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Publication numberCA2680459 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCA 2680459
PCT numberPCT/US2008/054955
Publication dateSep 18, 2008
Filing dateFeb 26, 2008
Priority dateMar 13, 2007
Also published asCN101679784A, EP2176364A2, EP2176364A4, US20080227892, US20090306254, WO2008112419A2, WO2008112419A3
Publication numberCA 2680459, CA 2680459 A1, CA 2680459A1, CA-A1-2680459, CA2680459 A1, CA2680459A1, PCT/2008/54955, PCT/US/2008/054955, PCT/US/2008/54955, PCT/US/8/054955, PCT/US/8/54955, PCT/US2008/054955, PCT/US2008/54955, PCT/US2008054955, PCT/US200854955, PCT/US8/054955, PCT/US8/54955, PCT/US8054955, PCT/US854955
InventorsMaarten Van Der Wielen, Phil Winston, John Swazey, Ross Clark, Maarit Lahtinen
ApplicantCp Kelco U.S., Inc., Maarten Van Der Wielen, Phil Winston, John Swazey, Ross Clark, Maarit Lahtinen
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: CIPO, Espacenet
Improved paint formulations comprising cellulose ether/network building polymer fluid gel thickeners
CA 2680459 A1
Abstract
Paint formulations that exhibit improved performance characteristics due to the presence of a combination of a cellulose ether (carboxymethyicellulose and/or hydroxy ethylcellulose) and a network building polymer (gellan gum, carrageenan, etc.. as examples) as a thickening system therein are provided. Such a combination permits long-term shelf stability of the paint formulation while simultaneously according effective Row. leveling, and other important properties to the final paint formulation. The combination of the cellulose ether and a network building pol\ mer allows for a lower viscosity cellulosic compound fo impart the desired.theological behavior therein while also permitting the other desirable characteristics noted above. Such paint compositions also exhibit improved atomizatio.pi. for spray applications with such a thickening system.
Claims(3)
1. A paint formulation comprising at least one pigment, at least one binder, at least one solvent, and a combination of at least one cellulose ether and at least one network building polymer, wherein the cellulose ether and network building polymer are present in an amount together of from about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of the total formulation, and the ratio of both components is from 4:1 to about 40:1, respectively.
2. The paint formulation of Claim 1 wherein the ratio of said cellulose ether to said network building polymer is from 4:1 to about 20:1.
3. The paint formulation of Claim 1 wherein said at least one cellulose ether is selected from the group consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), ethyl hydroxylethyl cellulose (EHEC), methyl cellulose (MC), methyl hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (MHEC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) ethers, and any mixtures thereof, and wherein said at least one network building polymer is selected from the group consisting of gellan gum, carrageenan, pectin, alginate, agar, gelatin etc, or blends thereof 4. The paint formulation of Claim 3 wherein said at least one cellulose ether is CMC and said at least one network building polymer is gellan gum.

5. The paint formulation of Claim 3 wherein said at least one cellulose ether is HEC and said at least one network building polymer is gellan gum.

6. The paint formulation of Claim 4 wherein said gellan gum is a low-acyl gellan gum.

7. The paint formulation of Claim 5 where said gellan gum is high-acyl gellan gum.

8. The paint formulation of Claim 1 wherein said formulation is a latex paint.

9. The paint formulation of Claim 3 wherein said formulation is a latex paint.

10. The paint formulation of Claim 4 wherein said formulation is a latex paint.

11. A paint formulation comprising at least one pigment, at least one binder, at least one solvent, and a thickening system consisting of at least one cellulose ether and at least one network building polymer, wherein said thickening system is present in an amount of from 0.1 to 5% by weight of the entire paint formulation, wherein said paint formulation exhibits a higher sag rating, a viscosity increase of at least 15% at 0.3 rpm as measured on a Brookfield viscometer, and that exhibits at least the level of syneresis after being subject to a package stability test at 25░C for 7 weeks as that exhibited by a paint formulation comprising the same components, except for the presence of said network building polymer.

11. The paint formulation of Claim 10 wherein said at least one cellulose ether is selected from the group consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), ethyl hydroxylethyl cellulose (EHEC), methyl cellulose (MC), methyl hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (MHEC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) ethers, and any mixture thereof, and wherein said at least one network building polymer is selected from the group consisting of gellan gum, carrageenan, pectin, alginate, agar, gelatin, or blends thereof.

12. The paint formulation of Claim 11 wherein said at least one cellulose ether is CMC and said at least one network building polymer is gellan gum.

13. The paint formulation of Claim 11 wherein said at least one cellulose ether is HEC and said at least one network building polymer is gellan gum.

14. The paint formulation of Claim 12 wherein said gellan is a low gellan gum.

15. The paint formulation of Claim 13 where said gellan gum is high-acyl gellan gum.

16. The paint formulation of Claim 10 wherein said formulation is a latex paint.

17. The paint formulation of Claim 12 wherein said formulation is a latex paint.

18. The paint formulation of Claim 13 wherein said formulation is a latex paint.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

IMPROVED PAINT FORMULATIONS C.'+L}'iNIPR1f41NG CEI..I..U1rOSE ETHER/NETWORK
~1.11.><1I)MG POLIA-TER FLI:Ir~ ~EL. THICKENERS

Fie:ld of the I~iverttiora This imention pertains to paint fornital1itit?ns thit exhibit improvefl performance characteristics cltae to il-ic prosc:ric:e of a combination c3f{r. otlter and/or l~~ drt~~t ~ih~rl~~llt~lc~s~> ~s esamples),-wel aiet-,vcarl: bt├ilding polymer (Se1lian gtini, ciarrageenan, etc.n ias S├tch a combination perrliiis lorrg-tersi1 shelf stability of the p<tii-it. formulation wkrilc: simulianeo sly according el:l:ec├cve .[low..
1ovelirtg, atid other in-ipor├ant propc:rEies tt} the final paint R,)rnsa,rlation. '1lse combination of the celli├lose eiher and a s~etwork building poly-a~er Zllows├'or a lowur t iscosity cul.lt├.losic compound to ir~~par├ tliu desired rheological behm-ior ├hurcin ~vfii.lc also permi.tii~~g) the other desirable characteristics noted above. Such paint compositions also eN,-hibit irlil}roz~ed atomization for=pray apl}licatiorls,,Nith. st├c11 a thickening system.

>13acl:gi=ounrl of the l.ni*enEion 'I'hiclc;e>ners are ta5ed in nttnicror├s products for rlieolotqical control purposes tttid partictalar1y for iricreasUXly N iscc:+si├,: and iriipa.rting ├hixotrapic properties to the p:cc}dtaets. Thickeriers.far ~N-ater-dlsl?erfied ct>ii~positions require compatibility wid stabrlity,es~ecially, in latex paints. Paints are surface coatings apprled to substrates vid dried to forri-i cori├ir~~~otas films for decorative purpoaesas Well as to protect the fiubstra├e. f'csnsurner paints are air-drying and l?:cinuarify decorative a:rchi├estura1 coa├ing5 applied to interirsr or exterior surfaces, where the coatings are sufficiently tlw'd to flowand form a contiiiti:oua pairit filzra aiXel subsequently dz-y- at anxb:ient temperatures. Indtas├:zia.l inairiter~ance coa├irigfi are -mnilar coatings applied to substrates in industrial eriOres:tunetX├s to pri.maril,: protect the substrate. Spray paints arO
applied o0th the use of -;si aioinizimg apertur~eand a..l.~ro~.,ellan├ to apply with force. rather t.hary b-v brushing.

A pairi[ orclinarily ├:oinpri:e: an organic gaol~~~~nerac h.ittd,Mr, p.igmett[s, atid Va.ric3Us p<tii-it. acidi[ivels.
In dried paint l alinsn the polymeric hiaiderf%inctions aa.~ a binder l:or the pigments and prov ieles adhesion oI.' the dried pain-t lilni to the substrate. The pigments nxac be organic or inorganic and t:une ticanallc.
contribute to opacity and colo:r in addition to du.rabi(it.y atid hardness of ├fic dried paint -filrt~., although yonx~ paints contain little orno c3t~acrfy.1n1-1 OWnxOnty and can he described as clear or opaque coatings.
T'.(ic manufacture of pairiti irtvcilves acid:ititari of pain[ a,dditives (for exa:rrtple hiocaicies, pH cori[roll;Mrs, surface control a4~cti├s. l'caaa~ control ase~~ts> pignients disl3ersants, a.vet├yng agents), addition of pigments and grinding of l}ign1ents, addiiion. of thickeners f:or rheology control and addition of polymeric bin.der.

Latex gaaiziti recltaire et.i'e├:tiz~eness in aTrUmher o[' propez-ties to permit proper utilization thereof For Instance, a paint sliot├icl exhibit a suitable fl~Nv out of the storage receptacle as well az, adliesion to a brwsh. l.;'pon application to a surface, the paint should flow ayitj leve>l.
~viihin the: b:rtrsli stroke or paint ro ller iracl:s left o ri├he surl~~ce, so as to create auniforin coating wiillt}ttt streaks thereiri . .l~ur├flermore-, a latex paint should exhibit quick drying tinies to prevent any, gravitati.on.al. ptil.l to cause ~n-v applied to a vertical surface to run. down the target stibstrate or sag ~ after application. Addi├i.rxnZllN'. latex pttints shoiild s11owa wiifo. rm coloratioii over the tar~~et st-rfa:ce, boili in terms of ilse, pigments appli.ed. as avell. as overall Coiitang upon expe:cttttiiayi o├'the: wsGr thiit if the saane stroke is applied iaver the entire tttr4qet surface. the resultant appearance ~vi11 be: even atid level. Lastly_ it is also preferable that latex paitlts e.\hibi.t a propensity for stability zvhen stored after iiiiiial miN.ing of a desired ciolo~~ on-site or at a place of ~.~tirciiase, '-f'lius, phase separation is hi;~ily undesirable of the sttb~ect latex paint as, alluded t~.~ above, l~aon-utiiforrilitv il~a fil~aal applied colorations i:~~oulel wae}st hl;ely restdt if aphase separation laas occurred wi├E-trstat: significant it-tixitUs.

As noted above, dise to the coritirla.oirs aqueous phase in latex i?ol,:nxers.
late-,. paints must sontaall dispersants and thickener5 to prc:+inote adequate suspension of tEie pam~alel~at a.lori~ ~vith proper application rheolog~: and tloiv. ,I.he paint viscosity cl~iring storage must be adequatel~. high to l.~reveni settling, btit readdy reduced by- applied shear tt) spread and flow evenl,: _Latex pt-dti├
typically exh:ibits, tixixotresp.1c ~

r.lleolo;jy to enable the P{t:in├: to bc applied readily by bt`ti:l-i or.ro.llc:r or spray .tppl.ic:ation. Ott a a.Ortit:~ll thixwojAy will en;thlt' the iapplied paint wilow into a sinc?olti contint.tota,s paint filan Nvithcatat saggin&

For nxany vcars, ihe thickca~ers til.'c:hoicc for 11tte\ piints a-vere detivatii es ol'c+;llrtlose, iaiclxl(iing cart>t>xyllietl-Iti"] ├:ollulr}se (CMC). }tydre .yctliyl c:Mulos~ (H.f:.Q, et}ty) }tydro\yctliyl c:ellulose, (E1IEC), a-ncthvl c:ellulose (NIC')> methy1 bydrt~xyt e-tlivl cellulose ("tIlr-lEQ, bydrt~xyprcapa lmetht l c+;llulose (1I1='MC) ethers al.onc ancl blends of tlieayi. 'ticse po(yancrs thicl;.cn the tiv<i:is;r-ph.ts& of ├:kie gaaint {trtd increase ihe viscosity o.i'th~ piaint ovcrall. 1 Iiese polymers ar-c especially useful at increasing thc high shear rate viscosity of the paint., 1:-1oweve'r, t.trese, POlti"Iners do rtot ganerally produce high viscosity at rest or at li>tik ~k~~ ~r rates "rhicb relates to the suspensional capability ofilie paint fc}rmttlatian. nor do they generally providea yield val.ue to the paint ~vhicfi al.sia is tt5efu1 for st├.spe>nsion. 1n receait y'earsr associative thick-ent:.rs liavc breai ttsccl, including bydrop11ohically modified 11-vdrozyethy1 ccl.lt├1os~ and hydroplsobically nit}difred polyethylene glvcols A~i.th the terminal livdrop11obes attached by ├tt-ctlszame linkages (NEUR), svsteat~s associate with themselves and/or thc:
b:ui(ter to procjt.tce very good flow and leveling, btat are not clTectiz e at suspen dit~~~ pigments or contt-ollisig ilic sag of a paint. All of these tlsicl,encrs provide variot├s ].t..vel's Ol application pr.iapertit.s, inclt├c1iti4q rolle:r s~.~4at-tur resistance tttid t7.t.xw and.levrl.ingr bttt nian~. ial.'th~.
]~r}(~~ trters are particularly good at ~~rc~Nidtri~; ir~-c~~i stability tc}
the paint or ~~rovielit~~T sag ct}n.trol.. Oilier polymers can provide il~~~e benefits btat usually at the expetise of other characteristi.cs.
For etia1t-tl.~le, xanthan gttm prt.~vide5 sttpet`ior in-can suspension and sag- c?titrol bttt will also affect f-okv and IcNelatw o1"├he paitit and will increase cos├ a:rid so its use is pritxlaril,: restricted tc) ├cxtt.tcc soatirtg5.
Combinations of various cellulose ethers wicl hvclto~.,hobit;.all~. modified associative t:liit;.ke├-iers have l;see├-i u5eel, bt.it th~x- alsc} have clisadwintages, c.~,r. syriere.5i5 and poor sufipension propertics, efipecta(1,: at elevated temperatures.

