|Publication number||US1063672 A|
|Publication date||Jun 3, 1913|
|Filing date||Mar 12, 1912|
|Priority date||Jul 19, 1911|
|Publication number||US 1063672 A, US 1063672A, US-A-1063672, US1063672 A, US1063672A|
|Inventors||William C Flannery|
|Original Assignee||William C Flannery|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
W. C. PLANNERY.
PROCESS 0B GONSTAEUGTING SBWBRS, AQUBDUGTS, dw. APPLICATION FILED MAR. 12, 1912.
ipi@ Patented June 3, 1913'.
. F' l 3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
W. C. PLANNERY.
PRoCBlss 0F CONSTRUGTING SBWERS, AQUEDUGTS, fm APPLICATION FILED MAR.12, 1912.
y, www me 3, 1913.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
W. C. FLANNERY.
PROCESS' OBCONSTRUCTING SEWERS, QUEDUCTS, (kc. APPLICATION rILBD MAR. 12, 1912.
1,063,672. Y Patented .June 3,1913.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
S11/Vue 141501 UNigrnn srnrns PATENT enrico.
- WILLIAM: c. FLANERY, or w-AsHINeToN, Drsrmo'r onooLUMBIA.
PROCESS OF CONSTUCTING- S'FNVIEIRS, AQUEDUCTS, &c.
Specification of Letters Patent. l Patgn'ted J 1913.
original application filed ruly 1a, 1911, 'serial No. esenti. Divided ami this 'application med March 12,
f I 1912. seriaim. 683,317.
To all whom may concern Be it known ,that I, WILLIAM C. FLAN- Naar, a citizen of the UnitedStates, residing an acid-proofl lining, whereby the concrete is protected from the disintegrating action ofacids and other destructive constituents of the sewage, although the invention is 'not limited in this direction, as the process may be employed with manifold advantages in vconduit or sewer construction generally.
The present application constitutes in gen eral a division of my prior' application'No.
oserei, filed Jiily 19,1911.
' form the larch or crown of the sewer. 1When .40
l' 1. ille construction of ordinary ooncrete,
se as heretofore practised, atrench of to.; required depth and Width is rst dug, after which a 'concrete base or invert is formed at the bottom of the trench.l When this baseor invert has thoroughly set and hardened, which usually requires about two days time, forms for the side wallsy are set up' and properly tied and braced, andthe concrete is then filled in and tamped down about the same up to the spring line ofthe arch. After these walls have 'set and hardened, which usually consumes about two days furtherv time, molds and centers are placed in position and properly bra-ced and the nal filling ofconcrete laid-thereon to this arch has set and hardened, after ano-ther interval of twodaystime, the molds and braces are removed, the interior of the sewer so constructed, if to be made acid-proof, lined lwith vitrified brick, and the trench filled -with dirt up to the earth line. The constructionof sewers of this character as above carried out is, therefore, comparatively expensive onaccouut ofthe/:loss of time involved during the setting of the fillings of concrete, the large number dffiforms and amount of false-work material whichmust be made and carried, the amount of 'labor necessary in placing inv position and removing the forms, and the cost of the final work of laying the vitrilied brick.
The object of my invention is to provide a construction, and. method of building operation whereby the cost of building such sewers may be materially reduced; whereby a strong, durable and acid-proof sewer may be built at-the expenditure of less time, labor and building material; and whereby the use oflfalse-wo-rk construction is avoided, as well as the labor and expense of sett-ing up and removing forms, braces and centers, orI of laying a brick lining when the structure is to be rendered acidproof. i
In the` accompanying drawings I have lshown c ertain means forcarrying my in; vention into ,practical effect, without, however, intending to flimit the invention to the structural features which, for the purposes 'of,exe1npliication,. I have set forth.
