US 1068414 A
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G. R. GOURTENA Y. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. APPLIOATION nun 00125, 1911.
1,068,414 Patented July 29,1913.
2 SHEBTSSHEET 1.
G. R. COURTBNAY.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED 00T.5, 1911.-
196 414. Patented July 29, 1913.
2 SHEETS-BHEET 2.
. yy v 09 4/9155]? (MPH/my 1) Y 76% W -e ATTORNEY.
To all whom it may concern llNlillilld PAiEl peris CHARLES R. counrnnar, or wa'riizarown, new "roan.
Be it known that 1, CHARLES ld. Goon- TENAY, a citizen of the United States, residing at l/Vatertown, in the county of Jefierson' and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the tollowing is, a specification.
This invention relates to improvements in internal combustion or explosive engines, and the invention relates particularly to an engine of the class *Which is operated by a liquid fuel which is ignited and exploded by the heat of compression, without the use oi spark plugs or similar igniting devices.
The objectof the invention is to provide 1 an oil-gas engine, adapted particularly for burning heavy crude or distillate oils, preferably of the commonest and cheapest grades.
A further object is to provide novel, simple and eilective means for feeding or injecting the fuel oil into the combustion chamber. I
.A further object is toyprovide means for generating steam for operating the fuel injecto-r, the steam having a pressure in excess oithe pressure effected by the piston, and
means for reversing the engine.
wherein the steam forms a part of the explosive vapor or mixture.
A further object is to provide simple And a further object is to'provide novel and simple means for governing and regulating the fuel supply and feeding parts.
The "ario-us features and parts of the in.
, vention will be described in detail in-the mangement of the complete device.
,subjoined specification, illustrated by the accompanying drawings, and then particularlypointed out in the appended claims.
Figure l is an end view of the engine partly in elevation and partlyv in section showing generally the construction and ar- Fig. 2 is an enlarged detail sectional View of one of the valves which controls the steam. Fig. 3
' is a side view of the engine, partly in elevation and partly in sect-ion. Fig. 4 is a front end view of the governor which controls the oil pump) Like characters of reference designate corresponding pari's throughout the several views.
Specification of Letters Patent.
INTERNAL- COMBUSTIUN ENGINE.
Patented can; as, rare,
Application filed October 5, 191.1. Serial No. 653,046.
In the drawing 2 represents the crankcase of an engine, and 3 the interior thereof.
i represents the crank-shaft, 4, the crank, and 5 the fly-wheel.
6 represents the main cylinder which is mounted above and connected to the crank-- ease in the usual manner.
7 represents the piston, having the usual packing rings 8, which is operatively connected with the crank-shaft by a rod 9.
The cylinder 6 is surrounded by the usual water'jacket 10, which receives the cold water through a pipe 11. After the water circulates around the cylinder it passes upwardly into a hollow cap or head 12, by way of a pipe 12, for cooling the head of the cylinder. 1
13 represents a cylindrical exhaust port which connects with the exhaust port 1-1 of the cylinder by means or a pipe 15,
In the present device, I employ steam, of a high pressure, for injecting the liquid fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine. In order to provide the steam necessary for the operation of the engine in a convenient and economical manner, I utilize the Water which is employed for cooling the main cylinder 6, the said water being heated and the steam generated, in the following manner:
16 represents a water-heater comprising a' coiled pipe, which is disposed in the exhaust cylinder 13. One end 16 of the said pipe extends upwardly and connects with the top of the cap 12. 17 re resents a teed-Water pump connected to pipe 16 by means of which the Water employed for cooling the cylinder 6 is drawn from the cap 12 and -forced into coil 16 of the exhaust cylinder 13. The pump 17 is operated by any suitable power applied to the rod or plunger 17, which may be reciprocated vertically as indicated by the dotted lines 17'. The wator for generating the steam in'the exhaust coil 16, as well as in other parts of the system, being takendirectly from the cooling chambers within the jacket '10 and the cap 12, it is necessary to provide some means for forcing the water into said coils against the and lower sections or the pipe 16', and when said pump is operated by its plunger or rod 17 it draws off the cooling water and forces it into the coil 16. The pump 17 also serves as a" check valve for preventing the steam short time, the heat from the burnt gases or exhaust passing through the coil 16, will raise the temperature of the water in the said coil sufficiently to generate steam of a low pressure. The steam generated in the coil 16 is not of sufficient pressure to effectually carry out the working of the engine, and in order to raise the pressure of the steam, thewater and steam from the coil 16 is reheated bv another part, to which it is carried by a pipe 18, which connects with the opposite end of the coil 16, and which passes upwardly through the top of the exhaust chamber 13, where it'connects with a bypass 19 of a rotary valvei20. The bypass 19 communicates with a pipe 21, which forms the receiving end of a steam coil 22, which is disposed in a flash-boiler 23. The discharge end of the coil 22 comprises a pipe 24:, which passes outwardly through the top end of theboiler 23, and connects with a T 25, and then a branch pipe 2% extends downwardly from the T and connects with a second by-pass 27 in the said valve 20, to which is connected one end of a pipe 28. The opposite end of the pipe 28 connects with a chamber 29, in a valve casing 30, which is mounted on the side of the cylinder 6. After the water received from the jacket 10 and the head 12 is heated in the coil 16, as described, it is conducted without loss of temperature to the flash-boiler 23, where it is heated sufficiently to produce steam having a pressure approximating 800 pounds to the square inch, which, during the operation of the engine is constantly supplied to the valve chamber 29, from which it is drawn intermittently for injectin the liquid fuel into the combustion chain er.
