Royal Dutch Shell plc (Shell) is an independent oil and gas company. The Company is engaged in the principal aspects of the oil and gas industry in more than 70 countries. The Company operates in three segments: Upstream, Downstream and Corporate. In Upstream, the Company focuses on exploration for new liquids and natural gas reserves and on developing new projects. In Downstream, the Company focuses on turning crude oil into a range of refined products, which are moved and marketed around the world for domestic, industrial and transport use. The Company's Upstream Americas business manages Shell's Upstream activities in North and South America. It also extracts bitumen from oil sands that is converted into synthetic crude oil. The Company's Upstream International business manages Shell's Upstream activities outside the Americas. The Company's Downstream business manages Shell's refining and marketing activities for oil products and chemicals.