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Publication numberUS1032172 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 9, 1912
Filing dateMar 22, 1910
Priority dateMar 22, 1910
Publication numberUS 1032172 A, US 1032172A, US-A-1032172, US1032172 A, US1032172A
InventorsErnesto Zollinger
Original AssigneeErnesto Zollinger
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for reducing the size of pictures on kinematograph-films and of projecting such pictures to their normal proportions.
US 1032172 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


APPLICATION FILED MAR. 22, 1910. 1,032, 172. Patented July 9, 1912.



rnocnss ron nnnocme THE SIZE or rrc'runns- ON KINEMATOGBAPH-FILMS AND. on


Specification of Letters Patent. Application filed March 22. 1910. Serial No. 550,915.

Patented .mlye, more.

To all-whom it may concern:

' Be it known that I, ERNESTO ZoLLINqER, a citizen of Switzerland, residing at Turin, in the Kingdom of Italy, have inventeda new and useful Process for Reducing the Size of Pictures on Kine'matograph-Film's andof Projecting such Pictures to Their Normal Proportions, of which the followingis a specification.

Kinematograph films at present. in use generally consist of celluloid bands or ribbons having a width of about mm. and

a forward movement of about 19 mm and the size of the pictures on them is usually 25 mm. in width and a height equal to the forward movement of the band, namely 19 mm. These films are long and expensive, and there is no other practical way of reducing their cost than that of reducing the size of the individual pictures upon the films, since any reduction of the films in;

width, or the extent of their movement would entail a change, or rather an important modification of the machines now in use, which it is naturally desirable to avoid.

The present invention has for its object size, namely 25 mm. by 9.50 mm. by reducing its width. 2. The picture on the film is,

reduced to one-half the size, namely 12.50 mm. by 19 mm. b reducing its height.

In both cases t e size and shape of the projected picture when used in machines as used at present would no longer be in proportion to the customary projections, as it would only cover one-half ofthe field on the screen, either vertically or horizontally. This is avoided'in my invention by employing an ordinary deformer such as is well known and used in photography, the deformation being produced either by cylindrical lenses or by one or several prisms, comblned. The procedure is as follows:

the first place the deformnr is inserted into the optical system of the machine employed for taking the pictures. It is, of'course, possible to reduce the pictures to any dimensions, but for the. reasons previously stated, a deformer will be chosen giving just a. half reduction of one of the sides relatively to the other. According to the arran ement given to the deformer in this machme there will be obtained a deformation in height (vertical) or in width (horizontal) of the picture, that is to say a reduction to one-half its area without in any way diminishing the photographic field, 2". e. the amplitude of the scene which it is desired to reproduce. These pictures thus deformed. when developed and the positives made therefrom, will be projected by employing the same or a like deformer, said deformer added to the objective of the projecting apparatus, thus producing an 'inverse and equal deformation to the original one, and consequently obtaining on the screen projected pictures of the normal size and undeformed;

In the accompanying drawingFigure 1 shows an'ordinary film, Fig. 2 shows a'negative film obtained in accordance with the present'invention, where the deformed pictures have been reduced to one half: their height, and, Fig. 3' shows a corresponding positive film.

In the case referre :to in which the pictures occupy aspace mm. by 9.50 mm., their arrangement on theifil'm, will be as follows: The forward movement of the film in cameras at present in use being about 19 mm.

that is to say, double the height of the pictures, it will be necessary to employ a shield or screen of one-half the usual height, so that there will remain upon the negative film, between eachtwo consecutive pictures,

depicted by the hatching a, an empty space b (Fig. 2), that is .to say, an interval not exposed, of the same heightas the pictures f the same direction.


The positive film (Fig. 3) 1s then made from one, two, or several such negatives. First one of these negatives 1s prlnted by an apparatus having a forward movement of 19 mm, after having modified the frame to the height of the negative image. Then the positive film is displaced relat vely to the negative a distance equal to one-half its travel, (two holes, for there are usually four holes in the total height of the picture of an ordinary film,) and the second part of the negative is printed upon the empty spaces or intervals not expose either reversed or in The projecting apparatus moves this printed positive film the normal distance for each exposure, 2'. 6., double the he1ght of a picture on it, and will be provided w1th a corresponding shield or screen, so that in the first operation the pictures a having odd numbers will be projected on the screen, and in the second operation those having even numbers designated 0 in Fig. 3 will be projected, or vice versa, and accordingto one or both of the cases indicated the projections of the two series (generally two different scenes) will commence either at the same end of the film or at opposite ends.

If it were desired to have the pictures of one scene consecutive on the film, it would be necessary to change, reduce to half, the amount of movement upon all projecting machines if the existing system of perforation be retained, or to adopt a new system of perforatlon in conformity to the reduced height of the pictures on the new films, for example, one hole for each picture oneach side, that is to say a system of perforation in which the holes are double the distance apart of those now in use.

