|Publication number||US1033186 A|
|Publication date||Jul 23, 1912|
|Filing date||Sep 22, 1911|
|Priority date||Sep 22, 1911|
|Publication number||US 1033186 A, US 1033186A, US-A-1033186, US1033186 A, US1033186A|
|Original Assignee||August Merckens|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
APPLIOATION FILED sBPT.z2, 1911,
Patented July 23, 1912.
s sHETs-SHEHT 1.
AIRSHIP. MPLIGATION FILED $1312.22, 1911.
s SHEETS-SHEET 2.
/ ATTORNEY Patented July 23, 1912.
IRsHIP. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 22, 1911.
Patented July 23; 1912.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
AUGUST MERCKENS, F NEW YORK, N. Y.
, .AIRSHIR T0 all 1J/Lam it may concern:
le 1t known that I, AUGUST Mnnonnns, a
' citizen of the United States, residing in the borough of Brooklyn, county of Kings, city and Slate of New York, have invented an Improvement in Airships, of which the following is a specification.
Uy invention relates to airships and particularly to that class of airships in which are employed a combination of heavier than air and lighter than air structures.
In carrying out my invention I employ a car, a plurality of balloons or gas containers,
a framework, a plurality of planes, some of which are fixed relatively to the frame and some of which are movable therein, the said framework securing together the car, the balloons or gas containers and the said planes, and I also provide means for lifting and propelling the airship in flight.
The car of the airship made in accordance with my' invention is preferably arranged to carry both passengers and freight, and to contain an engine-room, and the car is also mounted upon trucks upon which the entire airship structure rests when upon the ground.
The balloons /or gas containers which I prefer to employ in my improved airship are of the Zeppelin type and each is made with a plurality of separate compartments, all of which can be independently supplied with gas from the source of supply in the engineroom in the car, from which place also the supply of gas to these separate compartments is also ctatrolled.
I may also employ one or more main planes which preferably extend between the balloons or gas containers, or some of them;
steering planes both vertical-'and horizontal,
the former ofcourse for guiding the airship in its course from one side to the other,
'l and unexpected gusts of windV and like Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed September 22, 1911.
Patented July 23, 1912.
Serial N o. 650,685.
and others -employed for driving the airship horizontally in its flight, all of which will be hereinafter more particularly described.
In the drawing, Figure l is a-plan view of my improved air-ship. Fig. 2.is.a rear elevation and front partial cross section of the same, the cross section being taken through a part of the car; and Fig. 8 is a side elevation of the airship.
Referring to the drawing, my improved airship comprises a car 10, which is made of any suitable material and preferably divided into several compartments, the compartments 11 and 12 running along the sides of the car and being fitted up as passenger coml part-ments, while the cent-ral compartment 13 contains the engine-room and rooms for..
freight or merchandise to be transferred from one point to another. The car 1() is provided with trucks 14 in which wheels 15 are Xed and upon which latter the car and all the superstructure ofthe airship rest and may be moved when on t-he ground. I also employ a plurality of balloons or gas containers, and 1n the drawing I haveillustrated three of these, the one indicated at 16 being relatively larger `.than the balloons indicated at17 and 18. Each of these balloons is made up of a plurality of independent gas-bags or containers, placed within a common envelop, as is old in the art.
The central portion of each of the balloons is 4pointed or tapering at both its ends. At.
the rear end of the balloon l16,-the same is provided with a series of laterally projecting tins 19 and planes 20, extending between and connected with the said fins 19 vto assist in lending stability of position to the said-v balloon. Similarly bot-h ballonns 17 and18 at their rear ends are provided with laterally projecting tins 21 and intermediate planes 22.
23 designates a frame which may be of pressed steel or any -other suitable material' provided with bands 24 passing around the balloon 16, and bands 25, 26, passing relatively-around the balloons 17 andA 18,' this framework beig preferably formed with a central rib indicated at 27 to strengthen the sameffthe form of the frame ,being such 18, is centrally disposed and placed above. the balloons` 17 and 178, so that while all thel over the top or roof oft-he Carli). It' will' be understood, however, that the relation- 'ship'between the planes 35' 'and 35', and the balloons 16, 17 and 18,` as'hereinbefore de-4 scribed, may be LVaried to suit necessary requirements without departing from the nature;` and spirit-of my invention.y Y
36 represents an v.auxiliary plane,'one end,
balloons through their buoyancy produce a lifting effect, the greater portion of the Work is done by the balloon 16, the balloons 17 and 18 acting also to steady the'airship to maint-ain the car in as nearlya horizontal position as possible. The iframe 23 is also preferably strengthened by the use of the guy rods 28.
