US 1017064 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. C. SMTH @L E. L. MARSHALL.
APPLICATION FILED AUG. 7, 190e.
Lm. I Patented Feb. 13.1912.
Application filed To all whom i may concern:
Be itknown that We, EDWARD C. SMITH and EDWARD L. MARSHALL, citizens of the United States, and residents ot Fremont, in the county of Sandush Y and State ot Ohio, have invented a certain nev.i` and useful lmprovementin Galvanic Batteries, ot which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
This invention relates to a neuT and simplified form o caustic solution battery especially adapted for track circuits such as are commonly used in connection with automatic block signals, crossing bells and other protective devices and other analogous uses.
The invention consists of a jana metal plate resting on and covering the bottom thereof and having an upwardly extended stem, a layer of oxid of copper spread upon said plate, a zinc element. suspended in the upper part of said jar, and a solution of caustic soda, potash or the like, in said jar covering the parts specified excepting the upper end of said stem.
In the drawing, Figure l is a sectional elevation of a cell embodying the invention; and Fig. 2 is a sectional plan view thereof.
ln carrying out this invention We employ a jar A which preferably should be made ot glass. A metal plate E is itted in said jar and rests upon the bottoni thereof, and has a centrally placed upwardly extended stem e which extends out of the top et thejar, and through the cover B thereof, if a cover be used, said stem being provided with a suitable binding .post C. A layer D of blackcopper oxid either loose or in the form of acompressed cake is placed upon this metal plate; and the zinc element G is suspended by Wires g or otherwise either from the sides ot the jar or from the cover thereotE in the upper part of said jar and at a considerable distance above the layer of the copper oxid. As the cell is used there is formed a soluble sodium or potassium zincate which because or its high epeciic gravity sinks to the bottoni of the jar. This substance, as itincreases in quantity andthe` zinc element becomes immersed therein, iiilminlshes the eciency of the cell. By pleeing the Zinc elementl a considerable distance i above the layer ot oxid, the deleterious ef- Specification ci' Letters atent.
August i. i969.
Serial No. 511,666.
fects of the zincate are obviated and in addition, a cell of high internal resistance is obtainel. The electrolyte J is preferably a solution of caustic soda, and its surface is above the upper edge of the zinc element. The zinc element has an upwardly' extended stem g for the connection of a ircuit Wire. A layer of paratlin oil is poured on the surface of the solution to prevent its deterioration from the action oth-e atmosphere.
By the described arrangementsot parts ive obtain a cell ot high internal resistance, so that, 'when the battery current is shun'ted, the drain upon the battery is low. lt is evident also that theparts of cell .may be taken out of the jar Without to take hold of any of the parts iviich have been in the caustic solution.
The reduction of the copper oxid begins at the surface of the vmetal disk E and progresses upwardly throughout the mass, the line between the black oxid and the red copper being marked and distinctly through the sides of the glass The elements and the electrolyte are so proportioned that the copper oxid element is exhausted before the :cinc element is consumed or the electrolyte is spent. Therefore the one in charge of thebatteries, by noting when the vertical surface of the copper oxid (which is visible through the gra has nearly all turned red, may ltnovv that the battery is about to become exhausted, and may, tlieretore,.by then renewing 'the same, prevent the interruption of the service by the failure ost' the cell to act. This cell is obviously of most simple construction, and few-parts, is easily adjusted and requires no special Alinov .lledg'e to keep it in proper condition for action. liioreover, to charge or recharge it does not compel the operator to handle any of the parts whichv have been covered with `the caustic soda solotion. a f
Having described our invention, We claimtf A primary battery comL s, transparent jar, a. metallic plate sap-ported Within jar near the bottoni thereof?, a cor.- ductor attached to said plate, laver o inetallic oxid upon said plate, said oxid being visible throughthe side Walls of the ier,
visible 'whereby the c0101` change of the oXd s vsour signatures in the presence of two Witble s the cell is used, an electrolyte contannesses.
ing y'caustic alkali, a zinc element suspended EDWARD C. SMITH.
in the electrolyte and spaced a considerable EDWARD L. MARSHALL. 5 distance above the layer of oXd for the pur- `Wtnesses:
pose described. GEO. W. HAYNES,
l In testimony whereof, We hereunto afi-1X F. J. GILBEL.