US 1004419 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
METHOD OF MINING.
APPLICATION TILED APR. 4. 1911.
LOO- 1,4 1-9. Patented Sept. 26, 1911.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
WW 3'4 0 if missgaw 1/ A m w amuwto m ZF J W COLUMBIA PLANOGRAPH CD1, WASHINGTON, n. c.
METHOD OF MINING.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 4. 1911.
1,004,41 9. Patented Sept. 26, 1911.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
COLUMBIA FLANOGRAPH co., WASHIN 0000000 c,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
WILLIAM GRIFFITH, 0F SGRANTON, PENNSYLVANIA.
METHOD OF MINING.
T 0 all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM GRIFFITH, a citizen of the United States, residing at Scranton, in the county of Lackawanna and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of Mining; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to v make and use the same.
This invention relates to an improved method of supporting or assisting 1n supporting the roof of a mine of any desired kind, including coal, metal, or other ore mines.
The object in view is to provide a safe and comparatively cheap method of support ing or assisting in supporting the roofs of mines; first, to prevent the sudden collapse of the roof of the mine in places where it is undesirable that the surface should fall, as for instance when there are valuable improvements on the surface; second, to provide means for the safe support of mines during the prosecution of the mining where practically all of the material is mined and no supporting pillars left, or where the supporting pillars are taken out, either during the first mining or thereafter.
It is also the object of the invention to provide supporting pillars in a mine for supporting the roof arranged with cracked stone surrounding the same which has been blown up from the floor or down from the roof or both before the material comprising the pillar has been arranged in place, so as to positively hold the material comprising the pillar against lateral movement.
In the accompanying drawings: Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional View through a plan of a horizontal mine. Fig. 2 is a section through Fig. 1 on line 2 2. Fig. 3 is a section through a mine showing a plan of a pitching vein. Fig. 1 is a section through Fig. 3 on line 44. Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, disclosing a dam formed from material from the roof.
In mining in the United States and in various other countries a general system or method is used for moving the matter to be mined, especially in mining coal. The ordinary system in the United States for instance is to mine out part of the coal and leave part of the coal as supporting pillars Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed April 4, 1911.
Y flushed-in matter.
Patented Sept. 26, 1911.
Serial No. 618,885.
for preventing the roof of the mine from caving in or collapsing. This method of mining is varied according to the position of the coal veins in the rock for permitting mining horizontal veins or pitching veins. The mining of horizontal veins by the ordinary method contemplates the sorting of the coal from the slate and other refuse in the room or that part of the mine from which the same has been removed from its natural bed. The coal is transported to the surface and disposed of as desired, while the refuse is deposited at one side of the room and in any place most convenient so that the same will not be in the way of further mining or the removal of the coal. here the coal vein occurs in what are known as pitching veins all of the mined material, including the slate and other refuse, falls or slides down to the car which conveys the same to the surface or to a place from which the same may be conveyed to the surface. This method necessitates the removal of all the coal mined, and the sorting of the coal from the refuse after the coal and refuse have been removed from the mine.
This invention is intended to obviate as far as possible any injury or breaking down of any property on the surface of the ground, and at the same time render available for shipment a maximum quantity of coal from a given coal field without endangering the lives of the miners or life and property on the surface of the ground.
The process or method consists in blasting up the floor which is usually rock, or blasting down the roof of the mine, or if desired blasting up part of the floor and blasting down part of the roof directly over the same and allowing the debris of the blasting to remain where it falls and thus take advantage of the well known characteristics of blasted rock, that it occupies considerably more space than when in the solid condition, but affords a good artificial pillar which will resist vertical strains and lateral strains. The roof and floor may be blasted up in this manner for entirely inclosing a predetermined space by the blasted material, or for closing the ends of a room into which filling material of any kind, as for instance sand and solid refuse matter is flushed for filling the chamber or inclosure made by the blasted rock until the same is entirely filled by said As will be evident the blasted up rock will be anchored in the floor and roof and the broken rock will naturally be interlocked so that any lateral strain brought to bear against the same by the sand and other flushed-in matter will not affect detrimentally the blasted material, but on the contrary the blasted material will hold against lateral movement the flushed-1n matter, so that the fiushed-in matter Wlll act as a proper support or pillar for the roof.
In the accompanying drawings is disclosed a concrete example of the method or process involved. The drawings show how the'process may be used in a flat or horizontal mine, and also in a pitching vein mine. Either after the mine has been partly worked or abandoned or during the mining operation part of the floor is blasted up at 1 and part of the roof is blasted down at 2 for forming a dam or what is sometimes called a battery 3 which incloses a room or space 4:. As will be noticed from Fig. 1 the dam 3extends entirely around the room or space 4, and consequently will firmly support against lateral movement any matter flushed into the room through opening 5. Opening 5 indicates a bore extending to the surface through which water, sand, and other material is flushed into room 4 where the solid matter settles and the water drains through dam 3, and is removed from the mine in any desired manner, as for instance by the usual pumping apparatus. If desired instead of having the bore 5 extend to the surface of the earth a tube or pipe 5 could be inserted into room t in any desired way and sand or other matter flushed into room 4 until the same is full of solid matter, which will consequently present a pillar for supporting the roof in addition to the support the dam 3 will afford. After the room 4 has been provided with material for a pillar the material may be mined from either side thereof. to a considerable extent, and then a new dam made for an additional room which may be flushed in a similar manner. This process may be continued throughout the entire mine so that the roof will be continuously supported and yet all the coal removed so that there will be no danger to the miners, and also no material sinking of the earths surface above the mine.
