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Publication numberUS1068596 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 29, 1913
Filing dateJun 23, 1911
Priority dateJun 23, 1911
Publication numberUS 1068596 A, US 1068596A, US-A-1068596, US1068596 A, US1068596A
InventorsClinton E Long, Frederick R Long
Original AssigneeClinton E Long, Frederick R Long
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Elastic-fluid turbine.
US 1068596 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


1,068,596. Patented July 29, 1913.


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uruoumn 211.21) mm: 23, 1911.


Patented July 29, 1913.

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Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented July 29, 1913.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that we, CLINTON E. LONG and FREDERICK R. LONG, citizens of the United States, residing at Berwick, in the county of Columbia a'nd State of Pennsyl Vania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Elastic-Fluid-Turbines, of which the followingis a specification.

Our invention relates to turbines driven by elastic fluid, and the main object of the invention is to. rovide a very simple and efficient turbine m which the rotor is actuated by the impact of-a jetof elastic fluid, and'b the reaction of the fluid.

A urther object is to provide aturbine of this character in which no valves or com plicatedvalve gear are necessary.

A further object is to eliminate the necessity of using a close fitting casing. for the rotor, thus eliminating-a very large amountof friction,-and further in this connection to providemeans for securing a steam tight engagement between the face of the rotor and the abutment or. abutments which constituteor form part of the stator.

A further object is to provide means whereby the several abutments may be so constructed that they will each be independentl forced into engagement with the rotor an will'wear so that the face ofeach abutment will correspond exactly with the face ofthe rotor without the necessity of providing packing strips. between the abutment androtor face.

A still further object is to provide a rotor so balanced as to eliminate side movement and thus eliminate unnecessary wear.

Other objects of the invention will appear inthe course of the following description.

Two forms of our invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, both of which forms, however, operate on precisely.

the same principle.

In these drawings: Figure 1' is a vertical section on the line 11' of Fig. 2 of a turbine constructed in accordance with our invention. Fig. 2 is a section on the line 2'2-of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of another form of turbine, operating however in precisely the same manher as the form shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic faceview of the rotor showing the arrangement of pockets therein. Fig. 5 is an inside face view of one of the abutments. Fig. 6 is an enlarged longitudinal diagrammatic section of a portion of the rotor rim and of an abutment, the parts being shown in the position taken by a pocket of the rotor rim asit moves into registry with an expansion pocket in the face of the abutment. Fig. 7 is a like viewto Fig. 6 but showin the position of the parts at the moment w on motive fluid is being discharged into the pocket and against the forward end=wall thereof. Fig. 8 is a like view to-Fig. 7 but showingthe position taken by the parts after the motive fluid has been cut off and While it is-expanding. Fig. 9 is a like view to Figs. 6,'7 and 8 but showing the position of the parts when the rotor pocket has cleared the end of the abutment to'permit the discharge of the exhausted motive fluid from the pocket: 10 is a diagrammatic section on the plane of the inlet nozzle and inlet ort and showing the parts in the osition i ustrated in Fig. 8, that-'is, showing'the inlet nozzle closed, the pockets in the abutment and rotor being shown in section. Fig. 11 is a transverse section on the line l 1-11 of Fig. 4. Correspondin'g and like parts are referred to in the following description and indicated in allthe views of the accompanying drawings by the samereference characters.

In the drawings, and referring particularly to Figs. land 2, 2 designates a rotor and 3 the shaft. The rotor is formed preferably with a relatively light web 4 and a relatively heavy. rim 5, though we do not wish to be limited to any particular construction or form'for the rotor.

The face of the rotor rim is provided with one or more circumferential series of pockets 6' having ofi'set'inlet ports 7 at one end. Preferably there are two series of pockets as shown in Fig. 4, disposed in circumferential ion'es a and 0 on each side of a middle zone 6. The inletport 7 ofeach pocket is located at the forward end of'the pocket and extends laterally into and across this middle zone I). Preferably the pockets 6 of one series have a staggered relation to the pockets 6fof the other series. The pockets are preferably all of the same length and the distance between each pair of pockets of one series is equal to the length of a pocket of the other series, as illustrated inthe diagrammatic view, Fig. 4.