'I'hcta, an irti~.~roveme├-it over the thit_.kenimg systems tttilizecl in the l.~ast, part:icularly oOth respect to suspension of pigtxietXts and sag coti├:cc:+l :is bi;;hl,: desirable i:vithc:+tat significantly adversely affecting flow wid Ieveli├-~;,,~. The pre5eiyt iii v etit:io├i pt'o~ i cles the clesIr~il~le rlieslo§~y tlit`ottgh an aast~ciatit~ty of celltilose ctlic.r and the gel anct:lian.iszn t>.['a.sup-pleanental neizvc3rk htr.ild.irtv~ pt>lYrtier (sLtclt as, as otic non4'ani:itirtg esample, gell<-w guan} f7tiid gel.

Advi3it#:age:s arsd Brief .Oc.se:r=ipl-iFors O:fihc Iiivetiliott Otic distinct iadwiri├a;;t' of the present invention is that the addition of small ;tnxot├n├s of ge11<in gurn w.i[li a collti.lose eilic:r efi'e├:tiz clY p:rovidcs act:s;ptable, levels od pe.r.├'o:rtrant:_e for latex gaaint fo:r:t7tatl{t:[it>rts, Nvllerca,~ other thickening systenis provide improi 0n10nts in Ccr├Rial cate4~0rieS Ot'SttclI c11,11r;tcter-istics, rather tlsati aii acr~ss-tll~-l~~~rd ~cc~l~t~~ilitti lcvel. Anoiher advanta4re of the present invention is tlse ability of such a pa:ii~rt tliicl;.eninv~ syst:ern of :m.ill wrtotttlts of gellan gtart-i c:oLtpled w.i[li a cellLtlt>se oil-io:r to i.mprove the atom~izatian in. sprq~ paint forsivla├ions thickened tlserczvilli, In vssence, it has .now been determined that t~seful blends co├ald ];?e prepar.ed 1.'br paint i~~:ormulZii~ns, using cs_sriisi1o. n ├liicl:encrs atid 1ow 1e ve1s of ;?clling poly niers, 1`or e.:\amplc ble├2cIs oft+::'~IC, HEC, H1' tIt;:. HPC, MC, arnt}nL ~-~~├hcr cellulose ethers Nviill l0.1v concentratit}ns of losv orhigls ao:l gcl.lan got├n1, can l.~roo ide tliu icle:al rhcial.t.xgy 1.'or .n1anv paint systc.rns. 1'his tc:chnologt is accomplisl`tucl bi t├s:untT lo~v levels c>f a ge.llingpolytner. J:be levels are c~hosen su:c~h ├liat the conccntration c}f the gelling, polynscr is too lt.xav t(? nlake> a contint├otis ge1, or.ii.'a. cian├intiiatts 4Te1 does foran, i.t Is tet~ wc:ak~ and can be> uttsi.ly ineslia.Xica.l1y cfisrt:ip├cd to a(lttiel. For loNN: and la4gh acyl ge:llari, this cont::cntration is t,:picall,: it~a the rat~e of t3.t~75 t~.'~'x~ by ts~tal f~rn~~rl~ttsot~ ~~ ci~~l~t t}f target pai ~ nt f~~rnsulatson. In ci l}atetitsallN preferrccl enil.~odinient, it has l;see├-i de├crii-iuied that low acyl gellat7 gum tltiid gels work puticttlul-y: Nvell in t:.om]}inatic:+n N%ith car~~~,.vzlleffiv )t::clla.lofie WN"10, ftX atX~├li~z pc~t~~iti~ll~ prc]~tr~d ctx~l~~~clitxt~r~t_ ]cs~~ ~~ l ~ellan g ttit-t fcirtctiotis well in ct.~mbitiati oti kvitli Iix-drt.~xy eEhylcellulose (HEE;).

Accordingl,:, the presetit i.:rivcrttiori encompasses apaint 1`ornxulat:ion coranlri5ingat Icast orie binder, at least one solv etX├, at Icast orie pigmetX├, atlel a ihickeritrig systetxl conxprifiitl ;,} at ]cast orie, cellulose ether artdat least otie ne├wt.~rk bctildin~F poivm ;r, wherein tlie ratio of ilic atiioct├-i├ of cellttlose ctixcr to tXCb%ork bta.ildirtg pol,:nxcr is frorn 4: 1 tc) 40: l_ preicrably to 2Q l. Also encc:+tnpasseel witli:iri this invention is a paint forinu1a├iort con~t.~nsirtg at 1east one Pi;,~ment, at least otie bi├-ider, at least one solvent, ,incl a thic;kcttinjssystem ct>nsisti.nvf of at le{~~t t>tie ~:;~1lL~ltas~:
cific.r and at .l~:~.st. c~z~.c i~.et~ca.c~rl: building polva-ner, Nvherein saiel thickening systenn. is preseait iri an ai-noLaiit oI.'from 0,1 to 5% bt a.v+ ighf of the entire paint t:ormUla├yon,s 3vlxercin said paint I:ori-ritilatic3n c\lxibits a higher sag rating, a viscosity int;rease of <it least and an equal or improvccl level of syneresis control after being stabject to a pac:l:avf~:
stability test at 25 ~: for 7Nv+;eks as that exhibitetl by ia piairit t"ormulalion t;omprising. the same coiilpclttellt.s, exc:egai .['or t1ie, garesetic:e, of sa.icl ne[wc3rk i>
ilcling pt>lti'nier ]tik~herein the viscosity i:ncrease expressed in<?.F, for- the present invention is defined ias: (N'`iscosrty o.i'theiriv+ntion systern at 0.3 rpm Brookfield readin~;.s -~~ isc~.~~it~~ of t~~e ~~e1'~rcnce l}airlt at 035 rptn Brookfield readings) * l c~t3~.'i, divided t~v (Viscosity t>.('tfie reference p<tii-it at t}.> rpm Brookfield reacl:ingsl..
in w&ii├:l) the refererice paint does tioi contain ilic netw~ork building po1.ymer fraction. and is havin§ asi eqt├.a1 Stornier viscosity or equal IC1 viscos:it~ as the invention systei -n (containing the celltslosic ayitj netvvork building pol~~ ~rierl ati.d. in.which the value at 0.3 rp1i1 is recorded con1ni§ frt}iii higher shear rates as described in. nsore deta.il t=,ie.loss ].

Detailed 13esci ipiiOn of the .~~iveni:i~n As noted above, the present invention is ba`ed upasi the determination that sma.lf aiiiotints of a ~wlling pr.x1yn1er~ namc.ly f1i:;:.1i iar.low acN lgellan 4qui-n, in combination w.i├h. a culluliasc: c:iliur thickc:ner%
l?rovidcs a ihic~e.airig systeiri.for pWirit f1jrnwlatic}ns that accord cNcellent characteristics for ziiatib highly desired characteristics of stic.h paints 'T'he required combination of thickener arid gum creates a refiable visco5it-v modit├cat:iori svs├em witliout gelli├-t;,,~ ├E-te paint lor~ittlat:iori to ├E-ie degree that simple iltitiiitg i.~~oulel riot be: effective in de-gelling such a coinposit:ion. The gellan gu:tri compc:+rient tixtts acts in a f7uld capacity, rather than as a geIlitig agent, to retain lluidit~- with the cellulose et:lier base thickener yet retainii~a~,} inar~y of ilie benefits of'a gelleel m-stenx, thereby contributing tc) the desirable properties outli.rXed a~o-,,e and discussed in greater detail belc~Nv.

In vfeneral.. it is believed, WitkIt> -[ intettding to be liaiii├ed to any sp~.~c;.ific sc:ientific theory, that the iaiclxisir~ii of asmall amoxiait of net3t~ork building polymer (i.e., gellan Y~um) withiii ;~ piairit formulation inclt├flir7~~ ia cellulose ether thickener inxparts ~,~ s;~-nocath 1=1r3Nv Nvi├~ gocaci suspending capabilita.
siuiLi(ianeOUslti" .('o:r tfle gaaili├. Cel-]talose ethers are l:-t10-,a.n tO
baVe, sIIIc3OttI f7OW gac3rt POUr.ri~-1g, but questionable SUsPCT7SiOrx cIpiabilities alone. :,N`c├xvcarf: building polNmers (gellan gtain, carr1igeer7ans ele.
all exhib~t capabilities a.lone- howevMr. t}tese rnats:.r.ials alsc) oN.ti.ibit a:4uciurecl texture 3vlien l3otired. 'lhxis, in a pain├ .i"orn-sulat-ion comprising arietNvorl: building polvnier thickeiiern al├11ough the ft}rarlul.aiion may exhibit czcel.lent suspension c11ar-acteristscs for the Pi~~rllents and otlser solids c:oniponen├s prosert[ thc:rei:rs, the form lat:├on :itse.lf will rtot 17ovv, si-noc3ffi(y, or as srnoothly cies'ireci lor apain.t. In sticli a sittiaiioti. ci= one example., the paint Nvilt not be easily spread over a target area during application. ati.d. ~vill e::rliibit clefine:d linus in. the finished truttti nc.nt due to the applying brush bristles. Likcss i=c, Avi├h a celli├lo se etlier thickening systern al.c}ac.
the I}iirit f:o. rm.t├latissn svot├ld ex.hibit a rather poor stisperisioii of the solids the.rciii, bttt smooth flow. Iiiipro~-ed i.loNvss~ithexce~llent suspeiisi.t>ti.
properties are thtis tjistuict aclv'antagcs of the, cellulose>
utlier:fnet~vo:rk building l.~r.xlyn1er (g.ellZn gtain, etc.) thickening sysiearl cis nokv~ disc~~~ered O= kv~e.ll as a number of other characteristics) over previous sYs├eans i.nclisding cc:llulr.xse ethers or network- building l.~ol~~~ie:rs alone.

"rlxe thickening fiystezil coinpc}ne-riiS of the IrivetX├ive formtalatiorXs .inc.lude: cellttlosc ctlx~rs, and netsvork bttildisig polymers. Poien.├lalk preferred components arc listed and described below in greater detail:

Ca.rbcsxy ineth,:l celltilose :is prel~are d froi~ai cclltal o5e: {e.g. l:ronx cotton lin ├ers or kv-ooe1 pis Ip) tav introduciiig carbc~xyrriethyle├E-icr ;,~rrsul.~s Nvhe-re there had been l-i-y:
dr~.~xylgroups previocish: .