31 represents a pipe connecting at one end with the T 25, the opposite end entering a valve casing 32, which is mounted upon the top of the ca 7 12, and 31 represents a valve in pipe 31 or controlling the passage of steam to the casing 32. To heatthe coil 22 in the flash-boiler 23, I provide a heater consisting of an oil tank 33, having a burner noesara sisting of asbestos, which is disposed over.
and around the flash-boiler 23 for conserving the heat of the said boiler.v
The engine is operated by liquid fuel preferably consisting of a heavy crude, or
, distillate oil, which is supplied to the compression chamber of the engine in the form of vapor, which is ignited and exploded for driving the engine. The oil may be sup-. plied from any suitable source, by .means of a pipe 37, havinga valve 38, for shutting off the supply of oil whenever desired. The fuel oil is drawn from the pipe 37 by a pump 39, which is mounted near the end of the crank-case, the said pump being operated by a cam 40 carried by the crank-shaft 4. The
pump 39 through a pipe 411, thence through a check valve 42, and by way of a port 43, into a depressed. cavity 44 of an injector 45. The oil pump 39 is equipped with check valves 37" and il, which have the usual functions of such parts. The arrangement of the cam 40 is such that once each revolution of the crank-shaft l, the said cam operates the pump 39, which in turn forces a measured charge of the liquid fuel or oil into the injector 45, where the oil remains until re quired for the explosion.
Tostart the engine the operation is as folliquid fuel or oil is forced upwardly by the lows: Assuming that piston 7 is moved by hand or otherwise to a position a little past the top dead-center, which would be the beginning of. the power or down stroke, then steam carried by the pipe 31, or compressed air carried'by a pipe 46, is admitted to the combustion chamber 47, which comprises a cylindrical space arranged horizontally above the cylinder 6, and which connects with the head of the piston cylinder by means of a slotted opening 48, To admit the steam or air into the combustion chamber 47, I provide a valve 49, which has a seat in the upper side of said chamber, where the said valve normally closes a tubular passage 50, which communicates with the valve casing 32 mounted on the head 12. The valve 49 is supported by a stem or rod 51, which passes upwardly through the passage 50 and the casing 32, of which is connected a hand-lever .52 employed for opening the said valve. The
to the upper end llO valve 49 is self-closing, and is beldjin closed position, by means of a coil spring 53. The admiss on of steam or compressed air into the combustion chamber 47 drives the piston compressed thereby, and when the piston reaches lts lowest point 1t uncovers'an air inlet port 55, and the compressed air in the crank-case then enters and charges the main cylinder above the piston, and also the combustion chamber 47. Just as the piston starts on its upstroke, the throw-point 40 of the cam 40 engages a ball39 on the end of a plunger 39 of the oil pump 39, which forces a charge of the liquid fuel or oil through pipe 41, into injector 45, ready to be injected into the combustion chamber 47". The piston 7 then starts upward compressing the fresh charge of air admitted through port 55, into the combustion chamber 47, the
said compression amounting to about 500 pounds to the square inch. The extremely high compression ofthe air in the chamber 47 produces sufficient heat to ignite the liquid fuel when the latter is injected into said chamber, without the aid of a sparkplug or other artificial'igniting means.