We have illustrated and described a rotor having two series of pockets, but it is to be understood that we may have a larger num- 'ber of series of pockets or only one series,


it being onlynecesSary that all the pockets of a seriesshall be arranged in alinement and that each pocket shall have an inlet port which extends laterally and all the inlet ports of a series shall be in line with each other.

Each pocket as shown in Fig. 1 and in Fi s. 6 to 9 has a front wall 8 which preferiilaly extends tangentially to the shaft 3 and therefore approximately at right angles to the axis of the jet of motive fluid whereby the rotor is propelled. The bottom 9 of the )ocket extends outward and rearward to the face of the wheel and at substantially a right angle to the forward wall 8 thereof.

The side wall of each inlet port 7 is preferably in alinement with the inner wall of the next adjacent pocket, or in other words extends clear across the zone 6, and this side wall is inwardly and laterally inclined as shown in F ig. 11 and intersects the main body of the pocket at about themiddle of the depth ofthe pocket.

Disposed around the rotor are a plurality of abutments designated 11 in Figs. 1 and 2, and 37 in Fig. 3. These abutments form part of the stator within which the rotor moves. Each abutment preferably consists of a block of relatively soft metal such as Babbitt metal, or a block faced on its inside face with Babbitt or like relatively soft, antifrietional metal. We do not, however, wish to be limited to the exact shape of the blocks or to the material from which the abutments are made as they might be made of a large number of relatively soft alloys. It is Sllfilcient if the abutments are made of material softer than the rotor rim so that the abutments will wear into close correspondence with the contour of the rotor rim. These abutments are preferably rectangular in form and the inside face of each abutment is concavely curved to accurately fit the curvature of the rim 5. By making the abutments of relatively soft metal such as Babbitt metal, we obviate the necessity of using packing between the abutment and the rotor, and we very greatly reduce friction, not only because the packin is eliminated, but also because the Babbitt metal reduces very greatly friction between the abutment and the face of the rotor. Furthermore, as the abutment wears, it conforms exactly to the contour of the face of the rotor rim and hence the abutment never requires an adjustment. Each abutment is resiliently forced inward against the face of the rim as will be later described, and hence is held in close engagement with the rim face.

Each abutment is provided with an inlet nozzle or passage 12 whose inner end is preferably-tapered and extends inward and toward the 'forward end of the, abutment at an angle to the inner face of the abutment. The axis of the inlet passage is approxiwall 8 of any mately at right angles to the face of the 1 one of the pockets 6 when the pocket is in the position shown in F ig. 7. The inlet passage is in communication with a source of elastic fluid by means of a duct 13 having the form of a pipe in the embodiments of our invention disclosed in the drawings, and constitutes a discharge duct.

Formed in the face of each abutment is a pocket zle or inlet passage 12. If there is only one series of pockets 6, there will be only one pocket 14: in each abutment, so arranged on the abutment that it will register with the series of pockets on the rotor. As shown, however, there are two series of pockets t arranged on each side of the median zone Z) and hence the opening of the nozzle 12 will be arranged on a median line, and two pockets H are provided corresponding to the two series of pockets 6 and arranged one on each side of said median line in such position as to register respectively with the two series of pockets 6. Each pocket 14 has a bottom wall 15 which extends rearward and away from the concave face of the abutment, and a rear wall 16 which extends to the, face of the abutment and is approximately at right angles to the wall 15. The wall 15 is therefore approximately parallel to the bottom of any pocket 6 when the said pocket 6 is in register with the pocket 14:. In this position the walls 8 and 16 are also approximately parallel.

Before describing the mounting of the abutments it will be well to describe the operation of the turbine with specialreference to Figs. 6 to 10. In these figures the rotor is rotating in the direction of the arrow and the abutment is of course forced against the face of the rotor by resilient pressure as will be later described.