'I'lie: Struc├.ure Ol'se(lulose Cc:+nta.iris ofglrflc,opyranc}s,:I ~~i'lits ├luat have eac.li tlirce: liydroxyI sites that are capable of etherification to carbc}.,.yme├hyl groups. Hence, if all sites kv-erc reacted the degree of subatii:utioii (DS) of C.,M├., Nvrsulcl be 3. . 1n practice the DS is ├-vpicallv Mo~-een 0.5 and l.>. Tlie.
:tnolecrifar Nve-aLl-it of-'t"'~1c e~ill t,:l)isafl,: ral~we ftom a.boiit 30_000 to l,[)[)[)_0t#t# Daltons. ifapplied as a 1% sc?lutiort, the vtscositY at ?:? ":` sbc~Nv a typical viscosil.y oE.' f.t├
-50;000 rzipa.}.

' A CMC (as zv-ell as other cellulose otli;Mr.) so.ltrtiori can shmv clidferezit rlict>1o6cal behavit>r-, typically a pseudoplastic behavior is obtainec3r b t eVOn thc s~ ytenl can he Newtonian at lom., molar masses (and/or 1~Nv concentrations). Wheix heated thc solution -,vill thiai, and upon cooling it d-vill tliicl:eti.

Because of thearumic iiattare of t}te CMC and t1ie garesetic:e, of 1iyd.roxyl 1;rO l)s different kirtds, of interactions i:inter, intria, and with other ~~,rdtliiives} -,vill exist.
Depending oi7p~,~rametcrs like clectrr3ly├+;
cc~zidiiiotis (type <uicl level) and substitution pattern (DS atid DS-clisirahut-ion.) t.hesy:~[cm cati alsoshow thisotropichehavior, l:.lydrmyethyl-cellulose (HEC) is anon--ioaiie:
e:ellxilose otl~er which dissolves readily in water cither cold or hot. It is usccl to. produce so. luti.t}ns 1~avingk~ i.de rwge of viscosilN,Nvhic11 is Propo:rtional w.i[li [llc molecular weight of liEC. llf:.C.is ├:o.mmon.ly used as a [liick,Mner.. protective cc}llssid, bi├2c1er, stabilirer and suspending agent in variety ofindtastrial al}l}llcations. sttch az, water-based Paints, adhesives, c:nitalsi(?yl polym:e:rsr toothpa5ie, cosniutics and building product5.

Cotton lisiters or Nvoocl pulp can be ttsecl as raw materials and ethylene oxide for tl~~ production of HE.t;:. HI;M:C is manufactured k~~.- reacting eth-vlcne oxide with the reactive hydro .-%ls of the anh:ydroglucose uaiit5 thtit compose the cullt├Iose chain. '11re>e fie drox-vl tqroups of each ol.' t1re anhydrogli├cr?se units if the ccllulose are activated by sodi.ttarl tiN
dro."'ide. Subsequently these gromps are etherilied with ethylene oxide to l:ori-n the: hyclro:.re c.the lethe>r o├'cc:llosc.. Ethylene oxide. reacting at l?re-0c:+usly substituted hyrlrc:+xylgroups. c-m PoI~ inec i/e ├c1 c}rm asielc chaffl. 'I"lae reaction product is purif te.d and grinded toa. fine granular posvdcr.

The molecular stil;sstittitlon, or MS, of the HEC is the average number of iiioles of ethylerie oxide that becoixies attached to each amhe.AroL,Iucofie tiriit iri ccllulo5e, in the tivo e~-aN s described abr}vc. Degree of substitution (DS) in coit-tmerciiill~~ available HEC is 0.8- 1.21 wicl MS
1.5-3. S~.~luEiotts of NE├., shm~-p5eueloplastic behavior and HEC solutions ivitlx ~:ezy high -dsccsi├,: cari fihOrN..- fiori-ae thixo├ropy. N-lo5t l 1Ct" products are fioltflble riot wil,: ir~ Nvater,but also in irlixtures of kN-ater and watcr-nussable organic solvents at water coiitetit:s a1.~o~ e 4013f,.

Ciellayi g├r.r7t :is a hoteropo.lys.rc:cltancle prepared by d:orarierriation of ~~# M/n&nn├ancrs ai`oz.le├<. ATCC
.31461. Gellan 4~urn is available I:rorn CPKelco U.S. 1nc,s trncier variotrs riamey, including KEI.:COC_",E:1,' K1 I.:CC)GEl,A1~-Fn 1rrid .lti.l::l,'OCF,Ir Ir'f1 tlii. 1'rocesyey for prep1rring gellan guminclrrclC tlIc3yC dc-;;cribed . , a a . , . . . , ar~ ti. ,: .~"at. :l~tas. 4,;i"'~i>,E}~:~ {~r~r. 4-3 ~.i>.E}'~.>. ti :rs Lrs;Md.rrl d:c~.r a e ar.i~:i4~~ c~f teNt~rrrr1vf. st.{~. yr arrrtga:rtc tilnx I:trrmir7Y~ iapplica├yons, particularly ias a gelling aggent in foods, persomal care prcaclLrcts atid industrial app1:├caaii The primarv sirr.rcixrre oI.'gellan t;-Lrni consists of a liricrir tetr~;rsaccharide rapo;rt structLrre. Each repeating t├nii c.c>mprisin~;.fOur (4~ sugm.r ttriits of 13-P-D-gIr.acose: l.
4-P-D-gIr.acrr.r'onlc acicl; 1,~├-P-D-~flLrcc~S;~ ar~.d Itt i[:~ z~{~:[i1~~:~ or l~.i,;lr acti~l l:c~rr~~_ izv c3 {~c:N ls~ak~siit~r~:~r~.ts------{~.c:~:iat~:~ ~rr~d g1N cerate----are present. 'I'Ire nsalecrrlar wci§lit of gums can range fro. m aboirt 400,000 to 700;000 Daltons. 'I'he:se, gtrnis are stapplie>d as free-flowing poa4"tjers containing alrosirt 10 tos 15"% vvater Iry wui4qlit.
'I'he deacylated gurn (bcieropolysaccllande S-60) described in U.S. Pat. No 4,3~~?6.053 is prepared b y ferrnen.tin4, V - r l r < ; v z r a o m ├ , s eJoclfiy<t ir~
~sttatable. fermentation a~edirr.rn t├nder suitable coaditions and ├h.ur.ea├'ter, the pH is a~.jjt├:stetj to 1.0 avitl:r KONr arid tliu tc:nipirattrr~~ is maintained ttt 90-9,5 C. fc>r 15 rninute.s. I:lie p-H is theri IssA~.e.rcd to 6-8 zvilli clilr.r├c HC1 o r H2S04, aiid 1he ,r;rr.rn is reco ver'ed u5ilyg Evpical filtration and precipitation steps. "I'l~e molecular weigli├
typically rati~.):es from 400,000 to 6(3(3_000 Daltons.

Both fc:+rrxi5 e}f gellan ;,}um can be used at 1oN%. concentrations to procir.rce "fluid ;,}els"_ Gellan guiri `l7rruld gels"are iveak gelling systems that:have bee├~ subiected to shear eit:lier during or after t:lle r;'elatiorl process. The application of sbear disriipts norrxml gelation and results in 5riioc:+th_ laomc:+genec:+us, pourable ..stnrr=.tcrred liquids". `I'hese fluid gels are extremely eflic.ienta.t suspending aN.arietv of materials, includirig insoluble ├nMcrals used iri ptdi├Xt.s and coatings yet can be easily sprayed. "l"(io: are ├rarisparen├
or opaqiie: depending ori the: grade of gellan an d ├li c n aturc of otlicr :ingredwrXt~s.

'I'he gellan coriceiytra├iori ra├-~~~ kvitliin whicii i'lr.$id ;,~els can be prepared is 0.025 to 0.2% by weight of N.vaier. kiaghe.r c<aDccDtra├aon;: #YGnerally lead toa broken doivn gel that is vc.ry grarriy:rrid vv.ili not fl<avv ~nioo├'lilv,Flr.rid gels cvi be prepared Nvi├'li citlrcr lotv acyIgellaii gum (c:.t~. KELCOGEL AFT) or hi:;lr acti lg '0.llan vfLrr~) (~.vf. ~.:E.I..~'t~C~i:~:~l.; l,`F'~lt?t~l. .I~~ the ct:~..~;~
r~~l.'lr~~cb <ic.ti~l ~~e.lla:cl vfLrr~~. it. r: r~~:~├:css<~a~~ to aclcl <~:i elcctrcalyte; if aliis isa divalent metal saft, the required concentration is very lodv (as lca~N as l.mM 0.12-}, For e\arnple. 1~Nv acyl gellan gurn.ilxrid g+;ls provide i piar├icul arly gcx3d viel(i developnient 11t 5 nIM 02-:-(0.02%) C'a2f-). Monovalent sal├s reclLrirC hil;heT COr'WeTitra[it>ns tc) cibt<tar-i good v.ielcl (roughly 20x tki~:~
concentration of divalent ions). For exinxple, dvlien using Na(:l_ one can obtain agcrcrd t ielcl value at Na:Cl (0.4"~, Na-=-). l3y c:(itt[r<ist, }tivrli acyl gel.lan gtrr~-I U'SUal.ly cloes not rcqLrire aclcl:itic3ttal rtatis beyond that contributed by ia preser v aiive o.r softened water to proviciea significant ~~i~lel VZR.lxrC LOW-W81 Scllarl ge.rM
i.s usutallti preferred f:or formulations with a pH of 8 or abo ve becattse ilic high acyl 4~ellan i ~uan can de.-acyla[e over t.:ime ai all;:Aine pi-1 arid lead to stability issues.
f1ovvever, bot}t ├'o.r.ms of gollan gum forr-1) stable lltrrd gels over the range of'pH 3-7 svith the low acyl. forns beingagain preferred at pN ranges below 3.

In the preferred case of HE:C, or C.t:1C tvi├h low acyl ge.llari. guni. the HEC or CMC provides tlic high shear vi.scosi.tv Nvhile tlse. lovv acyl gel.l~~~ ~~~ni provides 11igh viscosity at.1ow shcar rates and a trtre yieltj poiiit to thc:l;orm├rlation. 'I'his hi&1fi ViscO5it~ at low sfir;:ac rates ttiitj the presence ol.' a Oelcl value provides exceptional sr,rsperisic}n. to the l}ignients md thereforc in-can stabi.lAN is insproved. At appropriate levels, sag control can also be improved as the 5n:rooth texture o├'the:fornltilation is clfestr.fla├ed favorably upon inclusion oI"├lie: gelhai gunx c:o.mporaent (as discussed above). "I"he combination of molecular Nveiglst HEC or CMC can provide adequate flow a nd lej e1in~;.zvhile stil.l maintainiiig the desired in~caty stiibiliiy and satg r~.or;itrol. In orlier iv~ords, ble-nda iv~ith HEC or CN-IC; arid low acvl~cllari have the adAar~t~a,re c}i'ric~t al├e├~iri~T ├lie:
cellr.~los:ic rheology at lia~.~ix ~l~car rates (rates encotuitered durir~gapplication of ├E-ie paint b-v brush or roller) while imparting mtreli higher viscosit-v at rest or at low shear ra├e5 ├liatX cellulosic alone. In adcti├:rom, in the case where gellari is present_. the spatte-riiXr ori the Walls of the 1,11ixinr Aes5el dr:flrizi;; gigzraent grinding ~vas reduced significantly as compared to systems oOt:h oiil-v a.cellcrlosic aE siitiilar Stormer viscrs5itv.

c~

It has been fc.3tartd that a. ├:c>mbination of l:roiii 1:4 to 1:20 ratio by tivc:iaPht of o;ellan gUtti and either carbcaxc methylc:ellulose or- hvdrosa e├hyle:ellulose will impart the above-noted highly desired properties for latex paint coa-nposi-ticans, One advantage of such a thickening combination is that the viscosity anodifi├.a[ic>n created w:itli suc:ha combination, pat-iiC:Ul<IrlV .('0r late\
paiii├ Sy'Sts:zn'S, is Mc3re pronounced th1in. cither- of the gellati or cellulose o├hers preyetit dvithout the other.

tl~icl:en.irtg cc3n-lbirtat:├onis, that irnproe ;Mrnelits in numy of tlio desirable paint c}tarac:teristic:s <ire provided m a reyult--for e:tarnple, resultaw latex paint fon-nula├iony incluciing the combination exhibi├ improved =ag c~onirol, laNver spattering, aiid effective serttb resistance over that of the cel.lulosic cositrol. Yet ano[he:r advantage c31.'├lus paint ├hi├~ene.r co.mbi.iI<1ti011 is that i}tO
reStIlialli Pa.ilit caall z10├ exhibit alia' appreciable sedimentation or precipitation of pigment w├├er losi§ storage.