To get the oil into the combustion chamher for effecting the explosion required to drive the piston downwardly, I provide the following novel, automatic mechanism: 56 represents a cam mounted upon the crankshaft 4, alongside of the cam 40, the cam 56 having a single throw-point- 56 which is arranged to operate substantially a half turn later than the oil cam 40. 57 re resents a vertically disposed plunger or rod? which is positioned directly above the cam 56, the said plunger having a roller 57' fixed to its lower end, which is disposed in the path of, i
and is adapted to be engaged and actuated in an upward direction by, the throw-point 56 just at the time the piston reaches the end of its upstroke. The plunger 57 is supported by, and operates reciprocally in, a sleeve 58 which is supported by the crankcase 2. Immediately above the plunger'57 is disposed a hand-lever 59, which is pivoted at (i0, to a bracket 61, which is supported by a flange of the cylinder 6.
The plunger 57 when at rest or idle, as shown in Fig. 1, does not contact with the lever 52), but when the cam 56 operates the said plunger its upper end'engages and lifts the hand-lever 59. 62 represents a second plunger or rod disposed directly above the lever 59, and in line with the plunger 57, the plunger 62 having its lower end fitted with a, roller ,63, which constantly engages the upper central portion of the lever '55).
The plunger 62 is held in said position. by a coil spring 64, the said spring being disposed between a SllOllldQlfiP flange 65 of the plunger 62 and the lower end of the valve casing 30. The plunger 62 extends upwardly into the valve casing 80, and its upper end is fitted with a valve 66, which nor-.
mally closes a port 67, which connects the steam chamber 29 with a sub-chamber 68.
69 represents apipe the lower end of which connects with the chamber 68. The pipe 69 then extends upwardly and connects with a check valve 70, and then the said pipe, enters a port 71 of the injector 45, by means of whichsteam received from the chamber 68 is supplied to the injector for forcing oil from the cavity 44 through a nozzle 72 of the injector, int-o the combustion chamber 47. I
The arrangement of the cam 56 is such that, just as the piston reaches the end of its upstroke andcompletes the compression of the air in the combustion chamber, the throw-point 56 of said cam lifts plunger 57, lever 59 and plunger 62 for opening the valve 66. The opening of the valve 66 allows a. jet of steam, having a pressure preferably about 200 or 300 pounds in excess of the compress-ed air in the chamber 47,.to pass into the injector and force the small charge of the oil which had previously been delivered to the cavity 44, into the highly heated explosion chamber 47, just as the piston starts on its down or impulse stroke. Instantly upon the injecting of the oil into thechamber 47, it is ignited and exploded by the heat of the compression and the piston is driven downward. The operation above described takes place in the cylinder and crank-case every revolution. Each upstroke of the piston draws freshair into the crank-case and compresses the air trans- I'crred to thecylinder. Each down-stroke is a power stroke and at the same time conipresses the air in the crankcase preparatory to transferring it to the cylinder by its own pressure at the'end of the stroke, in the usual manner. At'the end of each downstroke of the piston a new charge of oil is delivered to the injector, and at the end of each upstroke the valve 66 is opened and a fresh jet of steam is delivered to the injec P tor for forcing the oil into the explosive chamber. The cavity 44 lies slightly below the port or passage 71, which is horizontally in line with the nozzle 72, and when the steam enters port 71 it rush-es over and across the cavity 44 and sucks or siphons the fuel oil out of said cavity, and in doing so breaks it up and carries itinto the compres sion chamber 47 in the form of a spray. The nozzle 72 being a slot, as shown, also aids in the spraying-or atomizing of the liquid fuel,
The cavity 44 is intended to hold only enough oil for a single charge, and owing to its construction and arrangement relative to thesteani passage through the inector, each charge of the steam siphons all of the oil out of said cavity and carries it into the compression chamber 47 in the form of a vapor or spray as described. \Vhen the fuel supplying and feeding parts are properly adjusted there is no waste of the oil due to charging the cavity i l or the compression chamber 457 with more oil than can be consumed during each power stroke of the engine. Under this construction and arrangement of the parts my improved oil burning engine may be operated very effectively and economically as compared with other engines of the class. Furthermore the steam and oil passage through the injector 45 is normally in free communication with the compression chamber 47, there being no intervening valves or parts which are required to be operated for the admission of the steam and fuel at the end of each compression stroke of the piston.
