|Publication number||US1058983 A|
|Publication date||Apr 15, 1913|
|Filing date||Oct 11, 1912|
|Priority date||Oct 11, 1912|
|Publication number||US 1058983 A, US 1058983A, US-A-1058983, US1058983 A, US1058983A|
|Original Assignee||Edmund Kikut|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
T o all-whom it may concern. r,
' changing position of its center of'piessure -sistance incre-ases approximately lproportionig drawing,
gravity of the flying machine.
UNITED STATES EDMUND KIKUT, or
FLYING-MACHINEHAVING SUBPRTING-PL'ANES LOCATED ONE BEHINJ ANOTHER.
Be it known that I, EomivnKiKU'r, engineer, a subject ofthe German Emperor.' residing at 5l Klopstockstrasse, Berlin, Germany, have invented new and us'efi'il Improvenients in Flying-Machines' Having Supporting-Planes Locatedv One Behind Another, of which the following is a specification.
The invention relates to flying machines having supporting planes locatedone behind another.
The object of my invention is to render a downfall at` the smallest angle impossible and. simultaneously to impart great'longi.- tudinal stability. to flying machines,'which have two or more, supporting planes located one behind another,v of which the front plane has an exceedingly large angle of night, sayv about, ll, while the rear plane has a considera' bly smaller angle, say about'". I atf,
tain this end by locatin" the center of grav-v ity .of my machine ab ut' half the breadth. and at least the third of the breadth of the\ plane in front-ofthefrontI edge of the rear plane and by arranging simultaneouslythe rudder plane in suc anaanner'aboveor bef' low the center ofgravity'of. the 'ilvmgma- Sure and elevating 'force acting on itinthe passes approximately through the center of One illustrating embodfmentof my invention -is'represented by way of example in the accompanying drawing, wherein- Figure 1 is an elevation showing one form of 11135,' improved flying nia-chine, the center of gra ity being located vertically above the stai-tino` wheel, Fig. Q is topplan view thereot, and Fig. 3 is a diagram explained hereinafter.
Referring to tl1e"draw-ing,'a designates the. front supporting plane,.liaying ai`i"`1'e xceed7 considerable smaller angle,; li'out 5. I Tests have. ,shown'that-'the'2 horizontal ref-y flight, while-kthe elevating force atalirst'like wise increasesjairly proportionally .with the fi is' shown 'l the d'iao'ra'inof. Fig. 3 -of "the'accoinpaarv-l but .increases only incoiisiderl--- magnitude of theangle of liigll Specification of Letters Patent.
yIiatented Apr. '15, 1913 about 10. Ifthe plane is greatly curved, the-'elevating force remains; airly constant from this point onward without regard to the magnitude of the angle of flight up to another limiting angle about 20, after which the elevating force of the planerapidlydecreases as the angle increases.V -ii arrangement is known, wherel this fact is used for steadying the flying machine longitudinally, the front plane being given such a great angle, that when the machine fluctuates about a few degrees, its elevating force remains practically constant. while the rear supporting plane has an angle of flight located on that. portion 'of curve, in 'which the elevating force varies proportionally to the magnitude of the angle. The ratio between elevating force and resistance of the front plane being far more unfavorable as that resulting of the smaller angles used heretofore and especiallyfas this machine is being 'steeredby turning the entire machine, thatis to -say by increasing or decreasing the ,angle of Hight-.of `the front and back. planes attli'e same time'and'in the saine degree, theelevating.V force ofthe -front plane remaining howeverunchanged. only the ref' s istance increasing 'during that process, the front-plane of the knoivnmaehine is made very small in comparison to the back one.
Athis beingf done by placing the center of gravity ofthe machine' on theback plane itself or immediately in front of thefront edge of the same. i
i ow theti'rst object of my invention is. to
locate Vthefcenter ot', gravity of myinacliine.
nearly lialf the breadt-lroigthe plane iii front of the-rear plane vi"oi' tle"followingreasons: liereas the elevatingl nle and-the positionf tlie centerf'of pressure ofjQhe front supporting -plai'ief :remains *approximately constantl when the angl,eof Hight decreases.
b: .Lbility 'may'hyaaitoniatic7 isihmvever. nec-r jssary forythisspecial casefjhal thdprndut-t of'tle.diminishing elevating Forcean`d its leveiage measured from theeen- 'aagitjv ot...the` machine' .shall becc'nue' nsittxleraljl'y :5 ialler als tlieangle vot in order that-the approxiuppoigti-ig'planefcan littl'the end offtlie anfiest paratus for i the purpose of restoring the' normal :angle of flight.
Way-of 'ste'eringthe niachine.-
.Flying 'machines comprising` supporting. planes .arranged .one behind another "were v Another ob]ec.t of-my invention-isa new heretofore steered byvmeans of an adjustable steering' plane orrudder arranged a long distance `in front ofthe center o flgravity of "the machine.