Accordingly, this invention encompa.~ses tt paint formulation comprising at least one pigniunt, at l.easi onebinder. cii 1ecis├ osie solvent. and a consbinatso. n of a.celltilc>se ether selected froan the group con=isiisig of carboxs meihyl collrrlo. se (C =tiC), hydroxyeth-vl cellulose ├:NEC 3, ethyl hydrwxylethN l colltaliase ll'"N.F:C'), anethv.l cellisl~se gMtr'3, rncthyl hyd:rc~xyl cthyl cell├al~se (MHF:C'), hyd:roxypropylineths lcell.ulos~ (H:1'M0 ethers aloneantl 1i1ia├ures ii~~~~eof, aiid at least one nem-orl:
building piali'mer selected 1~:roin the group coiisisting o1~~" gell.an ;rurn, i.r.xta carrageenan, Lappa carragee>nan.
or beh~ad5 ├liereol"., hi,rli or lc~i.~= methoxy pectin or taleri~l.s tlierec:+i: ~al;;:~r~a├e, ~;;ar, gela├it~, ~t~.. or taleri~lfi thereof, tdsereia the cellulose ether ant1 network building polymer are preseril in an a├iioti nt together of froniabcsut: 0.1 i:oabout 5`a: by iveight of t:lie ├otal lomittla├ion, a1id the ratio of both cc.~mponelit:s is troti-i 4; l├o about 40:1 (preferably to about ?t):1 , respect:ively.

By using a. small amottti├ of a iie├wc.~rA buildin~F polviiier (again, preterably, though not necesfiarile gel1ati gttm)- it ba~~ been ic}c:t:nd tfiat I~~Nwr -oscc:+si├,:
grades of cellulose etlier tnay be used to o1festttate improved f7ow-, spatter, tc) a├arge├ pa:iti├ed substrate as This son-ibinat:ion provides excelletii viscosity bttild in la├e-, paints and ├:tartlier lielps in susl.~endin~F the pi~~~~enia, '1'liese and olher ad~'atita~,r~s of this invention i.vill becciziie inore apparent iv reforrin;;-to the detailed description atid f(ie illustrative examples.

11<<~

As tit>is;cl above, aspec:if:ic coanbinataott o├"netAa.orl: b .ilding po.lyrner <uicl c:ellulose ot1ier will impart highly desired properties to latex paint I:ormt├.lationy (either br sh--applied, rollor-applied. or spray-on varict:ic-,).

Examples o.[' geil<ui -Jim <ire KEl.,CO{all T '`'. KEI.,C'OGE1.. AFT, KEl..COG:f:l. Cic]-t.oA.
Kf i.:CCC)Cil::l, CCi-H.A1iixd KE1,.'OGET_: T_.T1OOlronx Cf'Kelcca US. lnc.
~xamplcsot:

cart>t>X-v 1110tfiti"lCelltllO.c (C'Mt~')are f'INNFfX.aticl C'ekt>i *; f:rc~i-1) Melc:c~ Ov or ('>`'Ke.lc:c~ BV Examples of hydroxt ethylcellulose 4.l-lFC)are CEIrI.OS17EI~ ER4400 frorn 1~~Nv C'hemical and NA'T'ROSOL''?'?(,)HBft 1~rons Ac{u lon. Examples of carragcen.an are variotis GE;Nlr=GElr cind CEE\UNISC_'O k products .['rori-i Cf'Ke1├:t> U`S_ Iric.. Examples of other network klilclinvf pc3l~:~~~~:r~ irtcal cl~:~
pectisi (available a` various Ci:Ir=.tU products frons C=1'>telco US. inc.).
sodium alginate (avai.lable from ISP [J:r#dC:#` the KeltiEll tI'i~d'e'.=1.7cI13'7:~), i7.~.~'s31"s311(~
~.~C:l<ltill- %i#'1`~()Tl~.~ 3T3's3114' others.
Kelgin w- w- w- .:

1ii accordcince zNvi.th t.}iis invention, tli.e combination is either initially forsiled sstttside the lawx paint., or possibly added seqtaenti.alk to the target conspositi.t>ti. (either comporieni first), in order to itnpart iliu desired properties ilie:reto, Varioas coriiponeiits may be present ss-ithin the paint forintalcition.
including the latex-eS, l}lg1i1enis, atid solvents, tt5 avell. tt5 coalescing kge>nts, and other cornponews. `11u level of thickener is duten n-ine>d by the rlaeologica! properti~s desired in the pairit. Any solids component (.pigmcrit5_ e├O is not restric├Ue: i11 i.ts f,-)rm;h~~~ever, pt}avders, granulcs, flakcss or pellets are particul.arly suitable.

Paints ai`e comillonlv characterized in terms of ├lieir pigiiieiyt:
v~.~l~~~~~~ ~oncentrat:ion (PVC), which is the -"OIuirie: relationship ofplgmcrit to ├md solids in the: cfry, paint fidnx. The 1?VC, ~smdl~ expressed as a percentage, is the total pi~~~~ent volunie diN:ided 1.~N the total volc~~ie.
of pi~~~~entand bitider M the dn, lilm.
`I'lic auniixwi~n value of the PVC for the i:k-ater~borrXC paatits oI"tiu5 Iri~ent:ion is prci:erably about 15%. `I'lic imamtratizii value is pz-ef ~ralaly ai)c:+ut 85 }.f~, arXel trac}st prefcraWy about 80s' o. Typical le-,'els of pi~,rziiei~at and biiider depeiid ori riie type of paint, i.e. gl~.~ss, a~n-n-gloss atid flat or mai:te f├iiiali.

1:1 Typical levels of pignierrt aticl bincler clepancl c~i-i il-ic t.y pe o.├"paint, .i.e. gIoss_ seriri-gloss and -f7a:t or ma├tef.inish. The examples of bolli senii-gloss and ilat shoLalel he stil'1 ccient for giving the typical levels.
Suitable pigincixts atiel I.illers iait;lxitle those l:nodvi7 .fircam the priorart, as mav be tleriY~+;djor example, f:rorri I.,rrcl:;Mrt, f'.igmert[-+-Full:t:o.['i' T.ikie.llorr, -[ti etli├-ion., .l.:aatrert.. 1994. As inor;jartic zvhite pigments, mention shoxilel he made in particular of oxides, such as titanitrm clioxiele, i.inc: oxide (J.:D07 r.iaic white), Arcoriium ox:ide, carbon{r:te~ suc:h as lead zk}tit.e.. Sral-f<110,, StI├:1) a. lO<rcl 'SUl.[".l:te, azid stiif:ides SrIc:tI a's 7iTIC sulfide, and litlIOPOnCsn titanium dioxide is particularly prel;erred.
Ay inorj,,anic cliroinatic pi~;ra~entss nsentiorl sho. tald be n~ade of those frorli the go.rt>r.tp of oxides and hydroxides in ilie forsi1 of their indiviclual inorganic cc}rript>tiricis or ryiixed pfr.~s&s, especially iron oxide pigmettts.. ├:h.ro.mium c .├de lri;jments azid oxid.ie mixed-phase 1}igrlrenis with rutile or spinel structure, aiid also bis├iitrtli vanadate, cadmium, cerium sulphide, chroylla:├ur tiltramZrine and iron bltrc pi4qmc:nts. Examples of iroal oxide pi~~ionts arc Colour l:ridea 1'ignient 'Yellow 421, Pign1en├1ted 101. Pignsoni .Olr.ie 11, I'igment.l3roavn 6, and transparent iron aai~ie pi4~~i~ent.s. Exaiiiples of chronsitini oxide 1}igrlierlts are Color.ir Index l'igriierii Green 17 and Pignsent Green 18. Examples of o:ri.├lie n1ixc:d-phas~.:: pig:nlents arc nickul titanium ye:lliaw and chromium ├itanitarn.

N ellow, cobalt green aiid cobalt blt , r_:irrc irosi broNvn and chromium irosi brown, aiid al=o iron m~~~gariese black ttii├I spinel black.

E-,.wnp(es of preferred organic pi-ixreiXt~s are those of the morrcrazo_ disazo_ laked arc:+, ,beta.-naplitflol, Naphiol AS. benrimidarolone, disazo condensation, a_ro metal complex,. isoindoline and isoiridrsliriorie series, and aIs~.~ pcrl~ c4'clie pigrireryi:s sticii as those I'rori~ ├E-ie }aE-~tl~~.l~.~c4'arrirre, ~~Ltirra~.ridcr├-~e, pecvletXe_ peririorre, thioindigo, atrtfaraqtairaone, dioxazine._ quinc:+l,}rtfaalcrrreatXrl diketopyrrolcrp,:rrofe series.
:11s~ suitable are laked dy ea such as C:a, Mgand :1l lakes of clves ~on├auring, stilphoriic acid or cax~lic acid groups, atXel a(so carbon blacks, which for the purposes of thIs specification are taken to bepigments and oCe~-hisli a far;,}e riiflzii1~er are knoe~-rr, for exaarple, f:ronx Colour fnrlex, 2i~ad editic}iX. N-lezrtion slioulel be:
made in particular of addic t~.~ alkaline carbon blacks obtained by the turnace black prrscess, and also chemically surfac~-nrcrdi[├ed carbon blacks, examples being 5ulpl~~~ or c.arlaoxyl-ccnrtairring carborr blacks.

.E.mimples of:inorganic: bl<ick pivfr~~~:~~t.. tl~at .l~.c~~~lcl be r~~~:~:~t:├c~~~iecl i:~~c.IL~d~: those as alr~:~a.c~
cieycrihecl aboie togethcr 3vith the inor~arric chrcamatie: pignients, eyp+c'cal1v blacl: irr~ii caxicle, spinel blackr ancl b11ick- c3xiflit; nxixec;<-pbase pignxcnty.

Fil1;Mrs particularly ├:o111pri:esubstanc.es ot}t;Mr tli<ui tfie, pag~~~~ent:s ment-ional t1ie4e sui?st<uices being primanily liglxt in color ~,~nd being inert toNvarcls the binflcr of ccamponent h}. Witli particular pre-fe:rence.. t110 filler~ bm e a lo-,a.er ogx[ical rc.('ractive iriclex [1ia:ci the aftweznentionccl white pig~~~~ent:..
Examples of Mcarg.anic fillery that inaa> betrientioneci inclt├ele e:arbonatess such as cball:, calcicle 0r do. lomi.tc, fs_sr ezamplc, silicon dioxide (ground quarir), riatural c>r=yntheti.c silicas. silicates, such as tal.c, k-aolin or anic.a, d:o.r exwnple, and SUl├1110s sUCfi as, hca:e ti spar o.r ba.r.itMIs 1f:,11e. f0.r OXa.n-1p1e. E.Mlrrtple.s Of or~,~ariic fillers ii2clude po. lN meric powders md those ksiowti. as holloNv =phere.s.

