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Publication numberUS1020032 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 12, 1912
Filing dateJul 27, 1903
Priority dateJul 27, 1903
Publication numberUS 1020032 A, US 1020032A, US-A-1020032, US1020032 A, US1020032A
InventorsReginald A Fessenden
Original AssigneeNat Electric Signaling Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Signaling by electromagnetic waves.
US 1020032 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




1,020,032. Patented Mar. 12, 1912.

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Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Mar. 12, 1912.

Application filed July 27, 1903. Serial No. 167,242.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, REGINALD A. FEssEN- DEN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Pittsburgh, in the State of Pennsylvania, have inteated certain new and useful Improvements in Signaling by Electromagnetic I Vaves, of which the following is a specification.

The invention herein described relates to thetransmission and receipt of the energy of el'ectro-magnetic waves and more particularly to improvements in the antennae used for receiving or transmitting the energy of electro-magnetic waves.

' In the accompanying drawing Figures 1 and 2 show diagrams of forms of construction respectively of receiving and sending apparatus according to my invention. Figs. 3 and 4 show side elevations of antennae mounting, the latter being a modification.

In Fig. 1,5, 5 is a horizontal wire or bundle of wires, preferably of iron, preferably insulated, and preferably of small diameter, for example No. 40 B. & S. gage. This wire or bundle of wires is extended horizontally as shown in Fig. 3 and may either rest upon the ground or as there shown is preferably supported at a short distance from the ground, for example two feet, by the insulators 23, 24:, on posts 21, 22. When this form of antenna is used for re oeiving messages, a coil or coils 6, 7, are wound around it, preferably near its center, and the terminals of the coil or coils are connected to a receiver 8 which may be a barretter. 10 is an indicating device which may be a telephone, and 11 a potentiometer means of adjusting the potential in the local circuit 11, 8, 10. The circuit 8, 6, 9, 7, is preferably tuned to the periodicity of the wave which it is desired to receive, and for this purpose the condenser 9 may be used. When this form of antenna is used for sending, as shown in Fig. 2 it is' surrounded, preferably near its center, by a coil 14 which with the condensers 16, 16, and the spark gap 18, forms a circuit for producing oscillations of the desired frequency. 19 is an in-- capacity 16, and changes the period of the' oscillations, and which may also be used as a signaling key which operates by throwaround it and 15 either the receiving or" Gshows the ground sending apparatus. level and 23, 24 are insulators which may be used for supporting the antennae.

, It is to be noted that in the apparatus shown the magnetic or horizontal component of the elctro-magnetic waves is utilized instead of the vertical or eleotro-static component. It is also to be noted that the length of the bundle of iron wires is preferably adjusted so that it is in tune with the wave length of the waves which it is desired to generate or receive.

It is found that a receiving antenna of this form responds only to waves impinging upon it laterally and is not responsive to waves reaching it in the direction in which it lies, hence this form of antenna may be arranged so as to rotate about a vertical axis 26 as in Fig. 4, and be made unresponsive to impulses emanating from a given direction. of use for selective working, and for determining the direction from which the impulses are sent. By the use of a horizontal reflector 27, arranged parallel with the bundle of iron wire 12, 13, and supported on the wire support 25, as shown in Fig. 4:, impulses may be received from one direction only, and this is specifically useful where it is desired to locate accurately the direction from which received impulses are sent. It may also be used for sending strengthened impulses in one direction.

Having thus described my invention and illustrated its use, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is the following:

1. Apparatus for sending or receiving energy by electro-magnetic waves, comprising an antennaformed of wires of magnetic material extending horizontally in prox-. imity to the ground and adapted to operate by directly utilizing the electromagnetic component of the waves.

This method is therefore- 2'. Apparatus for the receipt and transmission of electromagnetic wave energy, comprising an antenna formed of a close bundle of wires, supported horizontally in proximity to the ground and adapted to directly utilize the electromagnetic component of the waves.

3. An antenna for transmission and receipt of electromagnetic wave energy, comprising a close bundle of wires arranged horizontally and adapted to operate directly by the electro-magneticcomponent of the waves, and supported to be rotated in a horizontal plane. 1

4. An antenna for transmission and receipt of elect-ro-magnetic wave energy, formed of wires placed horizontally in proximity to the ground, combined with a horizontally arranged reflector, substantially as described.

I f5. An antenna for transmission and receipt of electro-magnetic wave energy, comprising a horizontal wire, a horizontally pivoted support therefor combined with a reflector mounted parallel with the wire,

. substantially as described.

6. In wireless telegraphy, the combination of a magnetic antenna, a receiver and a coil adapted for receiving by the effects of the magnetic component of the electromagnetic waves, and a condenser in circuit with efiects of the electromagnetic component of the waves, substantially as described. i

8. Apparatus for signaling by electromagnetic waves comprising an antenna placed in position to be most afiected by the electromagnetic component of the waves, and made of magnetic material, combined with a coil surrounding said antenna and forming part of the signaling apparatus.

Signed at Washington in the District of Columbia this 27th day offlJuly, A. D. 1903.



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2581348 *Apr 10, 1948Jan 8, 1952Int Standard Electric CorpAntenna
US2996717 *Feb 6, 1959Aug 15, 1961Hazeltine Research IncWave focusing antenna
US6078298 *Oct 26, 1998Jun 20, 2000Terk Technologies CorporationDi-pole wide bandwidth antenna
DE914984C *Aug 5, 1950Jul 12, 1954Grundig MaxDrehbare magnetische Richtantenne
DE974577C *Aug 4, 1951Feb 16, 1961Rca CorpSpulenantenne hoher Induktivitaet
U.S. Classification342/350, 343/749, 343/882, 343/834, 343/745, 343/886, 343/907, 343/818, 343/787
Cooperative ClassificationH01Q25/02