In the second case above indicated in which the pictures are reduced to one-half width, namely 12.50 mm. by 19 mm. the negatives are copied on the longitudinal half of the film, right or left. Thus a positive film is obtained by printing the two halves of the negative over the two longitudinal halves of the positive film, reversed in direction or not, as desired. There will thus be obtained on the same film two columns of pictures, representing generally two different scenes. This fact sometimes presents in conveniences, especially when selling or lending films, as it causes'an increase in price, so that it is desirable not to have two columns of pictures upon the same-film, as in the case above described. This is remedied by cutting these ositives longitudinally into two .on their median line forming the vertical separation of these two scenes. Thus two positives are obtained,

their sides.

each of one-half width, furnished with a sin 1e row of perforations on only one of The projection of these narrow bands will be facilitated by the employment of guides in the' place of the missing half.

To economize time in the making of these films it is advantageous to make a counter type negative, that is to say, to print, in the manner indicated, a positive regular in density and complete. From this first positive a second negative is made which is now double and of uniform density. With this double negative (which can be divided into parts according to the size of the developin frames or according to the manner employ for developing,) definite positives are made exactly as with a simple negative with the advantage of printing two pictures at the same time and without requiring to change the light after each part.

Finally, it is to be remarked that ordinary negatives can be utilized, such as are obtained by old methods, in conjunction with the present invention, by inserting during the exposure between the said negatives and the positives being exposed the same deformer or reducer used in taking pictures in the present process.

- In lieu of deforming the picture on the negative by the reduction to one-half of one of its sides, the contrary method of working may be used, that is to say, to employ in the machine for taking the pictures an object glass capable of giving with the same photographic field a picture having both sides half the dimensions of ordinary pictures, in combination with a deformer enlarging only one of the two sides, either the horizontal or the vertical side. There will thus be obtained a negative identical with that obtained in the manner above described. The rest of the procedure remains unvaried.

I claim- 1. The art of producing moving pictures, which comprises deforming the picture on the film by reducing one of its dimensions to a fraction thereof and projecting the deformed picture through. a deformer to reconstruct the projection to normal proportions.

2. The art of producing moving picturesfwhich comprises deforming the picture on the film by reducing its vertical dimension to a fraction of its height without reducing the optical field, and projecting the picture through a deformer to reconstruct the projection to normal proportions.

3. The art of producing moving pictures, which comprises deforming the pictures on the film by reducing their vertical dimension to a fraction of their height Without reducing the optical field and without reducing the travel of the film, thereby forming a series of pictures having interspaces between the individual pictures on a fraction of the same dimensions of the 2.;

the film and producing a similar series of normal picture. deformed pictures in said interspaces, and In witness whereof I have herelmto set projecting the ictures through adeformer my hand in presence oftwo witnesses. 5' to reconstruct t e projection to normal pro- ERNESTO ZOLLINGER". portions.

4, In the art of projecting moving pic-- Witnesses: tures, a film-having pictures thereon de- A EUGENIO G. B. COSETIA formed to reduce one of their dimensions to JocELYN O. SOUBEYRAN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2445982 *May 20, 1944Jul 27, 1948Vitarama CorpGunnery training apparatus
US2554532 *Jul 11, 1946May 29, 1951Relief Lyon FranceStereoscopy
US3014402 *Mar 23, 1953Dec 26, 1961Twentieth Cent Fox Film CorpRecording and reproducing of pictures enhancing the illusion of realism
US3046832 *Feb 5, 1958Jul 31, 1962Kamera & Kinowerke Dresden VebMethod for producing and projecting motion pictures
US3396021 *Dec 26, 1963Aug 6, 1968TechnicolorMethod of making wide screen motion pictures
US3425775 *Oct 11, 1966Feb 4, 1969Cct Cinema Camera Technik AgStereo projector
US3482908 *May 15, 1967Dec 9, 1969John E MccormickTechnique for producing 3-d motion pictures
US3583803 *Dec 16, 1968Jun 8, 1971Anthony L ColeMotion picture process and motion picture film having wide-screen aspect ratio frames
US3637297 *Jan 21, 1970Jan 25, 1972Shigeo YoshidaReduced-size motion picture films and the photographing and projection thereof
US3751144 *Jun 3, 1971Aug 7, 1973Constantin GmbhCopying cinematographic film
US3998545 *Mar 26, 1975Dec 21, 1976Optivision Inc.Anamorphic enlarging system
US5534954 *Mar 31, 1994Jul 9, 1996United Artists Theatre Circuit, Inc.Motion picture system
US5739895 *Jan 11, 1996Apr 14, 1998United Artists Theatre Circuit, Inc.Film saving system
WO1983002502A1 *Jan 10, 1983Jul 21, 1983Blake LarryImprovement of motion picture image quality
WO1993012456A1 *Dec 9, 1992Jun 24, 1993United Artists Theatre CircuitMotion picture system for economical replication, consolidation, duplication and exhibition of wide screen formats
WO1997013243A2 *Oct 2, 1996Apr 10, 1997Todd Ao CorpSound system for compact distribution print
U.S. Classification352/44, 352/232, 355/52, 352/239
Cooperative ClassificationG03B35/00