In a suitable position in the engine-room or compartment 13, I employ a tank or receptacle 29 as a reservoir for gas under pressure. Extending from this tank 29 are pipes 3G, each one ci which leads to one of the separate compartments in the balloon 16. Also leading from the tank 29 are pipes 31, 32, each of which relatively leads to the separate compartments in the balloons 17 and 18. In each of the pipes 30, 31, and 32, is a cock and connected to each pipe 30, 31, and 32, is a gage 34. By means of thc gage 34, the pressure in each and every compartment of the balloons may be'ascertained and by the cocks 33 the lgas pressure in these compartments of the balloons may be regulated and controlled. Y
Connected to the frame 23 in. any suitable manner, and extending between Ithe balloons 17 and 18, I employ main planes 35 afnd. These planes are respectively of the same area and in width as hereinbeore stated, extend between the balloons 17 and 18', Iand in length are` ap}` roximately equal to, the
length ot the cylindrical portion of the bal-,- loons 17 and 18. The upper lmainplantel-zii i is at or about` a leyel with the top ofthe balloons 1,7 and 18 and the lowermainplane 35 is at or aboutl a level with 4tlieulw/er portion of the balloons 17 and 18, the upper main plane 35 extending beneathA theballoon 16 andthe lower main plane'35-extending of which "is pivotally connected, as indicated at 37, to the-bands 25 which form a part of the frame 23which 'passes around the g balloon ,17. ,The outer end of this auxiliary plane y36. at suitable points adjacentto its corners," is provided with eyeeces 38, which. extend both above .and eloW the plane. Rods 39 in which there are springs 40, are connected-at one end to those parts Lof the eye-pieces 38 above the plane 36, and
at the opposite end to the eyes 41 which are secured in the bands 25. Rods 42 in which therc'are springs 3, are connected at one end to those parts of the eyefpieces 38 below` the plane 36 and at. the opposite end lto the eyes 44 'which are. also secured to nosaies the bands 25 beloivthe balloons 1T. Simithere is a plano 46 which is also rectangular and pii'otally connected at one longitudinal edge, as indicated at 47, to the-bands 2G, forming part of the frame 23, which extend around the balloons 18. plane 46 is also provided adjacent to its outer corners with eye-pieces 48. Rods 49' in which there are springs 50 are connected at one end to those parts of the eyepieces 48 above the plane 46 and at the opposite ends, in eyes 51 which are secured in the bands 2G above the balloon 18. There are als rods 52 in which are springsr53, the rods 52 being connected at. one end to those parts of the eye-pieces 48 below the plane 4G and at the opposite ends in eyes 54 Which are secured in the bands 26 belowY the balloon 18, it being understood that by this construction, the auxiliary planes 3G "and 4G may swing on Atheir pivotal points by the yielding of the springs 40, 43, or 50 and 53, and this movement of these planes is called into play When sudden gusts lol" Wind are encountered or a rapid change in theV .course ofhght 1s necessary, and assists 1n 'maintaining the car, and for that matter the entireship, in 'a horizontal position, these vplanes 36 and. 46 being yieldingly'- held in .a normal position; which-1s horizontal, by means of the springs 40, 43, 50, and As will alsobe understood, the car 10 is suit ablyconnected to the frame' l23, and brackets 55 may be employed at the points of connection'to strengthen the structure. f At the rear of the airship, extending from the frame 23,011 `both sidesmf the balloon 16,- are frame members'v 56`and 57. These' are preferably. inclined; downwardly and at their outerends' are'connected to a steering gear frame v58. y v l .59v represents a series of Vertical `.steering planes, each of which at. corresponding sides,
is pivot-ally connected Iin the steering plane frame :58.*-J Adjacent to their outer edgesy and preferably along the bottoni. edge, each [of these steering planes 59is pivotally con-l nected to a rod or bar 60,y sothat byfrnoving one plane 1vor fthebar 60,' al1 of the other .planes will fbefcaused to move and further to alwaysassume a parallel' .relationship to one another. The outerplane 59 on the left hand'side of theship, is connected to one endv of a-cord o-r chain 61, and the outer plane 59 onY the right hand side of the ship, is connected to'one end` of a cord or chain 62. These cords or cha-ins 61,' 62, pass over This auxiliary the exterior `and verticall portion of the.
vframe 58,01` through grooves or pulleys in the same and also respectively over the'pulleys 63, 64, and lead 'to a suitab e steering wheel or other device not shown, by means of Whichthe position of the planes 59 may CIT aoesgise be determined to cause the airship to move directly ahead or toY turn either to the right or to theleft.