73 represents a pipe which taps the jacketof tlle'cylinder for carrying a portionof the cooling water through a valve Tet and a pipe 75 to a cooling chamber 76 which surrounds the injector 4-5, and 77 represents a pipe for carrying the water away from the chamber 76. Y
78 represents a valve attached to the pipe 75 for drawing off the water when desired.
In case it is not convenient or desirable 30 to start the engine by the use of steam or air pressure admitted through the valve 49 in the head 12, I provide a chamber 79 which is disposed directly opposite the nozzle -72 of the injector, the inner-wall or bottom 80 of the said chamber forming one end of the combustion chamber 47, the said wall or bottom being comparatively thin and provided with ribs 81. To start the engine a blow-torch (not shown) is inserted in the mouth of the chamber 7 9 and its flame directed against the ribbed wall 80. flame of the torch playing on the wall 80 will heat it sufliciently to vaporize and ignite the charge of oil which is injected by the steam through the nozzle 72- at the opposite side of the combustion chamber. The ignition of the vaporized oil will drive the piston downwardly and start the engine. After the engine is started the ribbed surface 81 will be kept sufficiently heated by the succeeding explosions to ignite the fuel without the aid of the blow-torch. This ribbed surface 80-81 is particularly useful in reversing, when the charge has to be ignited some time before the piston reaches the top dead center. In such acase the heat due to compression may not be sufficient to ignite the charge, but ribs 81 retain sufficient. heal. from the previous explosions to effect ignition. a
The engine can be operated with a lower 1 compression by relying principally, on the rib-bed surface in the combustion chamber for the necessary heat to ignite the charge. 65 The lower compression in this case is The brought about by opening a relief valve 82, which is rotatable in a bushing 83 which is screwed into the jacket 10, and which allows part of the air charge to escape to the atmosphere untilits port 84: is covered by the lpiston on its upstroke, this relief valve is a so of use in starting the engine. By opening valve 82, the crank may readily be turned by hand. 85 represents a handle for operating the relief valve. 7
In order to automatically control and regulate the supply of fueloil delivered to the engine by the pump 39, I provide a gov-- ernor which isoperatively connected to the fly-wheel 5, by means of a sleeve 86 which is fitted to the crank-shaft. 4 between the hub of the fly-wheel and the cam 40, the said sleeve being rotatable with the fly-wheel and the shaft. The governor proper consists of oppositely arranged crank-arms 87 which are pivoted at 88 to the sleeve 86, the short arms of the cranks 87 connected with the cam 40 by means of pins 89, and the outer endsof the crank-arms 87 provided with cylindrical weights 90, the said weights when at rest are held against the hub; of the fly-wheel by means of coil-springs 91. As the. speed of the engine increases the weights 90 are thrown outwardly by the centrifugal force, and at the same time the short arms of the cranks '87 draw'the" cam 40 toward the fiy-wheel for decreasing the supplyof the fuel oil to correspond to the desired speed of the engine, in the, usual manner.
ing the oil pump cametO, in case a variable speed is required, as in marine engines, as well as when the governor gets out of order, the said lever being pivoted at its lower end to a bracket 93 which is attached to the bottom of the crank case 2. .The lower mid-' mo .92 represents a lever for manually operatdle portion of the lever 92 engages the pins 89 carried by the crank arms 87, and the said pins run in acircumferential groove in t-liecam 40, in the usual manner. By'these' means the cam 40 may be shifted away from the crank case. Above the cam 40 the lever 92' passes through a quadrant or guide 94, which is supported by the sleeve 58, by
means of which said lever is adjusted and held in any desirable position.
The reversing of the engine is accomplished in the following manner: During the upstroke and before the piston reaches the end of its travel, the engineer" should slow down his engine then rasp the free end of the hand-lever 59, an lift the same upwardly some time before the piston reaches the upper dead center. The upward movement of the lever 59-;will raise the plunger 62, and open the valve 66, which will allow a charge of the steam to passfrom the chamber through pipe 69 into the injector. The steam will then force the delivered to the injector at the beginning of the upstroke, into the combustion chamher. The oil will instantly ignite and eX- plode, before the piston has time to reach the end of its upstroke, the force of the explosion will send the piston downwardly again, and in this way reverse the direction of the travel of the crank-shaft;
Under the construction, arrangement and operation of my improved fuel feeding, mixing and regulating mechanism, I am able to produce an internal combustion engine which is capableof high eliiciency, and which may be operated at comparatively small cost. The fuel which my engine is designed to use, may be the cheapest grades of crude or distillate oils, which may be burned in the engine without requiring any refining, and this may be supplied at a cost of but a few oents'per gallon. In practice the oil should be strained, so as to remove solid particles therefrom, and for this purpose any of the usual straining devices (not shown) may be employed.