As a~.jdltiee>s~ the paint liar.mulatiiayi may iap├iianally comprise sur1~~:acu-acti.ru 4agents, du:fottyiic:r5 as.~cl, for cxample. fcmin preventatives and Nvater-st>fteiiisig at├xiliaries. In accordance witli the invention, there is rio need to imposeany restrict:ion regarding the seleciion of suitable compound.s 1~-)r tfle surface-acti~~e a;runt5. f huy are used prc:i:erably for physica1 stabilization of the finelv tjiv:ided pi~~nen.t and fille>r particlcs clt-ring the prepa:ration of tiie solids component and/or in tiie fini.slied paint and coating matcri:als ihu~~se1vc:5. 4urf.~ice-act:ive agents wsecl are, prel:eral;?ly dispe:rsZnis, wetting agents and umulsi.l~i:ers as widek, used in t(ie cc+inurxcrcially c~ustomwN paint and coating inateritds.
h~a par├.icu(ar, ├1ie,: iriay be nonionic, ionic, catit>nic or wnpht>teric, ttnd nsosiotneric or polynscri.c, in natu'e. Preferred dispersants include oxalkylation prrsdtac;ts ~.~,.~t:ai~iable by condensing pheti~.~lie OH-containing voit-tatics kvitli f:ornialrlcFie de anrlNl l-fuxict:ioraa.l ~,rrotips; NNater-5oluble polvisosyarXa.te adducts containing Ixyrlrc:+phil:ic polyether chains and pref:erably having a. m ximtim isocyanate group content of 1.0% by weight, containi~~~,} 3t~-99_5rX~ by Nvei;;ht of eth,:lcrie: oxiele uniiS twrarXgccf within poiN cther chains and incorporated b-v wav of iri~~ioi'unStic:+nal afc6hc}ls, wid haNi:~~- an ion:ic group coi~a├crit of 0-200 milliequivaleaV100 g polyisocy:anateadduct:. wateras~.~luble ino~=§~anic salts, especia11y brsrates, carbonates, silicates, suli'ates, suffi├cs, seleriates, chlc}rldes_ f7tic:+rides, pixc}s14ha:tes, nitra├es and a1umiriates of die alLdi rrxcta.lfi wid aIkiiline ewh i7 -ictiils aricl of o├E-ier metals, and aIs~.~ ~~~~n-irsriium:
polymers composed of repeat:irig succinyl I~

Lit~lis, especially poly{rspartac. ac:.id:. azid ttoriion:├ca, anianic, ├.a:tionic or amplrots:.r.├ca c:c~rnpourtds, (StIct) a..
nonionic alt~~~xylatey, all:NAolamid+s, ecters, aa-niaie oxides and alkyl polyglycosieles. ay merely e\arnples).

Other- ├lxicketicrs imay ;dso be utiliredin these pain├ fcarnital1itit?nsn st├c:h as dex├riins or cti-├.iodextrins.. starch and starch derivatives. especially degraded o.r partially degraded Marc_li, aacrtlian, po1v1icrylatcy, polvetlxerpolvo1s or polyurethane cleriva├ives, partially hyclrolysecl polyrners c?I.' d inyl ace-tate, prel:e.r{r.bly pcih v.ittyl alcohol_ tik-h.ic:h are hydro.lysed to dio e\tent of ayiore than 70%, and: c3r vinyl , a tcohol cc?polyrners> prel'erabla copolyrners cal' vinc lacctat+ and all:c li iny I ester. ~zhich ar -0 partly Or I'tIlly saponilied. and also polN j irly1alcohol. itself, pt>lvrl~ers of N.-vinyIpyri oli.dt>nc, or copo. lti mers witls vlnyl Certain sttiiable tlsixotrsspic~ agents may also be inc:lt├decl svithirr these paint forsilr.flatiorrs as well.
'T'hese would iiic.lr├(1e, v6thaist liniitatioai, phyll.osilic.ates, pyrogenic sili.ca5r aaid organic coi-npor├nds base>d, lor cx.ampl.e, on high molccr.flar tnass 1}ols o1.e1'├ns, hy-drogerlated castor oil, polwrliidcs, polyacry1atcs.
r31st> suitable are low molecular mass., gcmicry st:allir~e organic compounds based osi r.-rea and also aca=~ lat:c cOpOle'niur rnic.roparticle:sr ~vhich i:brni niic.roguls in the clcsi.rucl paint and coating mate>riZ15.

Suitable defoamers wid f'c>asi1 preventatives may also be addecl, suc-li as, again. witlsottt linritati.c>n, products includc: those based on n.atuta oils or mineral oils, optionally c.he>rriacally modified alcohols and chemically z~~odiiie~~. s1lisories,&W silica iriatenals.

Besides the abovemerrtiorled additives, the paint lorsivlations n~a-v-inc.ltrde other standard paint ~.d~~iii~~ es wycl acli~~~ ~yts, s~.a~.li as ~~ ater-aot├er~ers, as pH
re;,~lat?r~s, further lilfl~a-f:~sr├-~~i├-~;,,~ and le~~ elli├I;,,~
as5istarit5= dryers (s:icca├~~oes), anti-skinning agent& anti6loulirig, agetXts, L:N protectants aticf stabifi/ers, l}iocides,,wood preservatives~ and tE-ie like.

'I'lie latex corxiporie:trt z~iav be ativ staneltvd typeanel n-aay iriclude other binder materials.

Suitable binders include bc}tli organic aticf iriorgan├c compounds. In accordance with the irXvcrilicyn there is rio restriction as regards these compounda, Preferred o1'tganic binders are or \Nat~~~~eaiulsifiable, tiattiral_ riat.urafririodilled or sY:trtlietic:, gcriez=tdl~ film-forming cor71pourad5.
Svnthetic binders are. for axample, pol-vii-iers based ory acr-y-lic. N
iryyi,. styrene or isoc-y-a├iate ii-i~.~ryor~lers and also miat.u.r~.~ and copolymers i}tereof. As rtat ral-Modi.tiecl bi.iiclers, anerition rt~iv he made iD pa:rtiC lar O-f' colltil case derivati Ves, Natural binders that may be mentione(l iflC1 clC natUral resMs, such as rcasii7 orychellac, natural oils, esp~.~c,.ially oils corit.a.inim), -f<atty acids whie_l-i are saturated or c;ontaiii va.rious cle~r,~e s of unsaturatic3n, yai(l oils being t?\idatively dra= ing if desired, such as linseed oil, rici.~~~-ic oil. soyi oil, caytor oil_ and tl-ic like, biiumeri, a.plialt. or pitch.

Naturallv nioc3ifyeci bincier-y are, in particular, chemicalla modified WItUral resinss e.g. rosin-maleate resin, and also nsodified oils. e.g, thicl: oils, ist}iiierire.d oils., styrenired and acrs-lated ioils. cyclo o ils. azid alsc) nuileate oils. urethane oils acicl fa.c_to.r.izecl oils.
b:iride.rs are cellulose derivatives stac-li as cellulose 11.itrates, cel.lulose esters of organic acids, and also modified natural rubber such as cycl.o rt├l;?l;?er and chliari.n.ated rubbur, for cwnpl.e.

~Exam:ples of synth.etic. birid~t-s are saturated polvesters obtained bv pt}lyesterif:y-in§ ~~ift├nctional t>r higher polN funcuonal alcohols zvi.ih polyfunctional saturate.d-alipl~alic, cyclo-al:iphatic or aromatic oarbo:rovlic acids and:'or tlicir anhydride>s:, botli ttiid carboxy-functir.xnZ1 po1yestc:r5 ar~~
st-i table.

Furthe>m`iore>, niuniic~n may be made o1~~"├an5att├ratel po.l~ este>rs, free-radically ct?polymerizecl i├' desired N%ith moriotraeric nxeffiacnylates, tdlyl sompounds, other unsaturated ziiorioriiers, especially s├yrene.
and also of unsaturated radiation-curing ac-n~late resins sttch as po.
lyester, polvether, epoxy and urethane acryla├ea, for example.

l;'tflrtlier sviithe├:ic omwic binders are -:i1k\ el resins {polvesters iriodifiteel witli fatty ac:icfs. fia├├e.~ od5 orhiglrer synthetic carbc~x-y:lfl~ acids) alyd also che├nically modified alk-vd resiiis, examples beimg fitvrenirecl_ ac~~~~latecl, uretlxaaiireL., 5ilicc}ne.-zrar}dilied_ po1ywxlide-nxc:+dif:iecl wicl resiri-nxodil.iecl Ayel refiin5, aaid also especitdly ivater-dilulible alkyd resin5, based for exaniple on raeutrafirable short-oil atiel niedittiii-oil, carboxvacidic a.l~~~d resilys, sell'-emulaif.iablea.lkvl resiiis of reduced acid ritamber,having pernxar~en├ly livciroplailic pofvether ch.1ftiris in the ziiolecule_ atiel also a.il;yci resiris which can t~~~ emulsified bx: n-vans of su'tacttryi:s.

I '~

Further suit<iblc orvf aru├ binders iricl cle acrylic re:itis (l~~~l~~{~.c.ry(~3t:cs} in tt~~~ .├'c~:rzr~ ta['tk~ei~=
hc?mopolymers and copola mcrsn e.g. styrene a.cryliate. ~iid also polvacr, lic polvols. G1'at+ r-t3iltffiblc acrylic resins are particular1y preferred.

Sc31vents may alsc) kie present witlri.il 0104O P{I.illt fOrl-D lariozr:.
Preferred :Ol1eTA:. il-Icltide -,a-at:er-yoltible or 3t a├+ r-mi;cihle soli ents. The sOlY +;tit may serve either as a coscali ent fcar the latex 1ind"'Or binder ctampc~zierii or as ati auxiliary.['i>r improvirig the ciryin. j atid l:i(ayi" fiorminvf ~~r~~~l~e.rtics c3~1.'tli;~ ~~airii .~rid coatingmatcrialy. Also stiitabl~ &M MiXt res o.i'dr.i'l'erent solvents, anci, where appropriaie, also po lN me.ric,lligh-boi.ling sall,eni.s having a boil.ing point of iiiore tlsm 250'C. In accordance Nviiii the awerit:├on tli;Mre is noresiric_tion <is retjards thesoNents to be tased.
>`'relerence_ howev;Mr. .i4 given ├o t}tos~:.
used in ilie prior art paint md coating materials. 'Iliese Mcl.udc. in partscWar, coml}t}wi.ds fro ns the group of ├he> alipha├ic> C}:cloaliphatic or arianiZ:tic lryd.rocarbc~~~ and ├urpc.tic hydreycarbons, and also alcohol5, glN col eilicrs md I}olyg1ycol ethers, esters and ketones. ,~~~~ine-ty'pe solvents areaIso su.itable. espec'ially those based on priman. secon.dary and teatlary, aliphaiic and also aromatic or cycloaliphatic an1ines. and itlso mixtures Ctaid dera=F Ctt.ives thereof "I`Ise arr~ou├2t of solve.nt inirs_sclttcccl ~A.-here appropriate in ilie systerii. of the invention is guided by iliu desired processing properties and by iliu use oi.'the paint ttiitj coatiag materials and also by cn-drc:+r~inentai aspects o1"ilie app(ic.atic:+n. In gencra(, sol~~entsshould be compatible N%ith the coating nsaterial wid vc}latile on application ttndcr the particular filtn formati.c}n conditions. "1'he above nsentiosied s~.~lN.'eti├s ~~-lay also tLaictioli as dilti.eti├s or exteriders for the paintwid c.oa├ing iiiai:erial. Based otl the said fiystem_ the solvent colitel~at is pre9Wably less than 55% t}y weig(it, in part├cufar lesfi than 309ti, iy A.k-eight.

"I~ prcally. latex paint contains by weight of total composit:ion, from about 10 to ~f3"J~a of a latex, froi~ai about 10 tc) 50% of an opacil.i: ing pigixleai ~c. r. 'I10,~, clav, calcium carbonate, silica, etc.) t-aid frc:+iri at}otit tl. l├c:+ 2% of d:isl)erSttXis.'surf~ic.iatit~s (e,g. polvaczyiatcs, potassium tripofyphosphatc, 2-amhicr2-niethvl-l -propwiol, etc). Addi├ionally, the paint formulation may also iriclude from 4,9 ├o 98.9`a: 1.~N, weight, ii~a part├ctifar l'razra 10 to 80% tav iN..-cight of water and, wixereappre}priatc, a watcr-solublc or ,wat:er-nyiscible soi~~ent:, '-('lie Osc~.~sifying effect of the preseiit: unN
en├ion depeiids on the n~~.~le~.ular weight Of [tlO Ce1(t├lOSO etl├eT a├-ld 11-10 a.i1tc├tt├-It a(lded to tIte pair├i Typically, tk├e .tmot├.t-i├ o.['├;e11t├lc├se etbera;jJl{tn gteni comban7.├yot~ xv11l be ├n the range of 0.0511r) to ?%. p├'efe├'ahla' 1'roni {).1<?.F, to 1.0":i,, based o├i the a.verg1├t of total composition.