In the front of the airship and also connected to and extendingL from the frame 23, there are frame members and 66, extending between and pivotally mounted in which is a series of horizontal steering planes 67, each plane 67 being provided adjacent to its long edge with a rod 68 which passes through and-is pivotally mounted in the trame members 65 and 66. These horizontal steering planes are connected at their outer edges With a rod 67 in a manner which is similar to that in which the rod l60 connects the Vertical steering planes-59, andA the .upper and lower horizontal steering nes 67 are each connected to the-ends of trie' cords 69 and 69 which pass over suitable pulley wheels to a steering" Wheel, which is not shown, but by which the position ot the horizontal steering planes may be determined. The use of the horizon-tal steering plane 67, as will be understood, is tocause the airship to ascend or descend in flight.
In the engine room of the car, as. illustrated, there are two eightl cylinder hydrocarbon engines, indicated at 7 0 and 71. rllhe shaft of the engine 70 is connected through the lgears 72 and 73, through the shaft 74 which passes through the roof of the car, through the lower mainplane 35,.through bearings 75 and 7 6, through the upper main plane 35, and carries at its upper extremity a propeller 77. Similarly theshaft of the engine 7l is connected through the gears 78,
79, to the shaft 80, which like the shaft' 74, passes :through the roof of the car, the lower plane, bearings 8Q through the upper plane and atits upper end carries a pro- ,peller 81. The shafts 74 and 8O are preferably of such a length that the propeller-s 77 and Sl are appreciably above the top ot" the balloon 16. The shaft of the engine 70 through the gear 7 2 and gear 82, is connected with a counter-shaft 83, which through the gears 84 is connected with a propeller shat't 85'extending from the front of the airship and having fixed at its outer end'a propeller 86, and the shaft of the engine 7l is connected by the gears 78 and 87 to a counter shaft 88, and the counter-shaft 88 through the gears 89 is connected to a propeller shaft 90 which also extends outwardly from the front of the air-ship andat its` extremity carries a propeller 91, similar to the propeller 86.
The engine 71 may drive a propeller 98 at the rear ofthe airshi-p, the shaft ot the engine 71 being connected to the countershaft 93 by the gears 78 and 92, and the counter-shaft- 93 connected to a second counter-shaft 95 from the gears 94, the counter-shaft 95 being connected to a propeller shaft 9-7'by the gears 96,the propeller 98 being' secured tothe end ofi the shaft 97.
It Will be understoody that the-balloons 16 and 17, andi 18,v are so; designed' that the buoyancy thereof practicallyconnterbalances the other' parts of. the ai-nship together with any passengers, freight or cargo-Which it` may be designed to carry, so that the lifting and propellingI machinery has only to performl thesefunctions, the propellers 77, and 8l, being employed'to raise-the airship and the Propellers 86, 91, and 98` being employedto move it ini High-t, it being understood that any suitable means which orms no part of my invention, may be employed to connect and disconnect the several propellers to their relative-engines, so that any one' or more of the .propellers may be actuated at the same tiim-e.
l claim as my invention:
l. An airship comprising car, aplus' rality of gasv containers, a plurality :ft outwardly diverging longitudinally email-ding tinsl on each side of the rear end of each of t said gas containers, a plurality of' angularly i disposed; vertical fixed 'rudder' planesv inte-r- -mediate the outer edges of the Saidf tins, a trame in' which said gas containers are se- :cured and to which the car is fixed, a plu-- rality of planes fixed. to the sai-d frame,
:auxiliary .side planes eachy pivotally conjlnected to turn on its side next adjacent to t-hesaid :tram-e7 andi means for yieldingly jhold-ing thev said auxiliary sidfev planes in their normal positions.
