US 1024476 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
AUGUSTE J. ROSSI, OF NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO THE TITANIUM ALLOY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.,-'A CORPORATION OF I .MAINE.
ARTICLE COMPOSED ESSENTIALIY TITANIUM SILVER METHOD OF PRO- DUGING- THE SAME.
Specification or Letters Patent. Application filed. January 30,1912. Serial No. 674,257.
Patented Apr. 23, 1912.
To all whom 'it may 001mm.-
Be it known that I, AUcUs'rE J. RossI, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Niagara Falls, in the county of Niagara and State of New York, have invented a certain new and useful Article Composed Essentially of Titanium and Silver and "Methods of Producing the Same, of which the following isa specification.
The objects of my present invention comprise the production of a binary alloy of titanium with silver and provision of methods for producing it, so simple and reliable in operation, and so economical, as to justify manufacture on idustrial scales. I attain these objects as hereinafter described. I have discovered that the said binary alloy of titanium with silver is exceptionally useful for the purpose of purifying silver in mass as heretofore produced in the usual processes of manufacture. Silver, while in molten state, absorbs gaseous elements or compounds, which are dissolved in the metal and retained therein as it solidifies during cooling. Forinstance oxy-' gen from the atmosphere is thus very largely absorbed, and, to a great extent, combined chemically with the silver, forming oxids thereof, which, together with oxygen, if any, remaining uncombined, are found occluded in the mass of the solidified metal. The aforesaid foreign elements and compounds are usually unhomogeneouslydistributed in uncontrollable locations throughout the mass. of the metal, thus producing blow-holes or other cavities or pits on the surface. The presence ofsuch impurities and their'resultant imperfections in the metal not only disfigure it for certain purposes for which a high and perfectpolished surface is desired, but
also, after solidification of the metal, tend to subse uent additional deteriorations of the meta, including particularly its continued undesirable oxidation by normal outside influences; The impurities mentioned, and their results on the metal, depreciate its value in mass for many special purposes, as will be read ly understood. I have discovered that the said undesirable impurities can all of. them be eliminated by addin to the silver, while molten, metallic titamum in"amounts proportioned toof molten aluminum to the charge.
satisfy the chemical affinities therefor of such undesired elements and compounds and also properties desirable in some cases imparted by increasing such amount so as to retain in the resulting product a moderate proportionas for instance less than one per cent.- of titanium.
Segregated titanium is still I believe unattainable in quantities sufficient for operations on an industrial scale or at all events unattainable except at too great cost. Moreover the peculiarcharacteristic properties of titanium, as compared with those ,charge into a graphite crucible, or other container properly adapted, some silver 'sufiicient on being melted to form a small supporting or initiatory bath of that metal.
To such silver I add an oxid of silver, for.
instance Ag O, and also titanic acid mixed therewith in such proportions'as, on reduction, taken together with the silver of the bath, to impart to the resulting alloy the desired respective proportions of the two metals. To the said sllver and mixture of oxids I also add such an, amount of aluminum (preferably in shots or the like so as to melt more'rapidly) as is chemically sufficient to decompose the oxids of silver and of titanium and reduce their respective titanium and silver contents to their metallic states. This mixture is then heated b any convenient'means to a point at whic the aluminum melts, thereby supplying a bfizlh e additional heat developed bythe reduction of the oxid of silver by the aluminum rapidly raises the charge to 'a temperature r uired to set 11 the reduction of the end of titanium y the aluminum; which then proceeds until the reduction of all the oxide present is completed. Care should be reactions to which the latter is due being as per the following formulae, assuming that Ag O is the oxid of silver employed I prefer to employ the foregoing method largely because of its economy, the cost of the oxid requisite to produce the required amount of silver being considerably less than that of such amount .of silver in metallic form, and also because the heat of formation of oxid of silver is so small compared to that of the formation of aluminum oxid as to leave a large surplus of heat immediately applicable to the reduction of the oxid of titanium whereby the reactions are promoted and accomplished at a considerably less expenditure of external heat than required Where silver altogether is alone employed in the charge. It will be understood, however, that the said alloy may be produced, though not so advantageously, by substantially the process above referred to by using as the argentic material in the process above referred to metallic silver exclusively, or, on the other hand, by using as such argentic material oxid of silver exclusively. The molten product on being withglrawn and cooled will be found to be an alloy of titanium and silver, the percentage of the former being proportional to the amounts of titanium oxid and aluminum charged.
My said alloy of titanium and silver may also, though not so advantageously, be produced by substituting carbon for aluminum as the reducing agent, in which case it is essential, in industrial practice, to employ such high temperatures as are derivable from some of the now well known forms of electric furnaces, such for example as illustrated and described in Letters Patent No. 802,941, granted to me October 24, 1905. In this case, oxid of silver, oxid of titanium, and carbon are employed as per the formulae:-
The said ingredients, either with or without some metallic silver as may be preferred,
are changed in said furnace and the current turned on. This will result in production of a bath of molten silver, and the current being continued the titanium oxid will be reduced to titanium which mingles or dissolves in said bath of silver to constitute the said alloy. In this instance, like the foregoing, the addition of silver in metallic state, though not absolutely necessary, facilitates the reduction of the titanium oxid by the carbon and it will of course be understood that the alloy may be thus produced by using as the only argentic material of the charge metallic silver.
The proportions of the ingredients used in the charge will be varied according to the percentage of the respective metals desired in the alloy according tothe formulas above given and as experience and test in each case will readily demonstrate to those skilled in the metallurgical art is required for the particular'purpose for which the alloy is to be used.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is the following, viz
1. As a new article an alloy of titanium with silver.
2. The method of producing an alloy of titanium with silver which comprises incorporating titanic acid into a bath of molten silver in-presence of a reducing agent, subjecting the bath to a temperature sufficient to insure reduction of-said titanic acid by said agent, and withdrawing and cooling the resulting metallic product.
3. The method of producing an alloy of titanium with silver which comprises bringing together argentic material, titanic acid and carbon, and subjecting the combination to a temperature suiiicient to insure production therefrom of molten silver and molten aluminum.
4. The method of producing an alloy of titanium with silver which comprises bringing together oxid of silver, oxid of titanium and carbon, and subjecting the combination 7 to a temperature sufiicient to insure reduction of said oxids by said carbon and then withdrawing and cooling the resulting metallic product.
aueus'rn J. uossr.
WALTER D. EoMoNos, PHILIP C. Pack.