The description of the operation with relation to one of the series of pockets will, of course, apply to both of the series. In Fig. 6 the rotor is shown as having arrived at a position in which one of the pockets 6 is moving into register with the corresponding pocket 14 on an abutment. The inlet port 7 of the pocket has not yet arrived in register with the discharge opening in the inlet nozzle 12.

In Fig. 7, the rotor has moved suiliciently to carry the inlet port 7 into register with the inlet nozzle 12 and motive fluid is being discharged into the pocket (3, and particularly a ainst the wall 8 of the pocket.

In Figs. 8 and 10, the rotor has moved so far forward that the metal 17 of the face of the rotor between the adjacent inlet ports 7 is in contact with the discharge opening of the inlet nozzle and has cut oil the passage of motive fluid into the pocket 6. When the arts have arrived at the position shown in ig. 9, the pocket 6 has passed entirely which is located rearward of the 1102- eat of register with the pocket 14. The motive acid; as the ferwara wall 8 of the pocket 6 passes the forward edge of the abutment, flows out and reacts against said forward wall 18 of the abutment to urge the rotor forward. As the pocket 6 passes this forward wall of the abutment, the mo tive fluid will be discharged entirely from the pocket, and while b'eiiig so discharged will erform a certain amount of work by of the reaction; which rea tion will 'terld to drive the rotor forward.

By reference to Figs. 6 to 10, and Figs; 4 and 5, it will be seen that by the time that oiie pocket commences to discharge exhausted motive'fiuid; the next succeeding pocket will commence to receive motive fluid, thatis; the next succeeding pocket is in the position shown in Fig; 7 so that the rotor is submitted to the continuous action of the motivefiiiid; I

In the embodiments oi our invention shown iii Figs; 1: and 3, there are four abutiii'eiits (though we do" not wish to be limited to this number) these abutmentsbeing arranged in quartering relation to each other so that a "air of abutment-s are disposed diaihctrica-l y opposite each other. This arem eiiieiit has peculiar relation with regard to t 'e double series of pockets 6- and acts tobalance the rotor against sidewisethrust.

It will be noted that each of the inlet 7 has an inclined side Wall which is inclined downward and toward the body of the pocket 6 and that inasmiich as the pockets 6 are arranged in staggered relation or alternately on opposite sidesof the rim face; the inclination of the side walls of successive inlet ports will alternate. The

pockets are so arranged upon the rotor that when motive fluid is being discharged from one nozzle into an inlet port 7 of one of the pockets .6, motive fluid willbe discharged rom the diametrically opposite inlet nozzle into a diametrically opposite ket by means of the inlet port 7 thereo and that whereas the inlet port? of the first named pocket will be iiicli'ned downward and toward one side of the rotor, the inlet port- 7 of the diametrically opposite pocket will: be inclihed downward and toward the other side of the rotor, and that thus the forces exerted by the jets ofmotive fluid projected throu h the diametrically opposite nozzles will ioth act simultaneously toward the middle plaii'e' of the rotor, thus preventing the rotor from being subjected to sidewise thrusts and perfectly balancing the rotor. Preferably the rotor will be provided with bile or more pairs of series of pockets 6 so that there shall not be an odd number of series, each two series of pockets being arranged as shown in Fig. 4. so that the force of the entering jets of motive fluid tends to hold the rotor steady and so that the sidewise thrust of one jet will be counteracted by the sidewise thrust of another jet.

While we do not wish to be limited to any particular manner of mounting the rotor and the abut-ments, we have shown two different forms'of turbine mounting to this end. In F igs. l and 2 the stator comprises a series of arcuate casing sections 19-, each section having end flanges 20'. These sections abut against the ends of the abutments 11, and extending over each of the abutments 11 and supported upon the flanged ends of the sections are the caps 21 which are attached to the end flanges in any suitable inanner as by means of bolts 22. Each of these caps 21 carries upon it a gland 23 of any suitable description, through which loosel passes the tubular member 13 previeusy referred to. This tubular member 13' forms a spindle for the corresponding abutment 11 and slides easily through the gland 23'. It also forms aduct in continuation of the inlet nozzle passage 12, and each of the tubular spindles 13 is connected by means of a flexible-pipe or other suitable connection 24 to a source of motive fluid.