I i -Sudden changes of directionV of tlieivn'i'd "cliangegthe elevating forcelof this rudder plane andv'thereby the turning 'moment' of the front .portion of the machine,- vWliereasfin the' machine according to'my'invention the-front'turning moment must reiriain j as constant as' possible for obtaining ,automatic.longitudinalsteadying in addif tion, ii i1my .improved machine, when the niachine' iurnsffand raises 'the fore-v end, .as ,already-mentioned, only the resistance of `.the yfronty supporting plane would-increase; "asA at`-angles of lightfbetweenlOp and 20- "jthe'resistanceofthe air increases Without.
Havingfregard tofthe; abovie-mentioned-V -circjum'stances according. to 'my invention the rudder`v plane .is arranged insuch man v-ner above orbelow the center' vof 'gravity of ff'thefflyinglmachine that; the resultant of the windipress'ureand elevating force .acting'on sitlinthechagingpositions of its center of i A f"p'i'es s'i ir`e passes approximately through the -center of grayity of the flyring machine 'f-TheLresultaIi'tz-'orce has then only -very ini'significantlor-no influencefat -all on the Vin- `clina'tion"of the fflying machine and on the -angleof'ightof the xed 'planes wand b.
I fetheangleof inclination of tl'iefrudder plane c varied, the 1'entire 'flying machine -ascends and descends" Whilel maintaining its '-incl tiyel .The
ion, that" "i's without turning relai o the -direction of flight. at'the time. der .plane is turned by-means of any '."de'siid adjusting 'mechanism cl, either its entire surface beingv turned or only itsreai "I portion -which, 'as shov'vn, -is attached by. .l ymeans of hinges to the'froiit. ixedly mounted part.; in the latter case the curvature' of,
the rudder plane isI altered.simultaneously ivith thean'gle of flight', and the pilot is able to' vary the elevatingfforce of the rudder plane, The eleviatingforce onv the fixed supporting planes a and b thus remains conetant-when actuating the lioriztlfntzil rudder,
' and the, flying .machine is caused'to ascend and descend solely7 by increasing or diminishingf-tlie elevating ierce' on the rudder plane ewhicll, accordingly and in contradistinction to rudder planes used heretofore, lias'the cliaracter'of a 'supplementary sup-` porting plane. l
By niakingtlie plane c very large it can be. l
vlead and the used' for carrying a considerable part of the fixed supporting pla-nes land ZJ- may be made correspondingly smaller; As the longitudinal stability.' is greater, hoive ever, the greater the fixed -planes a and b are,
the -tixedz supporting i planes are preferably -made so large that they carry almost the total lead.- Vhen flying horizontally, v'when the 'ludderplane cgis adjusted to a small angle cfflight, this planeivill be subjected to only a small 'elevating force. .If it is entirely relieved :trom this fo'rce,. by corre.
spondingly diminishing the vangle offiight.
of the plane c, the machine willen-1y .de--
scendsloivly. -A rapid descent can be caused by giving the. rudder planea negative .angle and thusv causing the iv of it. .In 'the 'former vca'seno Iiiat'eri'a-ll-inv crease in tlie veloci-typt travel 'will occur in consequence of the sl0w;descent,.wliile.in the second case the velocitjyf off-' tiavel'actually becomes -smaller Vas thegresistance"of the planes does not decrease. with the-decrease of:
the `total,.elev'ating force. -as in other ii ia' chines, but, on the contrary,increases` and -in consequenceot 4tliefdesce'rit.- ,i f The flying machine cannot, befracturedv owing to its "being subiected towexcessive stresses in consequence ef .the kinetic energy due to the rapid descent, andalso a fall at 'a dangerous speed in consequence-0f thehori.-
-zontal rudder .being incorrectly positioned cannot take' place. x f
ind to act on tlieftop" -issipates the kinetic energy ivhich 'collects AVhatjl claim as my 'inventionand desire Y tosecure by Letters Patent isz. In aiiying machine, the combination With the frame, of tvvosiu'iporting planes ixedly mounted one behind the other thereon, the angle. of'tlight of the front plane being a tevf degrees greater than tliat ,angle' which corresponds to the approximate limit of .prof vportionality between' elevating force and 'magnitude of angle, the angle 'of flightof ythe rear plane. being less than that of the front plane, but still Within the approximate curve of Vproportionality between elevating .torce and magnitude of angle; the center of gra "iti" of the flying machine being located about halirl tliebreadtli and at least aftliird- "of the breadth ot the plane in front of the front edge o'f the rear plane, an auxiliary ad-A
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2462578 *||Nov 29, 1943||Feb 22, 1949||Douglas K Warner||Power lift plane|
|US4697761 *||Sep 16, 1985||Oct 6, 1987||Long David E||High altitude reconnaissance platform|
|US5320306 *||Oct 14, 1992||Jun 14, 1994||Gennaro Mark A||Aircraft construction|