In*Y said drawings: Figure l is a perspective" view of a section of a-concrete sewer constructed in accordance with my invention, showing a portion of the sewer completed and ,the remainder in the-course of erection. Fig. Z'is a vertical transverse section through the .completed sewer, taken in the plane of one of the frame rings, hoops or ribs, and showingfone formof base which may-be employed. Fig. 3 is a vertical transverse section similar to Fig. 2, taken on a plane between adjacent frame rings,.hoops or ribs. Fig. 4 is aview similar to Fig. 2 of a modified construction of sewer made up of inner and outer circular frames and an intermediate body orwall of concrete. Fig. 5 is a similar view of'a type of double-framed sewer particularly adapted for soft earth beds or foundations, showing'also a modeof utilizing piles.v Fig. 6 is ahorizontal transverse section through a portion of the type of sewer shown infFig. 4 or Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is a perspective view-of the meetin ends or one of the frame rings, hoops or ri s, showing one form of construction thereof which may be employed to receive the key-bricks or tiles'and to secure a rigid coupling connection. Fig. 8 is aj'perspective view of one of the. coupling or joint plates used in con. junction therewith. Fig. 9 isadetail transverse section showing the use of a plurality of rails in forminga keel piece. Fig. 10 is a fragmentary perspective view of the keel piece. f Fig. 11 is aperspective view of one of the tiles. Fig. 12 is a fragmentary top plan view of two `ad'acent frame rings,
' building the sewer. ,elevation ofparts shown in Fig. 12. Fig. 14-
the s ame in position during the course ofv F1g. 13 is a sectional isa cross-sectional view showing a different ported in position, and the said ring sections are preferably mounted upon a longitudinal gaging or spacing and supporting keel or glrder, whereby they are mutually sustained and properly spaced with relation to each other. The parts lof the set-up framework so formed may be suitably braced and reinforced, and, if desired, inner and outer shells may be employed and the general construction and arrangement of parts may hemodiied in many respects, other than hereinafter stated, to meet'diferent conditions, as cir. cumstanees require.
Referring. to the drawings, 1 designates the keel or girder, which is arranged longitudinally at the bottom or' top of the trench, and which may consist of a single rail, as shown in Figs. l to 5, inclusive, or of two or more parallel rails, as shown in Fig. -9. Metal keell rails of T-form are preferably employed, and the vertical web 2 of each bottom keel rail is provided with notches or seat recesses 3 at regular and desired inter-y vals'apart. In the use Aof a plurality of rails, the notches in the rails 'are arranged in transverse alinement with each other. The keel rail or rails are embedded in the concrete invert and their body portions may rest upon or be disposed immediately above a concrete base 4, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, or upon piles 5 anchored at their upper ends in the invert, as shown in Fig. 5, said bases or pilesv being employed to give a firmer. foundation support when or wherever a solid earth foundation is not afforded. The base 4 may. incloseeafeonduit 6 'for drainagepurosesv whocc'asion r uires.
-1 The ri gs, hoops or ribs 7 of' which the skeleton ame work 'is formed c onslst in ythe-'form shown, in Figs.` 1 to 13, inclusive,
aflsplit',metallic` Trails benttinto form. l@These` rings are .arranged-at regular: inter-` vals apart upon and transversely o f the keel with their'slots or open spaces 8 disposed at their highest point. As shown,` the body portion of each rail faces inwardly and pro-l vides laterally extending `flanges or webs 9', whileft-he central web or flange '10 thereof sa.' projetts outwardly, the said flanges 10 of the keel. For the purpose of enabling the ends ofeach'ring to be coupled, and the keybricks or tiles hereinafter described to be fitted and held in position, the extremities of such ends may be transversely split and o'l'- set upwardly to form elevated coupling portions 11 and retaining plates 12, leaving the ends of the body portions relatively arranged to flare the spaces or openings 8. The coupling portions 11 are perforated for coperation with `one or more joint or coupling plates 13, through which coupling portions and plates, pins, bolts, or rivets 14 are passed to hold the ring against expansion or contraction while the concrete is being filled in, and to impart greater stability of construction to the completed shell and sewer as a whole. Any other suitable mode of cou` pling the ends of the'split rings may, however, be employed. In order to hold the rings erect in the process of construction until the concrete is built up sufliciently to sustain the same, temporary gage and stay b ars 15 (one or more) may be arranged to connect the upper portions of adjacent rings, said bars having pins or projections 15a to engage openings 16 in the webs 9. ln addii tion to these temporary gage and stay bars, any other temporary braces maybe employed, as circumstances or conditions may require.
The spaces between the rings of the skeleton frame are filled and closed by rows of tiles 17 of vitriied clay, glass, porcelain or other suitable acid-proof material, or tiles of anysuitable type having acid-proof inner faces` The tiles of each. row are strung `upon the rings', said tiles having grooved end edges 18 lto slidably engage and interlock ywiththe flanges or webs 9 of adjacent rings. 'As shown, the outer walls of the grooves in thetiles abut against the webs 10 and are relatively shorter than the inner walls thereof, which abut 'and lap over the inner surfaces. of the body portionsv of the rings, whereby theinterior of the framework is completely covered and protected from atmospheric influences and the action of acids and other destructive constituents of the sewage. The tiles are fitted inposition by disposing them between the crown portions of adjacent rings with their grooved ends inserted in the openings 8 of said rings and in oferdnary or any preferred form is slid laterally int-oposition .between the ends of thel'ings and beneath vthe retaining plates 12 to close the openings 8. The tiles of successive rows may be arranged-to break-joint arnet, and'fmortar or other w mg and seal? ing means may be empleybdqto close any is. .strength and stability longitudina'l reinforcf crevices which may exist between the inner Walls of vthe grooves of adjacent tiles when it is desired to mal're the joints absolutely tight and fasten' the inwardly lproject-ing portions of thetilesirmly together.