The interior face of each cap 21 is recessed' as at 25-, the recess being concentric to the spindle 1s, and disposed within this recess is a coil spring 26 bearing at one end against the end wall of the recess and at its other end bearing against the outer face of the abutment 11. This coil spring tends to force the abutment 11 inward against the face of the rotor. While we have shown coil sprihgs for this purpose, we do not wish to be limited to this means of yieldingly forcing the abutment against the face of the rotor as any equivalent means for this purpose may be used.

It will be seen from Fig. 1 that the rotor is slightly less in diameter than the interior diameter of the stator or easing surrounding the rotor that is, that there-1s a space between the inner faces of the sections 19 and the outer face of the rotor and that the instant that a pocket passes the eiid of an abutment it is placed in communication with this space, which is designated 27. Opening into this space in the form of our invention shown in Figs. 1 and 2, are the exhaust ports 28 which may either open uponthe outer face of the casing of the-rotor, or which may be connected toexhaust pipes 29 by which the exhaust vapors may be carried in any desired directio It Wlll be noted that there is an exhaust port between each two of the abutments and that the exhaust port for each abutment is located adjacent tothe casing of the next succeeding abutment. The vapor commences to exhaust as soon as the ocket containing the motive fluid passes the forward edge of the abutment, and this exhaust continuesuntil the rear end of the pocket has passed the rear box 41 into which the spindle 38 of thecorshaft 3 passes through the side plate 30 and the side plates abut against the ed s of the sections 19. The side plate 31 is ormed at. its center with a seat 32 for the shaft 3. This seat is preferably conoidal 1n form, andthe extremity of the shaft 3 is'also conoidal and bears in this conoidal seat, thus forming a step bearing for the shaft.

The plate 30 is rovidedwith a stuffing box 33 through w ich the shaft 3 passes. The plates 30 and 31 are spaced apart a distance slightly greater than the width of the rim 5 so that there will be a minimumpf frictional resistance between the side plates and the side faces of the rotor nm.

We do not wish to be limited to the use of the circumferential sections 19 and the side plates 30 and 31 as the abutments might be. used, without these circumferential sections and the side plates, as illustrated in Fig. 3-. In this figure, 34 designates the retor and 35 the shaft. The rotor as before described, is formed with a relatively light web and a relatively heavy rim 36. The ro-.

tor is provided with pockets along its rim in precisely the same manner as the pockets of the rotor previously described, and as illustrated in Fig. 4. T e stator is provided with a plurality of abutments 37 of precisely the.

same form and arrangement as the abutments 11 previously'described, except that the abutments are not inclosed within a casing. Each abutment 11 is preferably formed of metal such as Babbitt metal as previously stated and is yieldingly supported against the face of the rotor, each abutment being carried by a tubular spindle 38 which is rigidly attached to the abutment and extends outward therefrom.

Surrounding the rotor is a supporting frame which also forms preferably the means whereby motive fluid is supplied to the several abut-meats. This frame in the embodiment of our invention shown in Fig. 3 is tubular and designated 39. At intervals around the tubular frame 39 are the unions 40. Each union is provided on one face with a stuffing responding abutment freely passes so that the spindle,,can have a reciprocating movement in the stuffing box 41, the stuffing box being suitably packed to prevent the escape of steam therefrom around the spindle.

Surrounding the spindle 38 and disposed between the outer face of the abutment and the union 40 is the coil. spring. 42 which forces the abutment yieldingly inwardagainst the face of the rotor in the same manner as previously described for the springs 26. It will of course be understood t at each spindle extends somewhat into the stufling box so as to compensate for any movement of the abutment. The spindles act asguides for the abutments, though we do not wish to be limited to this exact means motive fluid may be conducted to the pipe 39 from a source of motive fluid. The stator may be mounted upon any suitable base, and we have shown for this purpose the base 44 .which supports the pipe forming the frame 39 and also supports the shaft 35.

