US 1035678 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. H. BELCHER L F. D. WILSON. PAPER MAKING MACHINE AND METHOD 0F DRYING PAPER.
APPLIUATION FILED SEPT. 7,1909.
Patented Aug 13, 1912 4 BHEETS-BHEET 1 Zwar/i021 T. H. BELGHBR da F. D. WILSON. PAPER MAKING MACHINE AND METHOD 0F DBYING PAPER.
APPLIOATIOR FILED SEPT. 7. 1909` Patented Aug. 13,1912.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
T. H. BELCHBR & P. D. WILSON.
ACHIN AND METHOD 0F DRYING PAPER.
1,035,678. Patented 13,1912. v 4 B B"SHI1.`T3.K
PAPER 'MAKLNG M APPLIUATION FILED SEPT. 7 1009.
T. H. BELCHER & F. D. WILSON. PAPER MAKING MACHINE AND MBTHODOF DRYING PAPER.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 7, 1909. 1,035,678. Patented Aug. 13,1912.
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'yq/wud@ I l Y 5 71?@ @Wwawwg UNITED STATES raTENT oFiiicE.
THOMAS H. BELCHER,
OF CHICAGO, AND FRANK D. WILSON, OF OAK PARK, ILLINOIS; SAID 'BELCHER ASSIGNOR TO 'SAID WILSON.
PAPER-MAKING MACHINE AND METHOD OF DRYING PAPER.
lSi'ieeiicetion of Letters Patent.
Patented Aug. 13, 1912.
Application filed September 7, 1909. 4Serial No. 516,567.
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that we,TH0MAs H. BELcHEii and FRANK D. WILSON, both citizens of the United States, and residents, respectively, of Chicago and Oak Park, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented certain new'and useful Improvements` in Paper-Making Machines and Methods of Drying laper, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to the general art of paper-making, and has reference more particularly to improvements in the manner and means of effecting the drying of the paper web in a cylinder machine between the squeezing rolls and the receiving reel or calendering rolls Where the latter are employed.
As is well known, it has heretofore been necessary, in this type 0f machine, to pass the damp web over and in contact with drying rolls, which are ordinarily heated internally by steam, in oi'der to drive out the. moisture and present the pa ceiving reel in a perfectly try condition; and to insure the complete expulsion of the moisture a long series 'of such heated rolls, between and over which the paper webV travels comparatively slowly, has been necessary. These drying rolls ai'e usually arranged in two or more rows or series, one above the other. and in staggered or alternatingrelation, with the paper web traveling in a zig-zag course back and forth between tlie rolls of the series. The heating of the damp web in this manner through direct contact with the liot drying rolls causes the web to give ott' large volumes of steam and vapor; and by reason of the fact that the arrangement of the cylinders is such as to form, with the web passing tliereover, a series of pocket-like spaces which are constantly filled withsuch steam and vapor, the drying of the web is considerably impeded by the presence of the moisture therein contained which finds no adequate means of escape and is largely rfi-absorbed into the web. This is especially true of those pockets which are closed at their upper ends by the cylinders. Of course, the alternate pockets. which are open at their u per ends, are less subject to this undesirab e condition, since they afford a somewhat freer-means of, escape for the steam and hot moist airgenerated therein; but nevertheless they hinder to a considerable extent the free escape of the moisture from t-lie vicinity of the upper surface of the web and to that extent im )ede the drying action. Heretofore it has lieen the practice in some cases to dispose" of the cloud of steam rising from the apparatus by means of a hood overliangiiig the entire series of rolls and provided with a suctioncreating device, but this has been chiefly for the purpose of preventing the room from becoming filled with the steam, and docs not prevent to any appreciable extent the re-absorption of the steam and moisture by the web, especially as regards the lower series of pockets, which are closed at. their upper ends. This condition is productive of another serioiis fault in machines of this character. Owing to the fact that the marginal portions of the web, by reason of tlie-ir iuoie exposed position, re-absorb less of this partially confined steam and vapor, such inarginal portions dry out more rapidly thani the intermediate portion of the web, thus putting such marginal portions under greater tension, which frequently results 1n the breaking of the web, causing great delay and inconvenience.