I├-1 gerlffal, tItOtMl-1, tl├e, paint <u├cl cc3a├.:i├w t7tateria1 sxstem of the invention ptel:e.r{t.kily contains ati~.
standard amot├nt caf sc31ve├7I(S)1tnd solid(s), as paint fcarnital1ttit├ns rn,t~ differ sig├xifit;arftly in terri~~; of these cc├├~iipcittetits atid tlioir prc3portac3tts therein ( ie.. ;j(os: and sertri-g)oss types). The it_DpOr[a:c├C0 iSst├e iS tl├~:~
yelec├ion oI.' ia proper collt.tlcase t'tl~er/rictAvork btailding polymer thickener systern in the ratios noted prez iot├sl~~, 1~~ i├It that beiri~~ said, the wide raa~4~es of potential proport├or├s Of paisli consposients are re(lec:tecl as follows: ("rc3r├-i 1 to 95`?~,by we├;jht, in parti├;t├.lar frc3tti 5 ├c├ 7M.-~,by wei;jbt, of .tt lea:~[ or├e solid pi§tnent md from 0.1 to 60`3~-~, bN weight, it├. par├i.ct├lat' frorii 1 to'301"~c, by'k~.e.ight, of the birlder,'latez cc3mponc:ni, and from 01 to 5"~E,1A: weight o├'the: inven├├re thickuni.n`, systeaii.. Addi├it.xnZlly, the paint fo. rmrrlatlo├i rna.v a.lso irlclude frotn 4,9 to 98.9% h-v weight, in particular fi=ons -1 tl to 80%f by weigh├, of avaier and. whereapp├=t}priat:e, a waier-so1uble or Nvater-mlst'ible =olvesit;
'TItese are merely grr.i~-leli├ies to follow- however, as, tt4Tain, rnanv ditIcre>ni fiarmulations may be possible.
`l'he> I''VC amounts are: inclt├clctj avitltin these large rariges.

Preferred En-ibodiin-tents of the ~~iveiiti0ii Certain ensbodir├ser├ts of the ir├-ve.ntlve paint f~~rmulat,ions tvet'e prepared in accordance N-v├ili ilie followiitg ├yt.~ti-limitirr~ ~xamples.

Preparation of Viscous lr├t:tld Gels Three difl:erent irie├liods N%ere i-ollowed to prepare ├(ie ├hickeri├tXg sys├errx fluid geIs, as I:ollc:+Nvs_ N-lethc:+d A. Hot Mix (with loiv ac,:l-gellara ;;t├tra Or high acyirgellaal gis├~lx) A Finnfix 2000: KELCt?GEI 1?_: CG-l..A or FlN;NF(X*; 2000: KELCOGEL L"I lf-t) --- HA powders were dnv6blencfed atiel added with txii~itig tc) cleionized water at araibien├
├enxl?era├.t├re. t. --25''C: ). T(ie, cotitent:s,were heated to t)l-"C'; and held for 5 ├iii├yt:ii:es with ├iiixirrg. 'I'o the mixturewere added 5 mM

Caf -}- (as CaC1 ~ or 1% Na.Cl arid kliert cooled to 25'='C N-viilioUt.
ttli.\irlvf. ai ~:~-l~.ic:l~. l~cri.ti├~ r~~c~cle~rais: rt~ixir~.vf ~N as r-estarned to 1'carn~ ~~~~eak Y~0. biocide was added atid itio iltrid g.rvl a-vay placed in. ;t comainer to be aflclcc< 1c31r ~~1ri~t <~t 1tr~a,. ~cairxi ~t' ilx~ r~r.~r~t~facft~rin~
proccss, rv.~. following piorner7t dispersion or after addit-iori of tlic lait;x Nricler.

Metfiocl B. C_'t>ld'1~fix (zt? ,scti:.) at bevfirtrtir~.vf of i}te~
l~ivfr~~~:r:tt -=.riricl (with low-acyl gf~:ll{~:tt ~~r.t~i) To a standard 1}iaint process container 3viws added sufficient tq) a-vater to elisper-ye iiian.i= Pigr-Dcnt andthcn an arilsrttnt t}f=odiitrii citrate equal to 0.2() zvt% (based o. n wci.g11t srfwaw) Nvas dn-W~ridedwith K,M.lcovf~:l ~`.C~i-.1...~ f~c~~~sdc:t~ and added to tlic ~ca~:~~r ~~~~itli.t~uxirtg. .r'~. cellulose j~r.t~t.. e.g. 1''ir~r~.-fix 2000 (CMC) was slurried in propylene gfN col. and then addecl to ilie water so that the total gum combination A~-as 0A
053 wi"E, (based on the tu├al paini vvr.ight) and the ralio of. C"NiC: Gellan ~l├:n1 ~~~as fs~.i~~~~e:~n 8: 1 and. 10:]..
`11-ic gum bletid was riiixed l:or 30 minutes osi a high-speed disper=ser=, e.§. Cowles L3issiolver. Other liquid ingredients and pigments were then added and dispet'sed. Wheri the pigment di=pcrsi.onwas complcte. 1 0 r.~im ca-~-~- {W" CaC'LO ~vere> added nii~KiEitr to pr.ia(lr.rcc a fltrid gel pr=io:r to adding the latex and is~ is~§rcdients, Ther;elli.ng, saft can also bc added at the csrriipletisrti of the paint tnanufac:turin<.~~
prc?ce>ss.

Method C. Hot Mix: post addiiion +{zvi.t.li high-acyl gellan gr.~ni solution A separate s~.~ltrtior;i of 0.50 weitghi"% Kelcogel HA (high acvf geilati gr.rm) ivas lieai:ecl in dr~;iotiired ivatcr to 90`'C and held for f,' tninutes with tnis.ing and coolcd without nuxin,r tc} 1:c~riil a 1~t~├~f ,rel. A
biocIdr~ was added to ├E-ie cooled aoltrtion. 'I'he 0.50 iveight `a: gellarr, gum soirrtioti o~ as added to the paint glycol dr.tc irig the pigmetXt grind phase of the 1?aint process so that tliefanal combined girri-~t cc}nsen├catit7ri Z~J
was 0.50 weighi:`a: (based oii total l.~ain├ weight) and ├E-ic C';MC;:
gr~Ilan gr.rm raii~.~ was 8:1, The I:o11mviTw example-s l:aIrlher :ill strate tliO r~-iorit.s of this irivezitic~i-i in ts;.r.ms of pailit fc?rniiilatioiis 1}rot3t├c+ el thereNvith the cVstems prepared within the inethocis listed above. T'he applied MlrIlOyiCs (iiel have the follo~Nirig specifications:

Analysis FF-2000 Natrosol 250 HBR
Moisture l%i 6.7 2.9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - = - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ; - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -' - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - =
1ikscosity pH adj {EnPasy 2%2600 1%1460 pH 6.9 74 ------------------------Di 0,88 -------- --------- ----- --------- -------- --------- --------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------0.;
NaG1 (%} 0.8 ........................................................... ---------~--------------------------------------~--------------------------------------- --------------------------------------Exati3p1e 1:

I?a,x~├~ 'ze prepared ac.'cordarm to pzels4ua1t0it z1le├.hod B tc) evaluate tlle m~pert:,.ior# ol'├lie laigaienis in m Acrs:lic semi.-glos;: Itlte.\ Pt3iDi- (25% PVC) at pl-l around 8.3. A c<ampart"s<all N.~-,as made hemeen asirigle oUnY C,MCv--c oniairun~w ws├em atid a:,.vstem stabiliZed able├id of cellulose gu├-zi atid 1~A-gellari guzyi. The PaiIYtzYiixel with. tf~o appropriate arnowit of tiiicker~er to viYd-rip t-vith tile Siarr-raGr viscosaty of the pairi( of 77 -;-/- l KU.

Water ;.,44.943 ;;~z-ai-rYs Sodi ~im ci trat:e li. 70 Kelcoi~cl CC-t- A 0.60 >~inn1.'ix 2000 4.40 l'ropylezle ;j:lyc:ol 18.90 Tamol 731 8,60 I:JVC..= 2 5 Triton N-57 2.00 Surl`vriol D>'='-75 0.90 Solids ta,: NveiAt 4 z 6 llitt? ??fi.:>tl Poh ,Oo5s 90 18.80 Solids ~~- volm~31.8 %
0.4 lL1 7.90 L~~~jwrse c-ri h~qhe:~~nwrl cfi.sit)erser AcrcAic latex 353.30 C;tini combination (by 3vt) tt 50 "4, AMP-95 0.90 Kathori T-:X 2,40 Riftit> CNIC: Gellati gtIttl 8:.1 Tritot~ GRr7N-l li. Z; 0 Texa:ttol 8.90 '1'ot0.1 weight 1000.00 grams F:tcan-p1e 2:

Paints dvere prepared according to prep aration.methcad B to evaluate the suspension of the pik.,monts in a Flat late\ piint (631/.ri PVC) at pH arotmfl 8.5. A
c:c3mpiaris;c3lx was imatle hcmven a single gtari-i unc cont.ainingsysis:.m and a..ysteaii s├abiliret├ w.i[li a blend of c:e1lulo4e gum and I.:A-gel1an v,~Irt~, 1.~~
a.fJclition, a coI~parison lia.fl beei7 made to a reference that 1ils;c3 contained associative thicke-ner. To tlx~
w,t.ert-y. c:ontai.I1.ittg t}te gellati, salt was a.clcled as tjefl:ing agent <uicl the ii.me of addition was var:├ed f:c)r reason o.i'coniparison. The paint 3v. nc prepared willi 0.5tirt'N, thickeiler.

