US 1009312 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. W. JACKSON. LINING WALL FOR SHAFTS. .APPLICATION FILED SBPT-10, 1907.-
1,009,312, Paentea 111011.21, 1911.
s [i l i COLUMBIA PLAOGRAPM co..wAsHlNdTON. D. c.
UNITED sTATEs PATENT oEEIcE.
GEORGE W. JACKSON, OIE' CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
LINING-WALL FOR SHAFTS.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE W. JACKSON, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Lining-Walls for Shafts; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to Nthe ac companying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked t ereon, which form a part of this specification.
This invention relates to improvements in lining walls for shafts excavated in the earth and designed to intersect underground tunnels, sub-ways and the like so as to afford access to and egress therefrom.
The invention consists in the matters hereinafter set forth and more particularly pointed out in the appended claim.
As shown in the drawing Figure 1 is a vertical, axial section. of a shaft and the lining wall thereof made in accordance with my invention, said shaft intersecting at its lower end a horizontal tunnel.
The wall of the shaft A, shown in the iigure comprises an outer piling layer B, B1 and B2, an inner concrete or cementitious layer C which may be provided with any suitable reinforcing retaining rings embedded in said inner Wall layer as shown in my prior U. S. Patent Number 835,159, granted November 6th, 1906. The cross-section of the shaft is oval but may be made of circular or other cross-section as desired. The shaft shown in the figure is made of a depth to require three courses B, B1 and B2 of the sheet piling layer, the lower courses being driven inside the area surrounded by the upper courses, said lower courses surrounding an area of'less diameter than that inclosed by the upper courses. The outer piling layer of the lining wall of the lower course B2 is formed of simple piling sections 0l all as shown by the dotted lines in the tigure. The outer piling layer of the lining Wall of each of the other courses B and B1 may also be formed of such suitable simple piling sections.
The lower end of the shaft intersects a tunnel E, the shaft affording access to and egress from the tunnel.
In constructing the shaft and its lining wall, the first step of the construction consists in driving into the earth the upper course of sheet piling sections to constitute Specification of Letters Patent. Patented NOV. 21, 1911. Application led September 10, 1907.
Serial No. 392,159.
the outer or piling wall layer, the said piling sections being driven into the ground in the usual manner. That is to say, each piling section is guided, as it is being driven, by its longitudinal guiding engagement with a previously driven piling section. The piling sections are driven into the earth in a manner to form a continuous wall of the desired cross-section to surround the area of earth to be excavated or removed to form the shaft. Thereafter the earth within the area surrounded by the continuous or closed piling wall layer is removed. After the earth has been removed to a level near the lower ends of the piling section B the second course of piling sections B1 is driven into the earth in the same manner, if the shaft be made of a depth greater than the length of said piling sections. Said second course of piling sections is driven into the earth a distance radially inside of the first course, and after the second course is completed the earth is removed from the space or area inclosed thereby. A third course B2 is in like manner driven into the earth and the earth surrounded thereby is removed to form a deeper shaft. The lengths of the piling sections of the lowermost course, when the shaft intersects a tunnel, are graduated, as shown `in the figure, to correspond with the arch of the tunnel E so that said sections shall not pierce the arch of the tunnel.
After the required number of courses of piling sections have been driven and the earth excavated to the required depth to complete the shaft, a suitable mold form is constructed inside the shaft, between which and the piling wall layer the concrete or other cementitious material is poured to form, when set, the inner wall layer. Such inner mold form may be made of any suitable or preferred construction. For instance, it may partake of the general form and construction illustrated in my aforesaid prior Patent No. 835,159. The mold form will, of course, be removed after the concrete 0r other cement-itious material which constitutes the inner wall layer is set thus leaving a smooth face of the concrete wall layer exposed inside the shaft.
An advantage of the use of the outer piling layer of the wall, driven into the earth and the earth excavated from the space surrounded thereby, as described, is that I am enabled to safely and expeditiously operate in soils which are of such unstable character as to preclude the practicability of excavating short distances into the earth and thereafter lining the unsupported walls of the excavation with lagging. In the present instance there are no exposed earthen walls which may shift or fall into the excavation as the work of excavating progresses. Moreover, the herein described manner of building the excavation and the lining wall thereof enables the work to be much more rapidly accomplished than where the excavation is effected in short stages or depths and thereafter lining the walls of each short excavation before proceeding with the next lower excavating step or stage. Furthermore, the work, under the present arrangement, is not attended with danger to the operatives in the shaft while excavating or removing the earth from the area surrounded by the piling layer of the lining wall. The lining wall described is exceedingly strong and durable, made so by reason of the length of the sections of the outer piling layer. The said outer piling layer may be made of relatively light piling sections, inasmuch as they not only reinforce the concrete wall layer but are themselves reinforced thereby. I
I claim as my invention A lining wall for vertical shafts excavated in the earth, which intersect a hori- Zontal tunnel, said lining wall extending continuously around the shaft and comprising an outer continuous sheet piling layer composed of piling sections, and a concrete layer formed on said outer piling layer, the piling sections being made of a length t-o correspond with the arch of the tunnel, whereby when the sections are driven into the earth the lower ends thereof, vertically above the tunnel, terminate short of the arch of the tunnel.
In testimony, that I claim the foregoing asmy invention I affix my signature in the presence of witnesses, this 5th day of September A. D. 1907.
GEORGE W. JACKSON.
MAULEY W. CLUx'roN, HOWARD VANscoIx, BEN F. KIMMIT, THOMAS C. JACKSON.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.