'lhe purpose of the present invention is to cure these evils in machines of this type; and the principle upon which the invention proceeds involves the removal of the steam and vapor collecting in these pockets by positive means located in the pockets themselves. v
In the most practical form of the invention which we have devised, the removal of the moisture from the lower pockets, or those presenting closed upper ends, 1s
through the agency of suction, while thev moisture collecting in the upper pockets is removed through the agency of a blast of dry air directed against the portions or sections of tlie web forming the side walls of the pocket. This dry air blast may be supplied from any suitable source, but preferably it is the liot suction draft drawn from the lower pockets with the moisture removed tlierefronrby a condenser or any other suitable air-drying device. To prevent tlie breaking in two of the web from the cause above referred to, the removal of the steam and vapor is so effected as to cause the intermediate portion of the web to dry out removed for the sake paper web between the receiving reel or and between the supporting walls 11. As is well known, a large number of these cylinders are at present required to effect a thorough drying of the paper web, this number increasing with the speed at which the web iscaused to travel therethrough', so that, in order to increase the capacity of a machine bya speedier operation thereof, it has been necessary to increase the number of drying cylinders employed, and, conversely, any decrease in' the number of cylindeis employed is atthe expense of'its speed of operation land consequently -of its capacity. The passage of the dam-p web over these heated cylinders is accompanied,- of course, by the expulsion of a large'amount of steam and vapor which thoroughly saturates the air at leastevenly with the marginal portions, and preferably slightly more rapidly, since a slightly greater contraction of and tenslon in the intermediate portion does ngt create any danger of breakage and positively insures against breakage at the margins.
To facilitate a clear understanding of our invention and its mode of application and operation, we present `herewith drawings, which show that portion of the paper-making machine which e'ects the drying of the the squeezing rolls and calendering rolls, having applied thereto an apparatus capable of satisfactorily eectuating the purposes of the invention and representing one practical mechanical 'embodiment thereof.
In these drawings-Figure 1 is a to plan View, showing our improvements app ied to the removal of steam and'vapor from, and the introduction of dry air to, the lower surface of the web only. f Fig. 2 is aside elevation of the apparatus as shown in Fig. 1, with the supporting frame and journals of the cylinders on the side nearest the observer of greater clearness. Fig. 3 is an endxelevation as viewed from the right of Fig. 2, in cross-section through the floor and side walls of the usual underof the lower and upper pocket-like spaces 18v and 18 which are formed between each cylinder and the sections of the web lying between the samel and the two cylinders of the opposite series on either'side thereof hinders to a considerable extent the free escape of the steam and moisture-laden air, with the result that a considerable portion of the moisture driven off by the heat of the cylindersis re-absorbed into the web. This condition is especially aggravated in the lyin pit. Fig. 4 is a side elevational view Acase of the lower seriesof pockets 18 which simi ar to Fig.` 2, showing the application are closed at their upper ends by the upper of moisture-removing means to the upper cylinders 15, since the natural tendency of -staggered or alternating relation to the cylinders 14. which ,heated cylinders or drums 14 and 15, the
tie steam and hot moist air is to rise. As
surface of the web. Fig. 5 is a fragmentary above pointed out, this condition of affairs top plan view of Fig.,4. Fig. 6 1s an end elevation as viewed from the right of Fig. also produces uneven drying of different 4, in cross-section through the floor and side trzinsyerse portions of the web, since vthe walls of the underlying pit. Figs. 7 and 8 marginal portions of the latter, being in the are details in elevation at right angles to region ofthe open ends of the pockets, dry i each other of a practical form 0f condenser niore rapidly than the intermediate portion, which may be used for drying the air, Fig, With the I'CSlllt that they COIitIilCt and breuk under the tensional strain produced by such construction.
Considering now those features in which our ypresent improvements reside, whereby we chieiiy rid the machine of ferred to, and referring first to the apparatus shown in Figs. l to 3 and 7 to 10, invclusive, 19` designates each of a pair of main suction pipes which extend lengthwise of the pit 17 adjacent to one of the walls 11 thereof, beneath the drying cylinders, these suction pipes 19, in the arrangement shown, forming al junction with a laterally extending suction-pipe 19 that leads to the suction side of any suitable airforcing device, such as a centrifugal fan blower indicated at 20. Extending upwardly from the main suction-pipes 19' be- 9 is a side elevation, on an enlarged scale, of a form of suction-head employed in the lower series of pockets, which, inverted, may also be employed to deliver the blast of dryv air into the upper series of pockets; and Fig. 10 is a cross-sectional detail on the line 10"- 10 of Fig.'9.
