture and of garden design between the 8th and 17th centuries, and as such it played a decisive role in the creation of Japanese cultural traditions which, in the case of gardens in particular, had a profound effect on the rest of the world from the 19th century onwards. Buddhism had already been introduced from China and Chinese culture was having a profound influence on Japan when the capital was moved from Heijo-ko (Nara), after 10 years at Nagaoka, to Kyoto, under the name of Heian-ko, in AD 794. The city plan was modelled on Chinese cities such as Changshan, capital of Tang China. It was the heart of the aristocratic society that clustered around the imperial court for the four centuries of the Heian period (794-1192). For most of this period there was a prohibition on the building of Buddhist temples inside the city, apart from the two imperial temples (To-ji and Sai-ji).
Properties on the World Heritage site that date from the foundation of Heian-kyo are Karmwakeikauchi-jinja (Shinto shrine), Amomioya-jinja (Shinto shrine), Kyo-o-gokoku-ji To-ji (Buddhist temple), Kiyornim-dera (Buddhist temple), and Enryaku-ji (Buddhist temple); the two large Buddhist temples of Daigo-ji and Ninna-ji are representative of the early Heian period. By the end of the Heian period the military samurai class was growing in power, and the resulting unrest, coupled with the fact that the world would enter its final years, according to Buddhist doctrine, in 1052, led to an increase in religious fervour. The Buddhist temple of Byodo-in and the Ujigami-jinja date from this period.
A civil war in 1185 led to the establishment of a samurai military regime at Kamakum; however, the imperial court remained at Kyoto. The Sekisui-in at Kozan-ji is the best example of the residential architecture of this period, which ended in 1332 with the establishment of the Muromachi Shogunate. This period saw the building of large temples of the Rinzai Zen sect, such as Temyu-ji, and the creation of Zen gardens, of which that at Saiho-ji is a representative example.
At the end of the 14th century, the Muromachi Shogunate reached the apogee of its power, and this is reflected in buildings such as the villa of Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, which later became the Buddhist temple Rokuon-ji. The villa of a later shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, built in a more refined style in the mid-15th century, was also converted into a temple, Jisho-ji. Garden design was refined into pure art, as demonstrated by the garden of the abbot's residence at Ryoan-ji. Much of Kyoto was destroyed in the Onin War (1467-77), but it was rebuilt by a new urban merchant class, who replaced the aristocrats who had fled during the war. In 1568 Oda Nobunaga seized power, and he was followed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who unified the country and built a 23 km wall round Kyoto. The centre of power moved to Edo (present-day Tokyo) when a new shogunate was established under Tokugawa Ieyasu. The authority of the Tokugawa Shogunate was given material form in Kyoto with the construction of the strong castle of Ngo-jo at the heart of the city. At the same time Hideyoshi's defences were dismantled.
The political stability of the Momoyama period (1573-1614) saw a new spirit of confidence among both the military and the merchants, reflected in the opulence and boldness of the architecture, represented by the Sanpo-in residential complex and garden at Daigo-jo and the prayer and reception halls at the Buddhist temple of Hongan-ji, moved from Osaka to Kyoto as a symbol of the city's revival. The beginning of the long Edo period (1615-1867) saw Heian temples and shrines, such as Kiyomimdera, being restored in traditional style. During this period the supremacy of Kyoto as a centre of pilgrimage became established. After the Meiji restoration of 1868 the capital and the imperial court moved to Tokyo.
One of the results was the adoption of a modernization policy that led to the transformation of Kyoto into a modern city. This caused the city's cultural heritage to be neglected; however, the national government was aware of what was happening, and introduced the first ordinance for the protection of antiquities in 1871. This was superseded in 1897 by the important Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Law, which marked the beginning of the protection and conservation programmes of modern Japan.
Shimogano Shrine was built in the sixth century, predating its sister shrine to the north, Kamigamo Shrine, by some 100 years. Like Kamigamo, Shimogano is dedicated to the god of thunder, and serves as the family shrine of the Kamo clan, which lived in this area before Kyoto became the capital of Japan. The paired shrines share the important task of protecting the city of Kyoto from dangers. When spoken about together, Kamigamo and Shimogano are often called the Kamo-jinja. Jinja refers to the Kamo family of deities.
Shimogamo is set in a cool, green area called Tadasu no Mori (The Forest of Truth), between the fork of the Kamogawa and Takanogawa rivers. The trees there, many 600 years old, are considered sacred by Shimogamo’s priests. In summer, many local people come to “The Forest of Truth,” to enjoy the cool setting, and to experience the spirituality of the place.
A towering torii gate protects the entrance to Shimogamo’s main shrine, which is widely credited for its role in ensuring a good rice harvest each year. The property also contains 25 smaller sanctuaries, and curving bridges that lead across small streams. Of these structures, 22 are considered to be important Imperial properties by the national government.
Shimogano Shrine actually predates the establishment of Kyoto as Japan’s national capital in 794, and is believed to have played a significant role in keeping the city safe for the thousand years that Kyoto served as the capital of Imperial Japan. Over that long period, Japan’s Imperial Court acted as patron to Shimogano, and its partner shrine Kamigamo, believing that the two Shinto shrines would protect and ensure prosperity for Kyoto. In 965, Emperor Marukami started sending Imperial messengers to Shimogamo, to keep the shrine’s gods up to date on current happenings in Kyoto and in the lives of the Imperial family. That role continued among the emperors until the end of the Second World War.
Every May 15, the Aoi Matsuri, or Hollyhock Festival, is held at Shimogamo and Kamigamo. People wearing costumes in style of Imperial Kyoto form a huge procession, walking from Kyoto’s Imperial Palace to Shimogamo and on to Kamigamo, to pay respect to the deities. The event also features horse races and archery competitions.
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