US 1054108 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
L. 0. GARRAWAY.
FOLDING STEP LADDER.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 16, 1912.
Patented Feb. 25, 1913.
2 SHEETS SHEET 1.
L. 0. GARRAWAY.
FOLDING STEP LADDER.
APPLIGATION FILED MAY 16, 1912v SHEET 2.
Patented Feb. 25
2 SHEETS COLUMBIA PLANDGRAPH co, WASHINGTON. D. c
LEE 0. GARRAWAY, 0F MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 25, 1913.
Application filed May 16, 1912. Serial No. 697,745.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, LEE 0. GARRAWAY, a citizen of the United States, residing at Memphis, in the county of Shelby and State of Tennessee, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Folding Step-Ladders; and I do declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
This invention relates to improvements in folding step ladders.
One object of the invention is to provide a step ladder of this character having an improved construction and arrangement of steps and means for attaching the same to the sides of the ladder whereby when in an unfolded or open position, said steps will be firmly supported at their ends.
Another object is to provide an improved means for supporting the central or hinged inner ends of the folding steps whereby weight applied to any one of the steps is distributed to all the other steps.
A further object is to provide a folding step ladder having an improved construction of side members which when the ladder is folded will embrace or inclose the folded sections of the steps.
lVith these and other objects in view, the invention consists of certain novel features of construction, and the combination and arrangement of parts as will be more fully described and claimed.
In the accompanying drawings; Figure 1 is a perspective view of my improved step ladder showing the same in an open or operative position; Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the ladder folded; Fig. 3 is a rear view of the ladder in open position; Fig. 4 is a similar view with the parts in closed or folded position; Fig. is a vertical sectional view of the step section of the ladder when in an operative position; Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view of the same taken on the line (36 of Fig. Fig. 7 is a horizontal section taken on the line 77 of Fig. 5; Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view similar to Fig. 5 with the parts in folded position. Fig. 9 is a detail perspective view of a modified form of step which may be employed in place of the step shown in the previous figures of the drawing; Fig. 10 is a detail cross sectional view through the step shown in Fig. 9 and taken on a line with the bearing passage therein.
My improved ladder comprises side bars 1 which may be of any desired length and which are channel shaped in cross section or have on their inner and outer edges parallel flanges 2. The bars 1 may be constructed of any suitable material and are preferably formed of metal. Arranged between the side bars 1 of the ladder are a series of steps 3 eachof which consists of a base plate 4 formed in two sections hingedly connected at their inner ends by a suitable hinge 5. The outer ends of the sections of the plate 4 are turned downwardly to form stop flanges 6 which are adapted to engage the inner sides of the side bars 1 when the steps are in an operative position. The engagement of the flanges 6 with the inner sidesof the side bars 1 serves to firmly brace the ends of the steps. On the outer ends of the sections of the plates 4: are also formed upwardly projecting bearing lugs '7 which are pivotally engaged with the step supporting rods 8 arranged in the side bars 1 and having their ends secured in the flanges 2 of said bars as shown. A
The rear edges of the sections of the plates 4 of the steps are bent upwardly at right angles to form the rear sides 9 of the steps and the upper edges of said rear sides 9 are bent inwardly or forwardly to form flanges 10. The forward edge of the sections of the plates 4 are bent inwardly to form flanges 11 which together with the flanges 10 on the rear sides 9 of the steps serve to hold in place the tread members 12 of the steps, said tread members being formed of wood or other suitable material. The tread members 12 are of considerably greater width at their rear edges, this width corresponding to the height of the rear sides 9 of the steps. The upper surface of the tread members incline from the rear of the steps toward the front edge thereof, so that when the ladder is opened out or set up in position for use, the inclined upper surfaces of the tread mem bers will be disposed in substantially horizontal planes or parallel with the surface on which the ladder rest-s.