Component AIno ta├it Water 279.0 QI i].ITII-Q, So├1_1turt citrate 0.60 pv(,::: 6 1 "fi, Kel co<ref t=~: G-LA 060 Finnfi.x 2000 :3.1 t~ Solids by wei ght:::: 5 5 {'Jt, I1'I opylene gle col 1 6.t;[?
Surfvnol DF-75 x.5 0 Tergitol NP-9 f..S() Solids by volunse= 35 %) Tairtrsl 850 5.9[) '17102 125.60 +l:",a<'-03 181.40 GLrM cambir#ation (by %vt} Cl. 50(11a) Clay 1. 2,5.1 0 Wzl:ter 51.00 Ratio CMC: LGll:in gum 8:1 0. 4 M Ca- + 7.00 Surti n<al DF--7 5, 1.6[) Vinv1-acn~lic late:\ 1821.90 f?ro\el GX)~._ 0.90 AN1.P-95 f . 3tl Tuxariol 11.60 Total wcig1:-1 1000.00 grams ComponenE A.iiroa~i-it wi,.Iter .`x.79. t)t) Bran~s Sodiifl├ai citrate OM PV(: 639ti, Kelcogel C&LA 0,60 Fiiiiitix 2000 4.0 0 Solids ~).- weigh├m 55%
Prc3pyl ette glycol 16.80 Sui'l:vnol. DF-75 2, -5 0 Tergitol NP-9 1.80 Solicis by vcaluane= 35 1't}
Tamol 8io i.90 7'.i02 .l' 5. 6 0 C.:aC03 181,40 Gum combination (by wt) 0.50 %
f;lav 125.10 W"Rter ~ 1.00 Ratio C N1C: relkin ;;-uin 8:1 0.4 1~~1. C`.~~~- 7.t}t3 v Surfvnol DF-75 1,60 vinyl" acrt l.ic: la.├;~N 182.90 Proxel GXL 0.90 AMP d7a? 130 Texanol 11.60 Polvplio lsel.'R -1.1.7 2.,50 Total weight 1002.50 a-t ~~~~
~~~uple 3:

Paints N.vc.rG prGpareti according to prepart3t.lm-i .i~ietlio<1 A, to ev:fluate the suspension ot'-1le laigrnenis in 74% P4`Clate`; pairit at lal-1 zvound 7.6. A cornlx3nson w:is made beick-ecD asamde ~,Yt:trn cellulosie_ 1fYMC of-1-1.EC} corrtainir#;_= systei-iY 4uici 4-~ systein stabilized 3 O├'li abler#d ol.'cellulo4ic (cellulo4~

gLiiii or kiEC.'. )and I.Argcil~~~ gLiiii, The paint vvas inixed with the appropriate amot rt uf thickener to exitiH
l) Witli ilte S├Orttle-r a isCOSatN of il-ic paint of 93 -1 KU. .ID the t-YUM
sO(rAiOD PrOgaL3M, 60z1 0.06 `?<o C: aO:~\~?1=-l:>O applied.

Naiiie AmoFfitt Eo) Water + ihieketier 363 Di513e\ N 40 3 Nopco 8034 Actic├cfe >=-3X 2 Kronos 2065 f~(3 Oinvacarb 2-OU 400 Ka~.~li├-i spesNylii├e 40 Mowil ith FE I74S 127 Nopco 8034 ?
`f'~ti~l llififi ~

1"::tcan-p1e 4:

Paints dverc prepared according to prep aration methcad A, to ~vialtaale the suspension of the pik.,men├s in 74% PVC latex paintat pH ~~,irounc;< 7.6. 'T'hc composition -,vias varied to tlc├ermine h~Nv ├1i+;
tiattr.re, t>.['the~;el(~3t~. (lc~~~ti~ {~.c:~~( versus l~ivft~. ac4~l) .if~fec:[~ tfi;~ ~l~aiti[ ga~:~~E~t~t~~~3t~ce (at [t~.r~:~~ different v-tI1~11 1ewIs wfl:~or t~iaticas}, In the gt.tmsoJt├tion preparation 1."4, hK'1 was appliecf, -------------------------------------------------------------- - ----------------------------------------------------Naiiic' :~~~iotini {~~
--- ---- ---- -- --- -----Wat+;r - thtckener- 363 I)ives N 40 3 No1]eci 80 i4 i ---- -------- - -------- -------- ---------Actii:_icfe B."'C. 2 --------- --- ---------Krotit>s 2065 60 - - --- -------[~~t~~a ~a~r l~ '~-t_,Jv 40 0 Iti.aolin SIM"whitc 40 N=iowtliih FE .174S 127 -- --------------------------------- ---No~~:c~ 8t~;4 zz 2 `i"otal 1000 ~~~~uple 5:

1'aints Nvere prepared accorditig to pr~par4ttirsri ti-ic├E-iod C. to evaluate ├E-ic s us~.,ensirsri of the f?ignxcrtts in an aczylic fiet~aii-gloss lta├cx paint g:25%a PVC) at pl farotuid 7.8. A cc:+nipar:ison was txtarlc betweeti a airtgle gum C:N1C-contaitying sys├emar~d a systetn stabilized Nviili a blend of cellttloa~ ~wnand HA-yllwi gum. The pa:iti├s iN:cre tiuxed iv:itix 0.50 i.vt% ih.ick-encr_ Component Amount Water 2.42,5 rat~is PVC '~?51Jo Finnfix ?├f├f(? ?7.Is ~ Solids by weigb├ 5,6 I?ropylct~~: glycol 18.9 `i'anical 7 >.1 8.7 So.lids by V 01 tt:1110 = 3 1. 8 ,I.rit:on N-57 2,0 SUrl.N twl DF 7 ~, 0.9 GtIttl co.mbi.o<Ai oti bv wtt?. ~,t} %
Tiiwitstrx dioxide 226.7 I'olNT"loss 90 18.8 Ratio CNIMC Gellan 8:1 Ac-i-ylic latex 354.41 ANN1P-9" ].. 0 Katlioti LX '?A
Triton GR-7?~'l t}.a?
Texanol 8.9 fR:elc:o~?e 1 .HA (0-5 0 %) 1103 Total 100ti.0 gf~ani5 7.'eslit-g of Paiij#: For-i-sulaii0~~s These paint i:ormula:fions -,vere ihon analt,zec3 f:or- a number of diif't'rent 1}roperfi~.~, The meffiotls below were appl i et;< for these pxirpoyes.

Leveling of Paint, AS`I AI Il)H4062 Th.is t.est irretftc?cl evaluates the{t.k?ility r}f.'paint to flow c?att a.├'├er appl=a├.{t:[it>rt and tlttas c?bl.rterate{t:tty surface ir-r-Ogttf.UitieS like a hruyh rnarks, or-ant;-e peel, peaks or-craws, Nvhie:h bae-e been 1}rot3t├c+ el ha= ffic nsecllaiiica1 process of application. 'l`o simulate ├hesheat= created by brt.-sh applica.├ion, paint sample is pto-slrearal l?y ejecting tlio sample irtatt_glt a syringe and needle. Paint sample is applied c?na sealed cliart special leveling test blade designed to l~~~ ~owti a f.'ilmwiils parallel ridges simulating brt├.sh. marks, AfZe:r d:ryin4T for 24 lioitrs at constant conditions (2;...:2 wtr' ;iritj 50 5 % relative hr├niiclity) in a horizontal position, love.llingof the los├ paint is rated bv viezNving the dt-a.~A-clown ttridet' a strong oblique light st>t.trce., c~nil}ming the contrast of'ligli├1=tess and shadow caused by ilie paint ridges to ihat of'a series of plastic levelling standards a.tt-idur the same lightn.ing cayiditiotis. Leveling is ratc:tj ├'rc3m 0 to .IFi, v,1`ture, ├3 presents ven.~ poor levelling arid 10 presents perfect levelitrgor no percepiible ridges.

SagResistanee of Paint, A5't''41.D44Oti "T'his tesf methcacl ee-aluAttes thes;ag resistance of pairits the fonflenc,y of a~Net paint tc? tlc?-,v dow,t:tward -,a.itenappl=aecl to a vertical surface. A pt=o-slrear is e~sert[i.il fc.?r {t. clr.na.clown sJ:tvf test to ni.ike stire the breakdown in ytrtatsft.tre. ~NhiCh t?CCttrs in thixotropic paints.
'Tlxe paim sample is pre-sheared by ejecting ihe 4anrp14 ├xc?w, gh a4yriri e aa:td neeflle. .At:ter pxe-shear#.txg7 the ccsa├ytig is applied toa ├a4t chart &?v a multinotch applicator, which has 10 incre>a~~~~,gl~.~ dc:et.~
r.ectant├lar yiotcf=aes. 'tr'iaich C1eZrance:s range i`rt?ni 100 lta-n to 600 fit=n (4 to 24 niils), '1-lie charts are immediately huaig e-ertically Nvith the flraa.vdc?-,vn stripes lir}ri.zc?rit<i.1 w-.i[ll il-ic thititi;M:t.stripe at the top. :..
After cln ing in this position, the cl.r.na.clc?wn is exanxineel atiel s1t4~4~ic~g is r~tt~e~i.fi~~r the thickest stripe d~.~l~i~:l~
fl~~est=~c~t c~d~erfa,~ the stripe of h1tr-e tos├ p~,tr7~;l just below.

23) 4paiierR.es.istancc: of Pairai, ASTM D4707 This test nxetlxoel determines tlie ton(lerirrv of paint to spatter w-hen applied ~N~itlx 1r rcaller. The teyt pain├ .i:s applied to a. Rack plrtis├yc pane1 by ia spec:irti.l clrawilcaa.vn rti:pplic:atcrr. 'T'1~e coated p1a:4t..ic: panel :├:s immediately mc3trr~rtec1 on a eertic.tl sur.('aceaboe e a sfieet o.├'blaek.
paper (i.(' p<t.ir-it. is wb.i[e} Lrsed, to catch 1irly spatter making ten passes in each tli~~ectir3rx (20 passes totally). A
specially designed nt?trb.hetl spool rolle.r is rolled thrcrtIO-1 i1-10 f:i.lrn [enclinvf to generate :pa.tker.
ArIti spa[t.er, z.khi& d:<Al. Lrgac3tt tttO sp.1:tteT
ca├cb paper and after c;iryin& ry ratrrcl against the pictcaria] star7ilarcls.
Spiattr:vr resistance is; rateil on a scale of 1 tc? lfp_ wiiere 1 3-epresent:5hurxdr-re.~cls of drops of sp:~;~tter brnd 70 represents rio spatter. Rating ileper:iils citt numbe.r, .ra:ther than size_ of drops.

Pitint V.iscositv by a StO.r<-rnet= Viscometer, ASTM.I3,562 Tliis tost meiliocl rrr,rwOUNs viscosity of'paiiii wiili lcytv shear r.ates, 200 rpm.. %vhicIY corresponcls to the shear ratc of pt3iDi iII tlle carx. ViScosiiy is craGtr.sLrrctl I.Vith a;5tormer t iscometGr at ^5T, vv1lGre torqLrc of a sp:intlle rotating at. 200rprn is c:c~ziverEecl to viscosity iri K.rebs Units {Ki :}.

Paiitt Viac,ositv by at'I. ICI C'one & Plate Viset>''met+`rE=. ASTM 04287 TIYls test.metlrod me4-rrsures vi4cosiiy of paint tvitlr 11i:;lr sfr,ow-ralrws, 10 000 s-l., which corresponds to the shet3r rate whell paint is :rpplied ~~~~ zi rolleA. Visc;osrtv:is measured witli wi 10 t'orie & Plaie visc.~me-ter at 215T. where 5ainple is placetl bef~~ven the rofatir:x:; cone and stationary platv. 'L'i;,co;;W
rrwsrili is;,wiverlas Poises (P) or crwrrtipolses (r::P).

Paiitt viscosity by a Rt OOkt ield LVTDV-1:1 V:isc0ineter..r1.STM D 14:33-83a Visr::ositv is measwed witfr, a. Broc~l:firwld I.,VTDV-II viscometer at 25'C, Nvhere torctue ofa. spindle is converted io viscosity in Milli-Pasct31 sec<axitis (r>:-Was).

Stability teat of paint, "Settling" test The test deterTziiries tlio paiii i stabili├y cluring, t'lic storatue at r'-ooiii temfseraftrre (r.t) ~id ;t:r"f, S+;ttline- eY alrr1rt:iOr7 O.fi ytrlicl rnAritr:vr irx paints is made tiyually.i`rcam trwsparr:vrxt closed glass containers wliic}t were st.o:red at. r.├ and 5WC. PaM├s are cl:ie idecl .irtto two par├:s were the other part is sto:red at r.├ and the other par├ at 5tPf;, Paintc were stored f:or- specified 1}eriotly, +.g. 1, m, 3 incantlis, etc.

Pain#VIscOsity Measm ed by a Pt-ogm.~umable Bi=Ooktietd LVI'DV-Hl Viscometer The wa├e.rht>:rne paint is siorocl m a t.rartsgaarom plastic c:ontai.iie:r <igaproximat.ely 5.5 ├:.m.irt cliarnet:er and 9 ca-n in lxciolit with asc:r ow-├~cpe lid, "Tk~e coritai.ner lxolcls approximately 200 gran~~; of the wate:rbc3rrte pairii. T'1ic Brool;:.fielcl viscosity of t}to paini .is rne~..urecl M th:is coniairter st> that. tlio diameter is consistciit aiiel Y iscosrta~ vialt├es are easily ccaml}aretl. TIi~
cylinelric a.l Brookfi old cpindfes ar--0 us+ el to measure the viscosity (between ~~nd 94?11if t:orcltie). The viscosAN program is as R,)l.lo%A,s:

Vis├:o.meter speed l-iolcl tirne 60 RPM 1 miDrr.├e, thei2 take read.ir~g Yt Rl?k-i 1 niiyita├u, then take reading 3) RPM 2 minutes, then take reading ().a RPM 4? n-~inutos. theii. take readir~~.

'=.4ote: Proceeding f:royii high to low shear rate arr.xicls any ├hi:ria├rop~~
that may be present ttii├I i1iat vvoulcl ~am.

Tl~e results of the ├esti~~g are provided l.~eloo~- in the following tables for each of the Exainples 1-5.

.Exampl e I Results CMC:.t'fRc.al1an Gt:rrn iErt Semi-fR'lOss Latex Pari~tts -- ---- --Control - -----C MCrGell├3n Cxuix-i 8 to 1 100 to [) '-- ------- ----- ----- --------- ~------ ----- ------WONi LA-Cellaii Gum t~ ~~5----) o.ooo WONi FF2000 0,438 0.49-3 4M Tap Water (used to malae. pain#) Yes 'r' es P1 (:: % 24 g#'# 24.5() ---- ------- --------# r-lumeSoliclv, % ├ s, o .~ 180 -- ---- ------- -------------- ------- ----fl'ei-lrt Safific 4560 4~ (~f}
---------------------------------BrOoh-fe1d Viscosity (RV) (CP) 0.311 lif',t:f 8[)000 67000 ------------------------------- -------------------------- -------------------------------- --------- -------- -Stoi=i-tici L ~scosit y )y,.U) `T `T 77 I:0 Nliseos~tv p 0.40 0.50 -----------------------------------------------------------------Lcitetit Flow/Leveling 7.00 (10::::best) Sag lftartiiig, iviii4 20.00 l~; t tt t (24 mils -: besL 4 iirils ~~~orsi~
H 18.44 8.2f) - --------- -------- --------- --------- ----- --------- -------- -----Paclcage Stability I
------ ------ ------ ------25 C, 8 8 weeks C d' Good -- --------- --------- --------- --------- ~------------- ------- -, jo (. l4 fi'-i'./t`.S good '! ote:
--------- -------- ----- --------------- --------- --------- -/-r`2t) :13 f2t,] i'Sd.S
- -----., -------- --------- --------- ------ --------- -------- --------`T'kie, :result.s c:lear(v sliow t}tai in proserice of CMC-gellan tti.is paint fc.3rnui.(at:├ongive: a higher viscosity at 1c3Nv s;lxciar rates (0.3 r-l~~n Bl~ > 1inc;< 1i higlxerya;; rating and better leveling l~~l~.ilc n~vi~x├~1ii.~inY~ ;rccel~i~.~hle and similar values I.or hi0i shear vis├:osa├v andstalsi.lily as compared to the paint with only C'al.C

llr:xan-plc: 2Rcsulis C.'4'1:CIC-e1lan Uttm in Flat Latex Paints 'olt#r01 CMC to Gellan +~~~tm 8-to 1 18 ├ca 1 1f]f] iotl 100 to 0 - ------- --- - ------- ----------------- ----- --- ------------------------ ------------------------------------- Wt% LA Gellars Gum t}.055 0.055 t} t}
- ----- --------- ------- =
Wt"~'f~ FF2000 t}A44 0.444 0.50 0.50 -Ix3~}~~'~1~~ Y's 'tt's y c 4 ~~s ------- -------- ---, ---- -------- ------- --------------------I'i C-, % 63 63) 63 63 - ---_..............................................................
.................................. --------------_ -------------- ---........................... .............................
, ---=
Vc~li~rrta~g S r.~ti~'~~, % ?:~ > 5 35 35 -y~t ~"~tt.~[~1tthc ra~ 5i 55 55 ~ -------- -------- ------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------=
itaesults:
Brookfield Viscosity (c.P)~
RV
r 30 1584 1611 1792 20 4 8 0. 3 RPM 68267 67200 5 7E700 = 59733 ' -- --------- --------- --------- --------- ~----- , , , ---+---- -------- -----------^
--------- --- -- --------- --^ ----------- ---4t0i-mei Viscosity ~~~~~ 83 S'~ 86 90 .~ ' -- ----- ---- -- ----- ---- ---- -- --- ` -- ----- ---- -----tCl Viscosity 11:} 0,90 1.00 1.10 1,15 1.eneta 11=10w mid 1,,evelin~ 8 8 , .
-- -- ------ -------- -------- -------- -- - -------- ---- --------- -----------------Gt# best) - --- -- --- -- - -- --- --- ---4ag lftatiii~, ~~~i1 s 8 8 8 16 ~=--- ----- ----- - ---_- ---('4 iiiiis = besi. 4 mils ta orst ) -- 1H --- --------- --------- --------- 8 -~;~ -- -8,~i~3 i4.t~i5 -- ~},:~t} -------caiti of pri or to ├'a' alde(! 0 4M.1 process acldlT~<F N; iA N/ A
binder Polyphobe `I`R-1.1'7(,vv tt3'n solids) 0.00 0-00 t)-00 t).1 -------____ _________ -- ________- ...... ________- ... _ ________- ________--- ___- ___- ___- ___- -- ___- ___- --_- ___- ___-Pac kat;e Siabilihr --------------------------------- ---------------------------------- ---------------- ----------------------------- ----- --------------------------------------,5 C ~vr:cb = Good ~~ood' Goocl ~ (ioocl __ ____ ___ ________ _________ ---.+_____ __ _____ 9 ----! -___ .f - .___ -____ y --------- --'t ?(1 ~. 12 RilSE?G'1~:~5 ~~s?s?t~ E ~,7 ; 1 (?. }
-+ --------- --- -------- ------------NE3te:

-------- -----------------------------------Tixe pt-dti├s froiii the preseril hie-etitic:+n clea.rlb- show ilie higher viscosity at 1oiv shear rates (0_3 RPM Bl.) and similar 1evelirrg -md s,)g., score even thot-qgh the St?riiter viscosi├y is 5ori~~~N,-hat lower that the paint lori~iula├ion ;z~Al-a only CItiC.

The pairtt system prepared by adtling, gollir~~ satt to il-ic fltr.├d gel at the e-Tid ta.[`the paint maml1'aCturi.ng process resulted in higher lca~N-sbear tiscosity (Br~okfield 03 RR~a.) ~lic.l geater pac:l:a;;e ytahility at cleiatecl temperature versus acJflin~~ the gelling yal├ fJtiriaig 11ie pi~rvt process.

The acldi├:ic~zi of 0. 10% sc)lids of an tivd.rc)pht>bical(y rnocii-fied alkali-svve.tla.ble {fIA4t:;} type assc3tiatiYe thic:l:ener resLalte(t inimprod~ed ~,;~g control btit did notyign.if'ic~riity emhatlce 11ie package stability versus a CMC ctarrirol..

Note: Flcaw mt31ev+ ling property dv,-:.s nc?t i~~piaired by itie tise of the fltiid ge1 as iarh~.~logical agent versus a C MC c.o. iitro1..

lr:xcmi1}t e, 3 Results Thiek-emej= Concerit.raiion izl fttl`eIt ~?c~ll]t ------------- --------- --------- --------- --A (ref) A ~ref-21 B C: D (re1) ----- -------- ------ -------- - -------- --------- ---- 0.47 D._. t). 4()7 .~-~<>
~~2t)()d) Q. f~
_ . +? t3?9(?
I-$EC - (?
Ket4cy├~~e1. +l=`_C3 _I l ~ (~ ()47 C) 43.~ty 0.029 .. . ...: ...
...................... ... .... f .... .... ... ............. Ratio cGllUl~~s1c Gt~) 1t-t-.-~ lt:-t- 1[) l 12:1 lt)() 1):1 ---- -- <
------- ------ ------- ---- ---- ---- --- ----Pi opcl=ties ---------- -- ------- ----- --------- ------- --------- ----- ----- ~ ---- ----- ---- ----- ---Sformer ViSCOSy N 1*:.I` 93 94 ~~ ~ 93 93 9n ---- --- ---------~=------~ -- -------- ---- ------------------------- ---------------------- ----------------------------~--------------------------t~.I C&P Nase~cy CP: 115 110 WS 110 1t?t) 100 1,15 115 BF visco (sp 4. 30 rp1i1) 4050 3820 4600 4550 4480 4680 aiPas --- ---- --- --- -- ---- --------BF v1sco (::p 4. 03 rptii) 91980 1 64()00 156E34)4) 1 2,xt tott 174000 1'Tlp's35 test (mil.s) 20 1.4 24 24 1 24 24 Sagging (24 irtils=-- best, 4 aiils:--: l.?
Worst) l.eteling ├es! 5 7 4 ~ 3 2 41() =-- besii 6 ---- ------ --------------------- ---------'---------------- --~---------------------------------------------------- =
-----------------------------=--------------------------- --------------------------4patterilYg test 7 8 7 7 6 6 ~ 10 = best) 8 Sa.aipte A (Reie2) is dif9Werat 1ronx sai~aiple A (Ref.) as i~at) heatin,r was applied and no salt has (~eel~a a~~l.~~l.ec~.

The C:!Ll;C ~.,~e.llan formtala.tioi?: shovv a strc3ng:inc.rease in Iow ,tioar" rat,M e is├.o,ity 40.:3 RP'14 F3F
TheREC-4~e1lan also shmvs a claar increascin low she ar-rate viscos'rt~.~ while mAiic?├aining tlxe other basic paint p+;rfornime:e.
~~~uple 4 Results Thickenet-r1 B c D E F
IT 2 0 [10 0,363 ; 0.3 )63 0.29 (} 2 9 0,43 fa 0,436 - --- --- --- --Ke1cogel CG-LA }[).0363 0 073 0109 --------l;elco~cl CG-l= 1A 6 ; 0.073 0,109 I;"ati~.~ (cellWc?SiC:GG) 10.1 lO; l 4:1 4:1 4:1 4:1 fto el-ties Siorziie├ vi5ccisity Kl:= 89 84 87 81 1 t):? 95 ----t --------- -----lf. t C&P visco (cp) 't() 80 70 lN) I 15 ------------------------------ ------------------------------ ----------------------------- - -------------------------------------------------- -1311 ci,ct? (sp 4 30 rp.m) t?tPas 3500 580 4240 2800 7500 -140 , ~
----- ---- --- --ggii?yj tost {mi1s} li> 16 18 1.6 1 24 4 Sa (24 niils best, 4 tn:ils tvOrsT) I_,ivtlit3g test 6 ` 5 ? 4 3 l 0 --: best) 7 6 C? 3 4 Spatierirl~.~ test 7 7 8 The High Acvl gellm gum shows a higher Ic~Nv sbear-raio vi4cosiiy as cornpax~ed to tlio Io3 ~~ acyl samples loi- eacii invesiigateel overall guzyi 1ovel. The cAlier p4urit pi-operties Avere 611 rather 4imi:lar t3n-l<a~igst tlie h-io #YGliari iN Pes.

