US 1056365 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
, UNITED TE-s PATENT OFFICE.
FRITZ RASCHIG, 0F LUDWIGSHAFEN-ON THE-RHINE, GERMANY.
EXPLOSIVE AND PROCESS OF PRODUCING No Drawing.
Processes of Producing Same, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to explosives made upessentially of water soluble ingredients; and itcomprises an explosive containing as essential ingredients an oxidizingagent, such as sodium, potassium or ammonium nitrate, and a sulfonic acid of an alkyl substituted aromatic hydrocarbon, such as tolu ene, xylene, etc.,or asulfonic acid'of a 'substituted phenol, such as cresol, xylenol, etc.
It further comprises an explosive containing the ingredients above mentioned, in s 20 which the ingredients are present insubstantially homogeneous intermixture, and in which the individual particles of the ex-.
plosive are madefup, in'whole or in; part, of both ingredients. t
It further comprlses a process of'producing such an explosive from the water solu-- ble ingredients above mentioned wherein the compounding or intermixing or ineorporat-.
ing of the ingredients is efl'ected in the presence 015,01 in intermixture with, or insolution in, water or a mutual solvent all-as more fully hereinafter set. forth and as claimed.
The new explosives are made up eisse n tially of water soluble constituents, oxidizing' agents and sulfonated aromatic bodies of thenature above mentioned. The oxidiz ing agent used may be sodium, potassium or ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, a chlorate or perchlorate such as potassium chlorate or perchlorate, etc, or mixtures of two or more of these oxidizing agents. The sulfonated aromatic bodies may be in the form of the individual aromatic s'ulfonic acids or of mixtures of the same. Thus taryor tar oil, such as coal tar,'petroleum tar, water gas tar, natural tar, etc., may be sulfonated and used provided it contains an appreciable amount of aromatic bodies such as hyof 'toluol, xylol, cumel, etc, cresol, xylene],
Specification of Letters-Patent. Patented lIar, 18:1913.
Application filed April 11, 1912. Serial No. 690,188.
cumenol, etc; or the disulfonic' acids of the above mentioned bodies; ormixtures of two or more of these mono-, or di-sulfonic'acids, or other poly-sulfomc acids. It is in general more advantageous to" use the sulfonic' acids in the form of their water soluble salts, particularly the sodium, potassium,
magnesium and calcium salts, since in the production ot-aromatic sulfonic acids from aromatlc bodies by sulfonation with .con'centrat'es or fuming 'sulfuric'acid the acids are usually separated andbbtained in the form in the mixing machine." I t-is, however, in'
general more advantageous to carry out the mixing ina wet'way: Since the ingredients used in producing the explosives of the present. invention "are generally soluble in water they are-capable of most intimate intermixture or'--incorporationwhen in solutionin water, or when admixed in the presence of water; or a mutual solvent',-an in;
timacy of intermixture and a homogeneity 1 being thus obtainable which it'- is impossible to obtain by th'e'mechanical'process of mixing. Hence while the imperfectly mixed products of -the old, mechanical process inquent'ly do not completely combust and,
therefore produce smoke,=-.'the -soluble "con-i stituents of the present invention furnish an explosive of such a homogeneous nature that substantially complete combustion ta'kes nized or entirely avoided; The explosive place and the formation of smoke-is miniparticles, due to imperfect mixing and incomplete combustion, are not left behind."
Thefincorporation or intermixture ofthe I oxidizing agent and the sulfonated body or bodies according to. the wet process of "the presentinvention can be carried out "in -va rious ways.
The water soluble sulfonated" bodies can be dissolved in a solution of salt in'g agent can be dissolved in a solution of peter or other oxidizing agent; or the oxidiz-' the 'sulfonic acid; again alittle water can be added tov either or both ingredients beforeor after a preliminary mixing, the amount and solution. Again one ofthe ingredients suliurlc acid. uvhile stirring.
can be dissolved in whole or in part in water and the resulting solution used for mixing with the other ingredients without effecting complete solution ofthe latter.
. In case complete solution takes place it is necessary to remove the water in ordert obtain the explosives, and in removing this water and obtaining the explosives from their solutions care should be taken to prevent fractional Crystallization or separation during the evaporation or separation of the dissolved ingredients. This may be advantageously. prevented by stirring the solution. Or the solution may be run :Illl the form of a thin stream on to rollers internally heated to above 100 O, or on to rollers located in a vacuum chamber and internally "heated to'a lower temperature than that just mentioned, by means of which practically instantaneous 4 evaporation, and without danger can be brought about. The evaporated ribbon-like mass is scraped off the roller by scrapers, or other appliances. If water is added without making complete 'solution, removal of this water is brought about," after iiiterinixture, by drying or evaporation. The explosive, after removal of the water, or when compounded in a dry state, can be further treated to give to it the desired shape and consistency, and it can be used as an explosive, either alone or combined with other explosive ingredients, or modifying ingredients. Thus the explosive can be made into a plastic mass either before or after being entirely freed from wa ter, and the plastic mass molded, compressed, or formed into shaped particles; or
- it may be mixed with other explosive ingredients such as sulfur alone or in solution, intro-compounds, aromatic nitro-acids, etc.