The upper cross member or top step of the ladder is in the form of a metal plate 13 having one end bent over onto the upper side of the plate to form a rectangularly shaped hinge loop 14 which is looselyengaged with a slot 15 in the upper end of one of the side bars 1 of the ladder whereby said top plate 13 may be swung across between the upper ends of the side bars and into engagement with the upper end of the oppo site side bar when the ladder is set up for use and wherebywhen the ladder is in a folded position, said top plate may be swung down parallel to and in close engagen'lent with the side bar to which the same is attached. On the opposite end of the plate from the loop 1 1 is an upwardly projecting flange 16 having its outer end bent down upon. itself in the form of a hook or clip 17 which is adapted to be engaged with the upper end of the side bar 1 opposite to that to which the plate 13 is hinged. On the rear edge of the plate 13 an upwardly projecting bracing flange 20 which is provided to impart rigidity to the plate.
The steps 3 are connected and supported intermediate their ends or at the pointwhere the sections thereof are hinged together by a supporting bar 21 which is disposed adjacent to the rear sides of the steps and extends upwardly from the lower step to the top plate 18 of the ladder and has its upper end bent forwardly to form a hook 22 which is engaged with the upper edge of the flange '20 on the plate 13 as shown. The steps are connected with the bar "31 preferably by means of the pintles or pivot pins of the hinges 5 which connect the sections of the steps, said pivot pins or pintles having their rear ends extending through the bar and upset or headed against the rear side of the same as shown. By connecting the steps to the supporting bar 21 it will be seen that when weight is applied to any one of the steps, the weight will be evenly distributed or applied to all of the steps through said bar, thus relieving any one step of the entire strain of such weight.
The step section of the ladder is held or supported in operative position by means of a prop comprising angle iron side bars or legs 23 having the side flanges of the upper ends thereof extending a slight distance beyond the upper ends of the rear flanges, said when the steps are folded.
projecting ends of the side flanges forming pivot lugs which are engaged with and pivotally connected to the outer sides of the side bars adjacent to their rear edges by rivets or other suitable fastening devices 24:. \Vhen the upper ends of the side bars or legs 23 of the prop are connected to the side member 1 of the ladder as herein shown and described, and said bars or legs swung laterally to operative positions, the upper ends of the top flanges of said bars or legs will engage the rear flanges of the side members 1 thereby limiting the rearward movements of the legs.
The legs or bars when extended constitute a prop and are connected by a pair of crossed brace bars .25 which are arranged in the form of lazy tong levers and are pivot ally connected together intermediate their ends as at 26 and at their lower ends are pivotally connected to the outer flanges of the legs or side bars '23 as shown at 27. The upper ends of the brace bars are pivotally and slidably connected with the upper pon tions of the legs 23 by rivets 28 secured in said upper ends of the brace bars and having a sliding engagement with longitudinally disposed slots 29 in the outer flanges of the or bars 23 as shown.
In Figs. 9 and 10 of the drawings is shown a modified form of step 53 wherein the bearing lugs 7 are dispensedv within and the tread members 12 which correspond to the tread members 12 in the first form of the steps, are extended to the outer ends of the step as shown. The upper outer corners of the tread members 12 are beveled to permit said ends to readily clear the inner surface of the side members 1 of the ladder In the modified form of the step, the step supporting rods which pivotally connect the steps to the side members 1 of the ladder are engaged with hearing passages 8' formed through the ends of the tread members it? and the front and rear flanges of the steps which hold said tread members in place.
By constructing the steps of the ladder in the manner descril'ied and hingedly connect-- ing the same to the side members 1 said steps may be folded upwardly to permit said side members to be drawn together thereby inclosing the folded sections of the steps between the flanges of said side members as clearly indicated in Figs. 2, i and 8 of the drawings. By constructing the prop of the ladder herein shown and described it will also be seen that the legs or side bars of said prop may be readily brought together with the side members of the step section thus collapsing the entire ladder and reducing the same to a small compact form for packingor storing.
From the foregoing description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, the construction and operation of the invention will be readily understood without requiring a more extended explanation.