The shell constructed as above described is inclosed and surrounded :by an outer Wall 2O `of concrete in whichJ the lframework and ftiles are both embedded andl which binds the' Aframework andtiles solidly- ,together, form-f `ing a monolithic or practicallyhomogeneous' .structure of great strength and durability .1* land capable of resisting all earth vibrations and strains tojwh'ic/h it may ibe subjected. For the purpose fo'f Asecuring additional jing rods 214may-be'i-'ein'bedded in 'theconcrete and 'connected with I'the i .igs by anchor `ities '22, preferably consisting l'of looped wires engaging the rods and perforations in the .rings or'bands`7 maybeemployed, as' s own '1 'in Fig.' 14, and-,aas alsoshown in this view.,`
the lkeel v'or girder l may be arranged above 'instead of 'below 'the plane'o the' frame, in which event "said keel-*or girder maybe Y supported at 'intervals by hangers A depend- 'where al full-tiled sewer isno't needed, the tilesginay terminate at 'the spring line of ing from bars B extended across the 'top' of the trench, and the ends of the Arings or band are'suit'ably secured to the keel or girder. After the structure is vbuilt upto a sulicientd'egree to 'be selfsupporting,or
ati, anynrtime prior'to tlie lilling -in of thef crown portion of -tlhe concrete, lthe jhangers A *are fremoyed, 'as Iwill Abe readilyj understood.. -In'fso'xne casesthe tiles 'may be assembled without directly tastening lthe same to lthe framework' and cemented -or. locked'v` iiqgether- Concrete filled about the 'conduit-formed therbylf VThe-.inner faces-of f s above stated, the`general structure may vll-E/gmodiied to'suit s ecial conditions. For instance, gto reduce t e lcost of construction A.the Aarcher at any level between theI same and the crownof the arch, in which event -.tl `ie top of the shell may -be filled and closed by cement or concrete. Also, when desired,
innerand outer,v counterpart circular shells of the construction described may-be einployed, as shown in Fig. 4, whichA are re- 55.versed as to position to arrange the tiles lof the outer shell upon the outer surfaceof said shell. InV this case lthe body 'or wall of concrete lies between the shells and binds the component parts of b`oth shells together Crossed wire stays 'or ties 23 are provided in this construction for coperation' with the rods to connect and reinforce both shells,
said ties being fastened to the adjacent webs l0 of both shells and bearing against the rods. There soft foundation ground is vencountered,- a'nd a broad solid concrete base or invert is usedv to provide a solid bed or support for'the sewer, as shown in Fig. 5, the traine elements of 'the outer shell, in a double-shelled 'ty-.pe of sewer', may be vin the form of arched T-rails 24v split and con structed `lat .the crown like' the frame rings,
vberoftile's to close the bottonottheskelef tonframe rare inserted, 'the concret-e to formsv thevbase'or invert is `filled in and-packed.; "The 'operation 4of applying the tiles -is-meaing- .Sv'lii-lefcontinued, and,.'a`s the -t-iles are-,in
serted upwardly at 'the sides, the concrete is filled in and tamped, whereby the operation of building up the sides of the concrete wal-l is made continuous 'with'the closing 'of the 'I sides of the shell 'by the tiles. When the tiles 4-bave been filled up to the sides of the openings 8, 'the key-bricks -or blocks,if used, are insertedand the concrete to form the arch or crown of the outer wall filled in and tamped, after whicht-he `trench is -illed'with earth .up to the ground. line in tlie -usualmanner- This operation is the same in building all forms of sewersvembodying the general featuresY of'my-invention; except where it is lfirst necessary to prepare al special founda- Y. tion by driving piles' or forming. Vconcrete bases, the parts of the two shells in the double-shell construction disclosed being simultaneouslyv assembled in the erection' of thej sewer. The reinforcing stays and ties are, ofcourse, placed in position as the con- .crete wall is built up', but it will be seenl that as'the shell or shells and concrete wall are simultaneously' in course of construction no loss yof time is experienced, as in ordinary sewer construction, as a resultA of the necessity otseparately building portions ot the c oncrete wall and allowing time for the :same to set andharden. Moreover, as the shell constitutes, in a unita-ry struct-ure, the frame and lining of the sewer, aswell as a torni Aabout which the concrete wall isv built, the necessity of constructing, carrying, erecting and removing forms, centers, interior bracesyjaclis and other similar false-work is avoided, as well as the ordinary linal work of laying a brick lining. By my vconstruction and process of building, the cost of erecting sewers of the character' described is4 materially reduced, and at the saine time a simpler, stronger, more durable and otherf wise superior typeof 4sewer is provided Having thus describedl the inventiomwhat and supporting by means of the framework I claim as new 1s l. The herein described method of buildinga sewer, aqueduct or like horizontal conduit, which consists in erecting a permanent 4 skeleton framework of the prescribed crosssectional contour along the established course, setting up and supporting by means of the framework a body of tiling, so as to close the openings in said framework, form a permanent lining for the completed structure, and produce a resultant rigid self-sustaining shell, and surroundin and embedding said shell in an outer wa l of concrete.