It is to be noted in this form of our invention that no distinct exhaust ports are used but that practically the. whole space betweent-wo abut-ments forms an exhaust port. As soon as a pocket on the rotor has passed the forward face of the abutment,'the motive fluid will be discharged in the manner shown in Fig. 9. It is to be noted in connection with Fig. 9 that the motive fluid will be deflected from the wall 8 against the face of the abutmentand will therefore continue to do work by reaction.-

It will be seen that a turbine constructed in accordance with our invention is extremely' compact and simple and'is therefore capable of algreat many applications to which the ordinary turbine cannot be applied. It will be seen further that the rotor is perfectly balanced against sidewise thrust an that it receives the impact of the motive fluid at opposite points in its diameter, thus erfectly balancing the rotor. Furthermore, it will be seen that the number of im ulses received by the rotor during one revo ution will depend upon the number of pockets and the number of abutnients, and that the power of the turbine will depend upon the kinetic energy of the steam as it is-delivered against the end walls of the pockets and expands within the pockets.

It is particularly pointed out that the face of the rotor between the inlet ports 7,

namely, the portion 17 (see Fig. 4) acts as" The longer the inlet port, the

into the corresponding pocket 6, while the pocket and the inlet port, and-that this defiection of the jet laterally tends to prevent the setting up of eddy currents within the pockets and thus secures the maximum effect of the motive fluid.

The rotor may be made from one integral casting or forging, or may be made of separate plates bolted to each other as shown in Fig. 2, in other words, with a laminated structure, and the rotor may be formed with a relatively thin solid web connecting the hub and rim, with a perforated web, or with the rims supported on spokes, extending from a central hub. In some cases it will be an advantage to have the rim relatively heavy so as to increase the power of the rotor, while in other cases it may be advisable to reduce the Weight of the circumference of the rotor as much aspossible and increase the weight of the rotor adjacent the hub, thus reducing Weight and centrifugal action. By forming the rotor of relatively thin plates bolted or otherwise attached to each other, the pockets in the rotor may be very easily formed, thus reducing the cost of constructing the rotor.

Qur turbine is particularly adaptedto automobiles, motor boats and for running small machinery, or for use in any position where economy of space is a desideratum. The principle of the turbine, however, may be applied to engines of any size and horse power.

\Vhat we claim is:

l. The combination of a. rotor, an abutment bearing against the rotor and having a relatively soft contact face, a fixed stop beyond the abutment, and a spring between the abutment and said stop bearing 11 on the back of the abutment to hold its face against the rotor.

2. The combination of a rotor, an abutment arranged to bear thereon and having a relatively soft face, a hollow slidable spindle carrying the abutment, and a spring coiled around the spindle and bearing upon the back of the abutment to hold the face thereof against the rotor.

3. The combination of a rotor, an abutment arranged to bear thereon, a hollow slidable spindle carrying the abutment, and a spring coiled around the spindle and bearing upon the back of the abutment to hold the face thereof against the rotor.

In testimony whereof we affix our signatures in presence of two witnesses.




Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3744926 *May 22, 1972Jul 10, 1973Hedges JRotary engine
US4007591 *May 16, 1975Feb 15, 1977Bessie L. CaldwellPower device
US4086764 *Mar 11, 1977May 2, 1978Brown Steven HHydroturbine engine device
US4764089 *Aug 7, 1986Aug 16, 1988Allied-Signal Inc.Abradable strain-tolerant ceramic coated turbine shroud
US7637243 *Jul 10, 2007Dec 29, 2009Qamhiyeh Ziyad ARotary internal combustion engine
US8056529Jul 20, 2009Nov 15, 2011Qamhiyeh Ziyad ARotary internal combustion engine for combusting low cetane fuels
US20090013960 *Jul 10, 2007Jan 15, 2009Qamhiyeh Ziyad ARotary internal combustion engine
US20090282835 *Nov 19, 2009Qamhiyeh Ziyad ARotary internal combustion engine for combusting low cetane fuels
U.S. Classification415/174.2, 415/92, 415/173.3
Cooperative ClassificationF01D11/001