Various changes in the form, proportion and the minor details of construction may be resorted to without departing from the principle or sacrificing any of the advantages of the invention as claimed.
l-laving thus described my invention.what I claim is;
1. A step ladder including side members, an upper plate engaging said side members and holding them distended a plurality of steps spaced apart and each formed of coacting members hingedly united at their confronting ends and hingedly united to the side members, and a bar pivoted to the coacting steps and detachably engaging the upper plate when the hingedly united steps are distended.
2. In a folding step ladder, a pair of side members, a plurality of steps formed in hingedly connected sections pivotal'ly connectedat their outer ends to said side members and adapted to be folded between the same, a top plate hingedly connected to one of said members and having a detachable connection with the opposite side member, means to connect said steps together where by strain resulting from weight applied to any one of said steps will be distributed throughout the entire series of steps and to said top plate.
3. A step ladder including side members, an upper plate hingedly united at one end to one of said side members and adapted to detachably engage the other side member and hold the side members distended, a plurality of steps spaced apart and. each formed of coacting members hingedly united at their confronting ends and hingedly united to the side member, and a bar pivoted to the coacting steps and having a lateral off set at the upper end for engaging over the upper plate when the hingedly united steps are distended.
at. In a folding step ladder, a pair of channel shaped side members, a plurality of steps each of which comprises a base plate formed in sections hingedly connected at their inner ends, stop flanges on the outer ends of said plate sections adapted to en gage the inner sides of said channel shaped side members whereby the inner ends of the steps are braced, step supporting rods arranged in said side members, bearing lugs on the outer ends of the base plates of said steps and adapted. to be engaged with said step supporting rods whereby said steps are supported at their outer ends, flanges formed on the inner and outer edges of said base plates, and tread pieces arranged on said sections of the base plates and held in position between the flanges thereon.
In a folding step ladder, a step section comprising channel shaped side members one of which has therein at its upper end a transversely disposed slot and the other of which has in its upper end a vertically disposed notch, a top plate having one end bent to form a rectangularly shaped loop adapted to be engaged with the slot-ted upper end of one of said side members whereby said top plate is loosely hinged to said member to be swung across the ladder and into engagement with the upper end of the opposite side member when the ladder is set up for use and to be swung down parallel to and into close engagement with the side member to which the same is hinged when the ladder is in a folded position, a clip on the free end of said top plate to engage the upper end of the side member opposite to the side member to which said top plate is hinged, a series of steps formed in hingedly connected sections and pivotally connected at their outer ends to said side members, means to, connect said steps together, and a prop hingedly connected at its upper end to the upper ends of said side members to support the ladder in an operative position.
6. In a folding step ladder a pair of channel shaped side members, a plurality of steps each of which comprises a base plate formed in sections hingedly connected at their inner ends, stop flanges on the outer ends of said plate sections adapted to engage the inner sides of said channel shaped side members whereby the inner ends of the steps are braced, tread retaining flanges on the front and rear edges of said plate sections, said flanges having their upper edges turned inwardly, forwardly inclined tread members arranged on said plate sections between said tread retaining flanges and said tread members, flanges having therethrough transversely disposed bearing passages, and step supporting rods engaged with said bearing passages and with said side bars whereby the ends of the step sections are pivotally connected to said side bars.
7. In a step ladder sides spaced apart and each including a pair of longitudinal members, a plurality of steps each formed of coacting sections including core members and an inclosing shell, the shells being bent at their sides around the edges of the cores and protecting the same, means for hingedly uniting the step shells at their confronting ends, and means for hingedly uniting the shells at their outer ends to the sides.
8. In a step ladder side members spaced apart, a plurality of steps each formed of coacting sections including core members and an inclosing shell, the shells being bent at their sides around the edges of the cores and protecting the same, means for hingedly uniting the shells at their confronting ends, and means for hingedly uniting the shells at their outer ends to the side members.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
LEE 0. GARRAVVAY.
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