2. An airship comprising' ar car, a `frame- Work towhich. the'car .is secure-d, a-'relativel'fy large gas' container fixed to the said frame above the can, relatively smaller gas. containersixed in the said frame at both sides of the said relatively'largegas container` a ofl eachfot' said'gas containers-,a plurality of;F angularly disposed vertical tixedrudder `planes intermediate the outer edgesv of each pair of fins, the gas containers being arrangedparallel to one another, afplura'lityof planes'iixed in the said frame, auxiliary planes pivoted along the sides' ot'. the said frame, and means for yieldingly holding the said side planes in their normal positions.
3. An airship comprising a car, a framework to Which the said car is secured, a relatively large gas container fixed in said frame above the car, relatively smaller gas containers lixed in said frame on both sides of said relatively large gas container, the said gas containers being arranged parallel to one another, a pair of outwardly diver-ging longitudinally extending fins on each side ot thc rear end offea'ch of said gas containers, a plurality of angularly disposed vertical lixed rudder planes intermediate the t of each pair of tins, a
work to which the said carie outer edges or eaeli pair of tins'7 a plurality of 'planes 4.lined in ,said frame, auxiliary planes pivoted alongthe sides of the said frame, means for yieldingly holding the said side planes in their normal positions7 vand means for propelling the airship.
Il. An airsliip comprising a. ear, a iranie- ,vrrlr` to which the said oar is secured, a plurality of containers, each comprising a multiplicity of gas compartments. means tor separately supplyinggas to eachone of the several gas compartments of the containers7 a pair of outwardly dii/erging longitudinally extending fins on each side of the rear end of each of said gas containers7 a plurality of angularly disposed vertical fixed rudder planes intermediate the outer edges plurality of fixed planes secured tothe said frame, yielding planes pivotally connected along the sides of `the frame so as to turn about pivotal line parallel with the direction of Hight, and means for propelling tlie airsliip.
5. An airship comprising' a ear, a framework to which the said car is securetL a relatively large gas container lifted in said :trame above the car, relatively smaller gas containers fixed in said iframe on Y relatively large gas contain r, the said gas containers being arranged parallel to one another, a pair of outwardly dii.y ging longitudinally extending line on side ol tlie .rear end of eacli oli said gaas emitainers a plurality of angular-ly disposedl vertical fixed rudder planes intermediate the outer edges of eaclis pair oii iins, plurality oif planes tix-:ed in said frame, yielding planes pivotally connected along' the sides of talloiralne so as to turn. about a pivotal line parallel with the direction of flight, and ineens for propelling the airsliip. 6. in airsliip comprising a car, a .tramesecured,l a rela tively large `gas container lined in said frame aboveftlie car., relativelysmaller gas containers lin-ed in said frame on 'ootiisides of said @oplei ci this may be obtained ferfive cents each, by addressing the uotli sides of said f l l 1 l l i i a i .waaien :relatively large gas container, a pair of outf Wardly diverging longitudinally extending Afins on'eacli side of the rear en of each of said gas containers7 a plurality of singularly disposed vertical fixed rudder planes intermediate the outer edges of each pair of iins, the said containers beingarranged parallel to one another, a plurality of planes-fixed in said frame, auxiliary planes pivotally connected along the sides of the frame so as to turn ona pivotal line parallel tothe di rection of flight, means botliabove and below each of the said auxiliary planes for yielding-ly holding the same in their normal positions, a plurality of propellers, an engine in the said car, devices connecting the said engine with said propellers for driving the saine.,
Y. in airship comprising a car7 a frameivorl: to which 'the said car is' secured, a relatively lage gas container ixed in the `said frame above the car. relatively smaller gas containers fixed in said frame on bot-l1 sides of said relatively large gas container, the said gas containers beingT arranged pai-alle1 to one another, a pair of outwardly diverging longitudinally extending tins on each side of the rear end of eaca of said gas containers, a plurality of angularly disposed vertical iixedy rudder planes intermediate the outer edges oi' each pair of tins, a plurality of planes fined in said frame, auxiliary planes pivotall y 'connected along the sides of the frame so as to turn on a pivotal linepa'rallel to the direction of flight means both above and bciow each of the said auxiliaiy planes for yieldingly holding the saine in their normal positionsr` a lifting propeller, a driving pro* peller, an engine and connections between the said engine and propeller-s for driving the latter.
Signed by me this th day of Sept. lQlL AUGUST MERCKFJNS. ld-Titnesses Jannes F. Gefrieren, W. H. BLUHM.
'oiumissianer o1" @atenta Washington, E. C.
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