When mining a pitching vein, as disclosed in Figs. 3 and 4, the mining is done according to any of the usual methods, or any improved method desired until a room 6 is provided which is closed by having the material from the floor blasted up at point 7, while material from the roof is blasted down at point 8 for providing a dam 9. Dam 9,
material. These partitions are placed in position during the mining operation and cause a proper circulation of air for the benefit of the miners. After having served this purpose they are left in position and act as lateral supports for the flushed-in material, and are especially of advantage during the settling of said flushed-in material. The pipe 11 may be inserted into the chamber or room 6 from any part of the mine, or a boring 11 may be provided which extends from the surface of the ground, whereby sand and other filling material may be flushed into room 6 where the same settles and forms a firm, solid support, while the water drains off through dam 9. After the room 6 has "been filled the pillars on one side may be removed if desired and the space occupied by the same and the adjoining room flushed full of sand or other filling material in a similar way to the way room 6 is filled after a dam similar to dam 9 has been provided for the adjoining room. In this way the usual form of mining may be proceeded With to a certain extent and then by my improved method the roof properly supported and all the coal supporting pillars removed so that a maximum amount of coal may be delivered from a given area.
As seen in Fig. 5 the roof may be blasted down at point 8 sufficiently for making a complete dam. This may be easily done Where the vein is comparatively narrow as sufficient material may be blasted from the roof Without causing an undesirably strong explosion.
My improved method may be used during the first mining or in old or abandoned mines. WVhere the method is used in abandoned mines some of the supporting pillars are removed and an inclosure or room is made by blasting up part of the roof or floor or both for providing an inclosure for the flushed-in material. Also if desired some of the original supporting pillars may be used as one side of the room into which material is flushed, though preferably an entire space is inclosed by blasted material, as ;shown in Fig. 1, which is always left in :place so that when the same has been once filled with flushed-in material a permanent solid supporting pillar is provided.
WVhat I claim is: a
1. The method of mining comprising the blasting of the fioor of a mine for partially filling the mine at the point of blasting, then blasting down a sufiicient part of the roof for filling the remaining open space in the mine, the blasted material being allowed to remain where it falls for filling the open space in the mine and the space caused by blasting for providing supporting means for the roof, and then flushing of filling material 1n thle mine at one side of said blasted materia 2. The method of mining which comprises the running of gangways along the body of material to be mined, forming rooms at one side and connected to these gangways, taking out the material to be mined and pack ing the refuse in said rooms on the sides of the rooms, blasting up part of the floor of the room at a point desired to be closed for partially filling the space between the floor and the roof, blasting down a suflicient part of the roof for completing the dam, forming a pipe opening into said room closed by said dam, and then flushing material into said room.
3. The method of mining which comprehends running gangways along the body of material to be mined, working out the material to be mined in proximity to the gangways, piling the waste material in the space from which the mined material has been moved, blasting down a suflicient part of the roof at any desired point for forming a dam, forming a flushing opening communicating with the space in front of said dam, and flushing filling material through said flushing opening.
4. The method of mining which comprehends running gangways along the body of material to be mined, working out rooms in proximity to the gangways, placing charges of explosives in the floor and roof of said rooms at a point where a dam is desired, successively discharging the explosives in the floor and roof for providing a dam formed of crushed material on the floor and roof for providing an auxiliary support for the roof and a dam for any material flushed in said room, forming an opening through which material may be flushed into said room, and flushing material into said room.
5. The method of mining which comprises the running of gangways along the body of material to be mined, forming rooms along one side of said gangways and connecting the rooms to said gangways, blasting up part of the floor of any of the rooms in which a dam is desired, and leaving the blasted material in the place where it falls, whereby a dam for part the height of the room is provided having an anchorage in the floor, then blasting down a sufficient part of the roof for filling the space immediately above said first mentioned blasted material for providing an artificial pillar, and a completion of the dam with an anchorage in the roof, and then flushing filling material into the room.
6. The method of mining which comprises the running of gangways along the body of material to be mined, forming rooms to one side of the gangway and connecting the rooms to the gangway, blasting up part of the floor of said rooms in such a manner as to form an inclosing fence, blasting down part of the roof of said rooms immediately above said first mentioned blasting for forming said fence into a complete dam having anchorage in the floor and roof, and then flushing material into the inclosure provided by said dam.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
WVILLIAM GRIFFITH. lVitnesses W. W. MATTHEWS, P. WV. GALLAGHER.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.