Ex.aniple 5 Results `Miekr::ne:r 9:1 .1''1~?O(tft- H.A Gellan Gtsyii. -100`.'.~ .FF2000 (control) --- --------- -------------------41't`~.~s Keico~;.~o1. HA tl.t)~?a? 0.000 Wt`~-[s Flil_ilfix 2000 O,~38 0.4 93 cp 2048 -1 4> 1 0.3 t`;p -123.0 013 67:000 S tomier V ├scc?sii~ , Kll 77 87 ICI '`isCOsAN . T't>ise 0, ~?() 0, ?() lr.eneta 1-] o~~:`L~~ ~ling 'T'est Cr,? Cr.t) 410 =-- best) ------------- ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------; 4~.~ Test (rriils ; 18 ; l~>
........ . -------------=----------------------------------------------------------.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------41 tS T 1..~eat}
Siabili├v "I'eat. 5t.t"C 7Nveel;;:s V,ia vnereaiS 6.7% svneresis 1-=1 7,~"~8 7.9~"~
't7he HA-gel(an gUm5ho1v:; ~iiic;h liigher niecl:iunx shear (60 R1'~I) as tvell as signitica~tla~ hig(xe':r low-shear (0.:30 RPM) 1:iscosity than tlie c:ontrcil c:ellu.(c3se ilurm tluekezie:r. `T'fie, low shear aiscosity clearly relates to the lc3ng-termr elevated ├+;mperature Stability cal`the gellangxini especially the high acy1 gellan gtari-i. <uicl tltec:ellt.t(os.ic: cc~i-t)bii-iatioii. In adtlitian. tlte 11 mv and tovelim; proper[y ciid ttc3t appear io b~:~
afiveryely a{-let;├+;el by the higher d isc:osity of the H A-gellang.uni, ft 3, thus eviclent that in each of these formula:tio13, that acceptable 1eve1s of each property 11a,, been met. 4uc1i ac_ross-tlio-hoard :reS lt.s are hi-hlti- clesirable aticl lie.retod:o.re unattainec1 by other typical thick-ening, sN stems wiilsisi the paint indi├stn,~.

While the invention A~i.ll be described and disclosed in connection.,,vilh certiiri preforred eniboclinienis wd pa=act.ices. it is in no way ii1tendec1├o 1i131it the inventio13 ├o those specif'ic ~~~boclimentsr r.ather it is :un├unded to cover uqui.ralent structures siructisral e>quit Zlents and all alterna├ive em.boclime>n├s and modil"icaiions as may be def'is~ed by the scope o1~the appended claims and ~qw-,.alence thereto.

3f<<t

Classifications
International ClassificationC09D5/02
Cooperative ClassificationC08L5/00, C09D105/00, C08L1/26, C09D101/26, C09D7/004, C09D5/04, C08L1/284, C09D5/024
European ClassificationC09D5/02K, C09D5/04, C08L1/26, C09D7/00D2, C09D101/26, C09D105/00
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DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 23, 2013FZDEDead
Effective date: 20130226