5 It is frequently desirable to incorporate with the new explosives ingredients which will neutralize or destroy or overcome any hygroscopic properties. .A small amount of parafiin, vaseline, wax, etc., can be incor porated for this purpose, or used to coat externally the particles of .the explosive. Film-forming or waterproofing solutions can also be used.
lfhe present invention. which is of general 55. application is further illustrated and exemplified by the following specific embodimer t-sci its application.
Example 1 1 kilo. of tar oil of boiling f alkylsubstituted aromatic body.
pointfrS to 260 C. is treated at about .50"
The product of sulfonation is run into water and neu tralizcd with lime. The calcium sulfate -iormed is filtered off. and the solution of the siilfonated tar'oil in tl e form of its cal- C, ;grad ual-ly with 1 kilo. of 00%fuining agent and a sultonic acid compound of a substituted phenol.
in the preceding'example.
cium saltis evaporated to dryness. 11 parts of this sulfon'ated product and 89 parts of ammonium nitrate-are dissolved in water, and evaporated to dryness. The resulting product is the explosive.
ExampleQ: 69 parts of sodium nitrate and 31 parts of cresol sult'onate ofsodi' 'un are dissolved together inwater and 'ev'aporatcd to dryness;- or tliSQ tWO ingrediei ts are treated with 10 parts ofwater and mixed vigorously for two hours, after whichthe resulting mixture is dried at 'C. for about 2% hours; orthese ingredients can /oe mixed dry for about two hours in the mixing machine.- The productof these various processes is the desired explosive.
Example 3-: 86'parts of ammonium nitrate and-14 parts of cresol-sulfonate of sodium are dissolved in water or other solvent, or partially dissolved, and the solution evaporated to dryness in the manner above described. Or the ingredients are mixed dry or with 10 parts of water and treated as The resulting products are the explosives.
Example 4: sodium nitrate 70 parts of and-30 parts ofxylenol sulfonate'of sodium are treated as above described. v
Example 5: 31 parts of cresol-sulfonate of sodium and 26 parts of benZol-sulfonate sives, or compounded with other explosive ingredients. The explosive, whether used alone, or compounded further, can be formed or molded into the desired form.
Variations and modifications can be made in the processes and products above de scribed without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such variations and. modifications are embraced within the invention as set forth in the accompanying claims.
The term sulfonic acid compound used in the following, claims as generic to the sulfonic acids whether in an isolated state or in the form or" their salts (sulfonates).
1. An explosive comprising-an oxidizing agent and a sulfonic acid compound of an agent and a sulfonic acid compound of an alkyl substituted phenol.
4. Anexplosive comprising an oxidizing agent and a sulfonic acid compound of a methyl substituted aromatic body.
5. An explosive comprising an oxidizing a sulfonic acid compound of a 6. An explosive comprising an oxidizing agent and a sulfonic acid compound of ortho cresol.
7. An explosive comprising an oxidizing agent and ortho-cresol sulfonate ofsodium.
8. An explosivecomprising an alkali nitrate and ortho-cresol sulfonate ofsodium.
9.- An explosive comprising sodium nitrate andortho-cresol sulfonate of sodium.
10. An explosive comprising an oxidizing agent and'a sulfonio acid-compound ofan alkyl substituted aromatic bodyin substantially homogeneous intermixture and the individual particles of which explosive include both ingredients, y
11. An explosive comprising an oxidizing agent and a sulfonic acid compound of an unnitrated substituted phenol, in substantially homogeneous inter-mixture; and the individual particles of which explosive include both ingredients. V
12. An explosive comprising an oxidizing 14. An explosive comprising an oxidizing agent and ortho-cresol sulfonate of sodium in substantially homogeneous intermixture,
'and the individual particles of which explor sive includegboth ingredients. 15. An explosive comprising sodium nitrate and ortho-cresol sulfonate of sodium in substantially hoinogeneous intermixture and the individu'al particles of which explosive include both ingredients.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the. presence of two subscribing witnesses. v n
' FRITZ RASCHIG.
' 'ROBERT GERLAQH, RICHARD REUREL.