US 1053881 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
O. SCOTT & W. BEATS.
COMPOSITION OF MATTER.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 21, 1911.
Patented Feb. 18, 1913.
desire to combine the wearing and with the greater onrrrin snares rnrnn'r orrron "GAFKEBELL SCOTT AND WILLIAM BEATS, OF YONERS, NEW YORK.
"COMPOSITION GF IM'ITEERI.
our invention has been to of matter which,
while adapted for many other uses, shall be especially adapted for use as a conducting material for electric apparatus,.and to such ends our invention consists in the composition of matter hereinafter specified.
in the accompanying drawings Figures l and. 2 are, respectively, .a side elevation partly in section,
invemtirm.- Eigs: 3 and 4: are similar views of another'form of contact-and holder em bodying our-invention. Figs. '5 and 6, are lan view and an end view, partly in section, of a bearing-sleeve or ring embodying our invention.
Uur invention is capable of many difier ent uses, and of embodiment in many diderent forms, and the embodiments by which we shall illustrate it are therefore to be taken only as typical of many other possible embodiments.
Our desire has been to provide a material which shall combine the qualities of carbon in its various forms with those of various metals, so that a substance will be produced which shall have the qualities of both of such kinds of material. in particular, and for the purpose of electrical contacts, we
' lubricating qualities of carbon conductivity of metal.
The nature of ourmaterial will be more fully understood by describing the process by which it is made.
Briefly, the process by which we prefer to make our material consists in impregnating a mass or structure of carbon with a metal in a fluid state. For instance: A piece of wood charcoal may be submerged in metal, and mechanical or fluid pressure applied to the metal to force it into the pores of the charcoal. Or pulverized or powdered carbon or graphite previously in the manner before Epecificatiou of Letters Fatent. Application tiled September 21, 1911.
- reference is made 1 impregnated with formed integral holder are 1 electric conductivity -very perfect. of forming the holder B on the contact or and. a plan view of anelectrical contact and bolder embodying our.
5 contact in a holder,
= the pores Patented Feb. 318, 1931?.
stated. Any desired metal may be used, but when the material is used for electrical conductors where a low resistance is desired, it is preferable to use brass or copper. For electrical contacts, it is brass on account of the zinc contained therein, which, when subjected to an arc, has a preferable to use i tendency to. vaporize, and a further tend- I ency to disrupt the arc.
The process of making our material is the subject of a separate application for patent,
March 31st, 1911, to which for details of operation. Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, an electrical contact A is formed of carbon or graphite metal, and a holder B is with the impregnating In this manner, the contact and securely fastened together, and between them is made A simple and convenient way No. 618,110, filed metal.
brush A is to place the carbon or graphite together with a sufiicierit quantity of metal thoroughly to impregnate and while pressure may be applied of the metal into the contact or brush. When the metal sets, but before it becomes cold, the mold can be opened, and the contact or brush and bolder removed, and any metal remaining, which it is not desired to-utilize, may be removed by grinding, filing or turning. The mold may be of such a shape as to perfectly fit the contact A and to form the holder, that is, the mold being larger than thecontact by precisely the shape which it is desired to have the holder take.
The form of contact as holder illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 is similar to that in Figs. 1 and 2, except that the brush or conof the contact or brush and also to. formthe desired holder. The metal may he either melted in the mold or poured into the mold in a molten condition, in such condition, ;to force a portion tact A is formed with an annular recess Q,
which, in the complete article, filled with solid metal integral with the holder, thereby assisting in making a firm and reliable connection between. the contact and its holder.
Brushes made as above described, with the holder formed in one piece with the brushes are especially valuable in electric railway and elevator service where the practice is to place carbon contacts in separate holders,
is, of course,
Q weasel I switches and motors.
The cost of the copper in the commutator segments and slip rings of electrical machinery is one of the most important items in the cost of the materials, therefore by the use of our impregnated brushes, the width of these parts may be reduced, thus greatly lessening the cost.
-Our impregnated contacts are so strong that they may be threaded or tapped, and a smooth strong threadobtained, thus making it possible to attach flexible conductors directly thereto without intermediate means as is-required with ordinary contacts.
We have found thecombination of the T qualities of carbon, graphite, or other carbonaceous material with those of the metal to brushings, very desirable.
In Figs. 5 andfi, we have illustrated a bearing sleeve embodying our invention.
The sleeve D consists of carbon or (graphite impregnated as above described, an in addition to the metal thus introduced, we have provided radial plugs or parts E formed of solid metal integral with the metal that impregn ates the carbon. These plugs of solid metal serve to strengthen the bearings and to support a greater portion of the weight thereon. Asimple method of makin a bearing of this character is to form a c indricalblock of carbon or graphite with-.ra ial holes,
pllaced in staggered relation, as
preferably indicated. his block is then placed in lamold and submerged in molten metal, pressure being applied to force the metal into the ores or interstices ofthe carbon or gra h- 1te,and also to fill up the radial holes. en
7 the metal is cool, the impregnated carbon block is taken from the mold, and the" surplus metal, if any, removed, leaving a finished bearing.
A metal structure of a higher melting point may be impregnated with a soft metal having a lower melting point, according to produce a material for bearings and I .porous carbon structure and'an interpene- 'trating metal structure each. of said: struc- ;tures occupying the interstices between the particles of the other. F
our invention, and both the conductivity and the Wearing qualities of such metal structure be increased.
We desire both the particular forms of our material which we have illustrated, and the processes of making the same, to be regarded as typical, and state that Weare aware there are many uses to which our material can be put, other than those mentioned.
We claim- 1. An electric contact, comprising a earbcn body and continuous lines of metal ex: tending through the interstices between the particles of the carbon and forming there- 'with a homogeneous mass; 1 V V 2. An electric contact, comprising a carbon block and metal extending continuously through the interstices between the articles of the carbon and between the hol mg surface and the contact surface of such block.-
3. An electric contact comprising a body of carbon particles in contactwith. each other,'and metal completely filling the interstices between the said particles. 1
4. An electric contact, comprising a porous carbon body and an interpenetrating metal structure, the particles of each filling the interstices between the particles of v the other.
5. A composition of matter, comprising a 6. An impervious compound of intermingled particles of carbon and metal, the particles of carbon being in continuous contact I -95 'the'mass, and the particles of metal also being continuous throughout the mass.
8. The. combination of a carbon contact and a metal holder therefor said contact being permeated .by lines of metal integral: with the holder and extending through the interstices between the particles of the carbon.
I In testimony that we claim theforegoingwehave hereunto set our hands. a
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1 Meant E-Smmar,
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