2. The herein described method of buildinga sewer, aqueductor like horizontal conduit, which consists in erecting a permanent skeleton framework of the prescribed crosssectional contour along the established course, setting up and supporting by means of the framework a body of tiling, so as to close the openings in said framework, form a permanent lining for the completed structure, and produce a resultant rigid self-sustaining shell through which the outer surface of the tiling composing said lining is exposed, and then surrounding and embeddingboth the framework and tiling in an inclosing wall of concrete.
3. The herein described method of building a sewer, aquedu'ctv or like horizontal conduit, which consists in erecting a permanent skeleton framework of longitudinally spaced vertically supported rigid rings or bands'along the established course, setting up and supporting by means of the` framework a body of tiling, so as to close the openings in said framework, form a permanent lining for thecompleted structure, and produce a resultant rigid self-sustaining shell, through which theouter surface of the tiling composing said lining is exposed, and then surrounding and embedding both the vframework and tiling in an inclosing wall of concrete.
4. The herein described method of building a sewer, aqueduct or likehorizontal conduit, which consists in extending a longitudinal frame element along the established course, supporting at determined intervals along said frame element relatively transverse, rigid vertical rings or bands, constitilting therewith aframework of the prescribed cross-sectional contour, setting up a body of tiling, so as to close the openings in sald framework, forn1 a permanent lm- Ving for the completed structure, and proi duce a. resultant rigid self-sustaining shell through which the outer surface of the til-y ing composing said lining is exposed, and then surrounding and embedding both the framework and tiling in an inclosing wall of y concrete.
5. The herein described method of building a sewer, aqueduct or like horizontal conduit, which consists in extending a longitudinal girder along the base line of the pre- A scribed course, supporting at determined intervals along said girder relatively transverse, rigid v ertical rings or bands, consti-- tuting therewith a framework of the prescribed cross-sect-ional contour, setting up and supporting by means of the framework a body of tiling, so asL to close the openings in said framework, form a permanent lining for the completed structure, and produce a resultant rigid self-sustaining shell, through which the outer surface of the tiling composing said lining is exposed, and then surrounding and embedding both the framework and tiling in an inclosing wall of concrete.
6. The herein described method of building a sewer, aqueduct or like horizontal conduit, which consists in forming a trench, erecting a permanent skeleton framework of the prescribed cross-sectional contour within and along the line of the trench and supported in spaced relation to the bottom and sides thereof, setting up and supporting by means of the framework a body of tiling, so as to close the openings in said framework. form a permanent lining for the completed structure` and produce a resultant rigid self-sustaining shell, through which the surface of the tiling composing said lining is exposed, surrounding and embedding both the framework and tiling in an inclosing wall of concrete, and covering the conduit anrll closing the trench with4 a filling matel'll In testimony whereof I afiixniy signature in presence of two witnesses.
VILLIAM C. FLANNERY.
litnesscs E. EnMoNs'roN, Jr., C. C. HrNEs.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing 4the Commissioner of Patents,
' Washington. D. 0..
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3110448 *||Feb 23, 1961||Nov 12, 1963||Coors Porcelain Co||Ball mills|
|US5186217 *||Oct 19, 1990||Feb 16, 1993||Flachglas Consult Gmbh||Fluid-impervious structure and method of making same|
|US5975146 *||Nov 4, 1996||Nov 2, 1999||Isover Saint-Gobain||Ventilation duct and insulation panel used for its internal lining|
|US6161593 *||Aug 16, 1999||Dec 19, 2000||Isover Saint-Gobain||Ventilation duct and insulation panel used for its internal lining|
|US6341627 *||Jun 5, 2000||Jan 29, 2002||Eyvind Boyesen||Glass lined containers|
|CN101994877A *||Nov 17, 2010||Mar 30, 2011||唐兆连||Lining-type reinforced concrete anticorrosion compound pipeline|
|U.S. Classification||405/155, 138/155, 52/741.11, 138/151, 264/35, 264/34, 405/132, 138/175, 249/11|