US 1014730 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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l III'WOIIII I.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
WHEELS. JOHN \V. \Var, Edgeworth, ln. Filed Nov. 15, 1909. Serial No. 528,109.
To all whom it may concern:
lie it known that- I, Jomv W. \Vav residing at Ildgenorth, in the county at Allegheny and State of Pennsylvania, a citizen ol the United States, have invented or discovered certain new and useful Improve meats in vanes for Pro ellcr-\V heels, of which improvements the fo lowing is a specitication.
My invention relates to improvements in the. construction of vanes for pro ller wheels; and, while it is not so limitet the particular object in view is a propeller blade especially adapted to meet the requirements of aerial navigation.
In the accompanying drawmgs which form a part of his specification, Figure l is an end view of the propeller wheel, the shaft thereof being shown in section and VANE FOR PROPELLER- the blades in perspective; Fig. 2 is a side perspective view 0 of the vanes, the
the same structure; Fig. It is a transverse sectional view through one if lane of section being ini dieated at IlI-I I of Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a side elevation, that is an edgcwlse view, of one of the blades or wings. It will be understood that Figs. 3 and 4 are drawn to larger scale than l 'igs. l and 2; Figs. 5 and t; illu t rate diagrammatically the shape of the forward and the rear edges of the vanes of the pro )(llCl wheel; Fig. 5 is a side elevation, and Fi (i is a plan, showing a surface. generatet by a directrix extending angnlarly from the shaft 1, and following at one end a helical path upon the shaft. The edges of the vanes of the propeller lie in the surface so generated.
The reference numerals used in the several figures are applied to corresponding parts throughout. I,
The shaft of the propeller wheel is indirated atwl, and the blades or vanes of the propeller are indicated at 2; Fig. 1 of the drawings shows the wheel equipped with two such vanes or blades, but it will be nnderstrxal that any desired number of vanes may be employed; furthermore, the shaft may be equipped with any desired number of wheels.
The feature of my invention which I shall first describe is the general configuration of the individual vane or blade. As the drawings show, the vane extends in curved eontonr longitudinally and, as is more particularly illustrated in Fig. 3, the contour of the vane in transverse section is curved also. Having reference to the transverse contour, it. will be observed in Fig. 3, that the curve is a spiral one, this spiral curve increasing in its radius from the anterior to the posterior edge of the blade or vane. The curved anterior edge of the vane, through a substantial part. of its length, from the center of revolution outward. extends in a singlc plane, and the same is true of the postcrior edge also; but the dunes in which the said edges lie are angu ar to one anotherv This is indicated in Fig. 4, wherein the two edges are designated 8 and 9. In other words, there is a twist in the blade.
The blades are preferably mounted on the shaft to incline rcarwardly from the center of revolution to the ti as is illustrated in Fig. 2; each individua blade is so mounted that the general plane in which it extends does not coincide with, nor approximately coincide with, the conical or approximately conical mth in which the blades revolve, but. is angu ar thereto. This feature also is indicated in Fig. 2, where it will be observed that the blade at its inner end extends in a line angular to the general direction of retation; and itwill be seen that, in conscqnence, as the shaft turns, the blade will advance an ularl against the opposing body of air. he cgrce of inclination of the blade bears a certain determinate relation in the speed of revolution, to attain maximum eliicicney; and, since the S'Kttl of the blade increases ontwardlyfrom t .C center of revolution to the tip, this inclination of the blade is changed in corresponding degree. This is the pur ose of the twist in the blade. above referre to; it is not my invention, but is understood by those familiar with the art. Or, expresset differently, the edges of the blade he in a surface generated by a directrix which extends at a constant angle to the axis of the shaft and one end of which in its movement follows a helical path 'on the shaft. This detail is believed to be adequately shown in Figs. 5 and G of the drawfile vane is so mounted on the shaft that the convex side of the vane is the forward side; and, as said above, the mounting is such that the blade inclines rearwardly with respect to the direction in which the vessel is intended to go, from its point of attachment to the shaft, to the tip.
The anterior edge of the vane is rounded, as is indicated at 3' in Fig. 8, and by its shape in this particular, the generation of eddies at this point is prevented.
The body of the vane is preferably ri id, evcept at its tip and along its posterior (tfijt those portions of the vane. however. are preferably flexible, and to the end that the flexibility of these parts of the vane may be. effective the posterior edge is preferably slittcd, as is indicated at 6 in Fig. l. The slits will be preferably cut in area or circles struck from the center of revolution as a center. While I do not limit myself to par- Ian one) \vhiei are indi- 'lhey extent longitudiually of the vane, as is particularly hown in Fig. I, from the inner end Out-j n'ardly. but preferably over so much of the vane only as is rigid; they are arranged adjneentto the anterior edge of the vane; and roject rearwardlv, that is toward the posterior edge. if t note he only one llis arranged at the very edge, as is in icatedan the position of the foremost of the serles shown in Fig. 3' and, if there be more than one, each succeeding projection is preferably longer than the one standing next in front of it. These projections are preferably made flexible, and are preferably provided with ports or openings 5, to a low a restl'ietetl passage of air. The ports or openiugs may be in the form of slits or in the form of arforatious. These air-retarding projections serve to increase t the suit he elliciency of propeller; for, as the blade revolves, a or eddy is formed In the concavity of the vane, and the swirling air impinging upon these pro ections tends to augment the propulsion.
it remains to note that the vanes are mounted upon the shaft approximately mglway of their transverse extent, as is in ruled in Fig. 1; and, the air-retarding projections 4 on the concave side of the vane being arranged (as already described) adjacent to the anterior edge of the vane, the center of rotation of the vane is rearward of these projeutimis. The etl'ect of this arrangement is that, as the blade revolves, centrifugal force further augments the force of the contact of eddying air against these projeetions. in the direction of their advance.
I claim herein as my invention.
1. propeller blade of curved contour in cross sot-lion. the concave surface thereof being provided with a rearwnrdly diverging air-retarding projection extendtn longitudinally of the blade, substantially as described.
.2. A propeller blade of curved contour in cross-section provided on its concave surface with'an air-retarding pro'ection, such projeetion being provided wit openings to permit a restricted passage of air, substantially as described.
3. A propeller blade of curved contour in cross-section provided on its inner surface with a flexible air retarder, said air rein its lon i Inner en lard r ext nding l ngitudinally upon the surface of the blatle,. Stll'JSlfllllltlll as described.
4. A propeller blade of curved contour in cros section provided on its inner surface 1 with a series of air-retarding projections extending longitudinally thereon, the width of the snccc'eding projections of the series increasin from the foremost rearu'ardly, sub stantially as described.
."i. A propeller blade of spiral contour in cross section, the curve of spiral iucreasin in radius from the front to the rear edge. 0 the said blade, and an air-rctardin projection, extending longitudinally of tie blade upon the concave surface thereof, and adjacent to the anterior edge thereof, and pro eeting from said surface renrwardly, substantially as described.
6. A blade for a propeller wheel curved itudinal or radial extent from its to its tip, rigid throughout the major portion of its longitudinal extent, but flexible at its outermost end, substantially as described.
7. A blade for a propeller wheel curved in its longitudinal or radial extent from its inner end to its tip rigid throughout the l'l'lfljfil' portion of its ongltudinal extent, but flexible along its posterior edge and at its outermost end, substantial] as described.
In testimony whereof, I iive hereunto set my hand.
JOHN W. WAY. Witnesses:
BAYARD H. Cnms'rr, Amer: A. TRILL.