By the provisions of the hot water coil lb, disposed in the exhaust chamber 13, I am able to raise the temperature of the wate sufficiently to generate low pressure, saturated steam, which is thereafter reheated in the flash-boiler 23, whereby saturated, dry or superheated steam may be nerated in a ready manner, and at slight cape/use, by means of the burner 84.
Having thus described my invention, what ll claim as new and desire to secure by Let ters Patent, is- 1 1. In an internal combustion engine, the combination with the piston and crankshaft, of a liquid fuel injecting mechanism, comprising an injector having a steam passage thercthrough and havin a cavity for receiving liquid fuel lying be ow and openmg into said passage, means for supplying a measured charge of liquid fuel to the cavity in said injector at the end of each down stroke of the piston, a steam generator connected with said injector, a valve for controlling the flow of the steam from said generator to said injector, a plunger for operating said valve for allowing the steam to siphon the liquid fuel from said cavity for charging the engine, and a cam carried by said crank-shaft adapted for operating said plunger for opening said valve.
'2. In an internal combustion engine, the combination with the piston and crankshaft, of a liquid fuel injecting mechanism, comprising an injector, a pump actuated by said crankshaft adapted once each revolution of said shaft to supply a measured charge of'liquid fuel to said injector, a steam generator connected with said injector, a valve for controlling the how of the steam from said generator to said injector, a plunger for operating said valve, a cam carried by said crank-shaft adapted said cylinder having a cap provided with a compressed air chamber, of a fuel injector connected to said air chamber, means for supplying liquid fuel to said injector at the end of each power stroke of said piston, a steam pipe connecting withsaid injector, means for admitting a jet of steam to said injector for forcing said liquid fuel into said compressed air chamber at the end of each compression stroke ofsaid piston, and means for injecting the liquid fuel into said compressed air chamber before the piston reaches the end of the compression stroke for reversin the engine.
4. The combination wit-h an engine cylinder and a compressed air receiver con necting with its upper end, of an injector connected to said receiver, said injector comprising a horizontal passage having a fuel cavity comprising a depressed enlargement intermediate its ends, a pump actuated bythe engine at'the end of each power stroke for delivering a charge of fuel to the cavity in said injector, a steam generator carried by the engine adapted for supplying steam to thesaid injector, and means actuated by the engine in advance of the end of each compression stroke for admitting steam to the said injector for spraying the charge of fuel into the said receiver for effecting the subsequent power stroke.
5. In an engine, the combination with the crankshaft, theip-iston, and'the piston cylinder, of a cap disposed above said cylinder and provided'with a compression chamber communicating with the cylinder, a horizontally disposed nozzle connected with the compression chamber having a depressed cavity lying below its horizontal passage adapted to hold liquid fuel and having a port for the admission of a fluid pressure for atomizing and injecting the fuel. into said compression chamber, means for delivering a measured quantity of liquid fuel to the nozzle once each revolution of the crank-shaft, a steam generator carried by said cylinder, and means actuated by the crank-shaft for delivering a jet of steam to the-said nozzle once each revolution of said 'shaft, the said steam entering said nozzle substantially one half a revolution later than the charge of the fuel.
6. The combination with an explosive engine, of a liquid fuel feeding mechanism comprising an injector having a port and a cavity for receiving and holding the liquid fuel, means for feeding the fuel to the said injector at the end of each power stroke of the engine, a source of steam supply com prising a low pressure generator heated by the exhaust of the engine, and a high pressure generator comprising a flash-boiler, connected with said injector and adapted to supply intermittent charges of the steam w to the said injector for feeding the liquid fuel to the engine, a pump for drawing the cooling water from the acket of the engine and for forcing said Water into the loW pres sure generator, said pump adapted for preventing t-he. steam from backing into the jacket of the engine. and a valve actuated by parts of the engine for controlling the supply of the steam.
In testimony whereof I ailix my signature in presence of two Witnesses.
CHARLES COURTENAY. Witnesses BLANCI-IE OUTTERSON, KARL J. STANKE.