. Referring to the drawings, and describing first part-s which represent common practice in machines of this character, 10 designates the floor and 11 a pair of walls supporting skeleton frames 12 which carr the journals 13 ofI two horizontal rows of liollow steamcylinders `l5 being arranged above and in 16 designates the paper web passes into the field of action of the drying cylinders at one end of the group tween adjacent cylinders 14 of the lowcr frointhe usual squeezing rolls, the web travrow are branch suction pipes 21, each of cling back and forth between the drums or which communicates atl its upper end with the adjacent end of what we term, as applied to the lower series of pockets, a suction-head, designated as an entirety by 22; 'this latter being shownin detail in Figs. 9
c 7linders of the upper and lower series in the manner clearly shown in Figs. 2 and 4. 17 designates what is commonly called the pit, being the space beneath the cylinders in the vicinity ofthe web; and the presence the evils re- 11 vapor-laden =air col-lecting and 10. This suction-head may, within the purview of the invention, comprise any device capable of eifectino the abstraction Aunder suctionbf practically all the steam and within the pockets 18; but one simple and practical form of such device which we haveformed by test to operate satisfactorily is that herem shown, and com-prises a .generally troughlike structure 23 tapered or narrowed in the vertical directionftoward its free end and provided with a top wall 24 carryin on its uppe'r side eyes 25 by which the hea is sus ended and supported from a rod 2G exten ing between the supporting sideframes ofthe cylinders. The edges of the top 24 are connected to and-spaced from the upper edges of the trough-shaped body 23 by bolts or rivets 27 and interposed spacing sleeves 28, thereby producing on either side of the suction-head longitudinal intake openings or slots 29 that are preferably tapered and of increasing width toward the free end of the head remote from the suction-pipe 21. The purpose of the described formation of suction opening or openings is to neutralize the stronger suction action occurring at the inner portion of the head by a greater varea of such opening-at the through a suitable drying device.
more remote points of thesuction-head, so that the suction draft will be substantially uniform throughout the'ent-ire length of the head. This effect can, of course, be produced by other forms and arrangements of suction ports or lopenings. in the head embodyin the same principle.
It w1 lbe seen by reference to Fig. 1 that the suction heads are not quite cti-extensive longitudinally with the drying cylinders, but underlie the intermediate portions of the latter, stopping short of both ends of the cylinders. While the exact length of the head as related to the cylinder is immaterial. it is preferably made shorter and arranged substantially as shown, for the reason that it is'desirable to slightly retard the drying effect at the margins of the web as compared with the intermediate portion to avoid the danger of breaking referred to.
Our invention further contemplates the return and utilization in a dry condition and as a positive drying agent of the moist air thus drawn off from the spaces; for which purpose we pass this air The device hercin shown consists of a condenser of that general type employing a pluralityv of `pipes or coils through which cold water is caused to circulate and over which the moist air is drawn. Such a condenser is indicated as an entirety in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 at 30, and is shown as interposed in the suction-pipe 19 on the suction side of the blower 20, although it may be located on either side of the latter. One practical form lower pocket of such condenser is shown in detail in Figs. 7 .and 8, and comprises an outer casing 31 made up in part by a plurality of intake and delivery headers 32 and 33, respectively, each connected bya plurality of bent pipes 34,said headers being connected by short pipe sections 435 and 36 with mainwater supply and delivery pipes 37 and 38, respectively. No` novelty is claimed, however, for the particular condenser shown and described, and-any other forms -or types of air -driers may be employed. The air thus dried is returned to the vicinity of either or both surfaces of the web in the form of a positive drying lblast or draft. There the return is solely .to the Vunder surface of the web, as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, it is effected by means -of a delivery pipe 39 having a branched delivery end, such as 40, located within the pit, whence the dried air may circulate freely beneath the lower row of cylinders and rise into the pockets 18 to rcplace @he steam and moisture-laden air drawn therefrom.
v We have found in practice thatthe drying of the air and the return of the same in this manner gives more satisfactory results than where the moist air drawn off is replaced by air induced .through the open vertical sides of the pockets, because such latter action tends to unduly accelerate the drying of the marginal portions of the web. This dried air may also be wholly or partially used to assist the drying action on the upper surface of the web; and in Figs. 4, 5 and 6 of thie drawings we have represented a somewhat more complete or elaborate form of the invention, wherein this is done. Referring to these views, 41 (Fig. 6) designates a central branch extension of the dry air delivery pipe 39 that extends across the pit and through theopposite side wall thereof, continuing thence upwardly by a vertical section 42, and thence inwardly by a short horizontal section 43, the inner end of the latter communicating with oppositely extending main delivery pipes 44 (Fig. 4), depending from which latter are a series of branch delivery pipes 45 leading down into one end ofthe upper series of pockets 18', the lower ends of said branch pipes communicating freely with heads 22 similar in all respects to the suction-heads 22 above described, in inverted position, said heads being supported on cross-rods 26 between the side frames 12. By this apparatus the dry air blast is divided, part of it passing into the pit through the branches 40 and a part passing'V upwardly through the pipes described and being delivered directly into the pockets 18 lying between the cylinders of the upper row, thus forcing dry air where heretofore there has been but very little circulation and giving an additional air-drying which may be employed steam and vapor from betweenvand above also found cylinders over which having our and contemplate that such will stock, but webs or sheets of any material vinvention may be very considerably varied Masacre Y said pipe, an air-moving'de'- vice connected to said pipe, nected with the delivery end ing device and into the vicinity ofthe surface of said web, substantially as described.
2. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a series of4 drying cylinders over which the web is passed, of a corresponding series lof suction-heads disposed beneath and longitudinally of said cylinders, each of said suction-heads comprising a hollow member formed with a tapered longitudinal slot substantially coextensive longitudinally therewith, substantially as described.
In a machine of the character described, the combination with a series of drying cylinders over which the web is passed, of a corresponding series of suction-heads disposed beneath cylinders, each of said suction-heads comprising a hollow trough-like member formed with a pair of longitudinaltapered slots located at the upper edges thereof and subelfect and causing a rapid discharge of the i munication with the drying cylmder of said alr-mov- While the dry air suppliedy to the vicinity of the web as above described is most conveniently and referably the dehydrated currentl drawn o by the suction fan, yet, so far as this feature of the invention is concerned, the dry air blast may be partially or entirely supplied from an independent source within the purview of the invention.
Among the chief advantages possessed by the invention may be mentioned, first, the fact that, at a given speed, a less number of drying cylinders is required, or, with the same number of drying cylinders, the web can be run through more rapidly, and consequently the capacity of the machine increased; second, by eti'ecting the drying of the intermediate'portion ofthe webuniformly with or slightly in advancel of the drying of the marginal portions, the delay and annoyance caused by the breaking of the web are obviated; and, third, the described expediting of the drying action very considerably reduces the power requiredto drive the cylinders, with the consequent gain in economy of cost of operation. We have lthat our improvements produce a. paper that is tougher and of a somewhat better grade than when made fromv the same stock and dried on the same machine not improvements. i
While we have described our invention in connection withy a paper-making machine be its principal application, yet it is manifest that our improvements are equally applicable to advantage in analogous machines for vdrying 'webs or sheets of other material, such, for instance, as felt; and by the term web 'as used herein, we mean not merely paper with, substantially as described.v
4 In a` paper-drying machine, the comdrying cylinders between and around which the paper web is adapted to travel, thereby forming a series of pockets above said lower cylinders and between adjacent upper. cylinders, of a. corresponding series of'blast distributing heads located in and extending transversely of said upper pockets, and means for supplying a current of dry air to said heads, substantially as described. .p
5. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a series of drying cylinders beneath which the web is passed, ofl a corresponding series of blast-distributin heads disposed above and longitudinally of said cylinders and formed with lateral openings on either side thereof substantially coextensive with the length thereof, Iand means for supplying a current of dry air to said heads, substantially as described.
6. In a machine of the character described, the combination` with upper and lower series of drying cylinders between and around which the web is adapted to travel, thereby forming alternate lower and upper pockets beneath they upper and above the lower series of cylinders, respectively, of a series of suction-heads located in said ylower pockets, asuctlon plpe communicating therewith, an air-drying device in circuit with said suction pipe, an air-movingrdevice communieating onits suction side with said lsuction pipe, a series of blast-distributing heads 1ocated-in said upper series of pockets, and
which in their course of manufacture are dried by being passed over heated cylinders or analogous devices.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the specilic apparatus herein disclosed for eifectuating the purposesof the 1n respect tov etails without involving any departure from the principle of the invention or sacrificing any of the advantages secured'thereby. Hence, we do not limit the invention to the particular apparatus shown and described, except to the extent clearly indicated in specific claims.
`We claim: f
l. In a machine of the character described, the combination with a series of drying. the web is passed, of a corresponding. series of suction-heads disposed beneath and longitudinally of said cylinders, a main suction-pipe connected n livery slde of said wlth each of said heads, an .air drier in comstantially as described.
stant-ially coextensive longitudinally lthere-` supply pipes therefor connected to the deair-moving device, sub-N and a pipe conserving to direct the dried'air bination with upper and lower series of i 7. The herein described process of ex- In testimony that we claim the foregoing pediting the dryingaction of'paper-drymg as our invention we have hereunto submachines of the heated cylinder type, which scribed our names in the presence of two consists in abstracting by suction the steam witnesses.
" 5 and vapor directly iven off from one side f THOMAS H BELCHER of the paper stoe during the' passage through the machine, and simultaneously FRANK D' WILSONV subjecting vthe opposite side of said paper Witnesses: p stock to currents of dry air, substantially SAMUEL N. POND, .110 as described. MA'r'rm B. Buss.