US 1071230 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. E. HANGER.
APPLICATION IILBD JUNE-14, 1912.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
Patented Aug. 26, 1913.
ATTORNEY J. E. HANGER. ARTIFICIAL LIMB.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE14, 1912.
Patented Aug. 26, 1913.
2 SHEETSSHEBT 2.
INVENTOH 136%? 11 Hanger BY -7/(4/E-WM41 '14 TTOR/VEV COLUMBIA PLANOGRAPH co, \VASHINGTON.- D. c,
JAMES E. HANGER, OF WASHINGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Au. 26,1 913.
Application filed June 14:, 1912. Serial No. 703,649.
To all whom 2'75 may concern Be it known that 1, JAMES E. I'IANGER, a citizen of the United States, residing at l l ashington, inthe District of Columbia, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Artificial Limbs, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to improvements in artificial limbs and artificial feet; and it comprises an artificial limb made up of knee, leg and foot members or leg and foot members in which means are provided for supporting the knee or leg yieldably by an inde pendent supporting member from the foot, and more particularly from the heel portion of the foot.
It also comprises a foot member which as a whole is adapted to support the leg yieldably through the ankle joint.
It further comprises a foot member provided with a toe portion pointed or pivoted to the foot member and means for maintaining this toe member in an elevated position during the forward stride and when no weight is placed upon the ankle joint and for depressing said toe portion when the weight is placed upon the ankle joint and upon the ball and toe of the foot.
It further comprises a foot member capa ble of slight lateral motion or oscillation about a horizontal axis; and it also comprises a novel yieldablc supporting member capable of withstanding both tension and compression for supporting the knee or leg member yieldably from the foot member and more specifically from the heel of the foot member; all as more fully hereinafter set forth and as claimed.
in the accompanying drawings, which are illua-strative of the in\ 'ention,l igure 1 is an elevation of the limb as a whole, with parts of the limb shown in section. Fig. 2 is a section of the foot member and of the lower portion of the leg member, showing the toe in its elevated position. Fig. 3 a view similar to Fig. 2, but with the toe depressed by the weight placed upon the limb. Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken tl'irough the heel of the foot on the line -l4, F 3. Fig. is a transverse sectional view on the line 5 5, Fig. 3. Fig. (5 is a transverse sectional view through the ankle joint on the line (E e, Fig. Fig. 7 is a sectional view of a modification of the foot member. Fig. 8 a sectional view of the yieldable supporting member taken on the line 88, Fig.
1. Fig. 9 shows a modification with the leg and foot member in section. Fig. 10 shows still another modification similar to that of Fig. 9 with the leg member in section. Fig. 11 shows a sectional View on the line ll ll, Fig. 7 and Fig. 12 shows still another modification of the invention.
In Figs. 1 to 8 and 11 of the accompanying drawings which illustrate certain spccific embodiments of the invention the limb is shown as made up of a knee member 1, jointed by means of the knee joint 1- to the leg member 2, which leg member is in turn jointed by means of the ankle joint 5 to the foot which is indicated as a whole by the number 3. Also jointed to the foot and knee members is another supporting member 8, which is shown as pivoted to the knee back of the knee joint and to the foot back of the ankle joint, although itmight be placed either in front of or back of these joints. This member 8 forms an auxiliary supporting member from the foot to the knee and is shown as capable of both elongation and contraction, and consequently of withstanding both compression and tension, as will be more fully hereinafter explained.
The foot member is shown as made up of an outer hollow foot member 9 and an inner foot member 12 to which the leg is jointed by the ankle joint 5. The hollow foot member 9 has attached to its forward portion a hollow toe member 10 by means of the pivot or hinge 11, shown as a strap of leather secured by means of screws. This pivot or hinge allows the toe member to be lowered or elevated by the means hereafter described.
The inner foot member 12 is shown as provided with a forwardly extending portion 13 to which (in the structure shown in 2 and 3) is secured the metal extension 14, and on the end of this extension is pivoted a wooden block 15 by means of the pivot 16, this block extending into the hollow toe member and being shown as provided with a leather or buckskin cm'ering 17.
Between the inner and outer footmembers is placed a spring 18, shown as a block of rubber, which is ada iited to keep these members normally separated, and to nmintain the inner member 13 in an elevated position, while allowing this inner member to be depressed when weight is placcd upon the limb. F ig. 2 shows the inner member 13 held in its raised position by the spring 18,
i and the toe member also raised Fig. 3 shows the inner member and the toe depressed, owing to the weight put upon the limb, and transmitted to the foot member through the ankle joint 5. The toe member 10 is normally held raised, as shown in Fig. 2, by the inner foot member 12 through the spring 18 or other suitable spring means, but is depressed when the weight is placed upon the limb, the effect of the application of this weight being indicated by the arrows in Fig. 3. For the purpose hereinafter indicated the pivoted block 15 is made round in cross-section (see Fig. 5) so that it is capable of rotation relative to the toe.
The outer foot member 9 is shown in Figs. 2, 3 and t as jointed to the inner or upper foot member 12 by a ball and socket joint. This joint is made up of the semi-spherical block 19 of wood or other suitable material secured to the foot member 12 by screws, and inclosing a semi-spherical nut 20, held from rotation by a pin 22, and into which is secured a bolt 21 the head of which is concealed in a recess in the heel of the outer foot member 9. The semi-spherical block 19 is supported in a corresponding recess in the outer foot member, and this recess is provided with a lining of leather or of buckskin, which when properly lubricated, gives an excellent and noiseless bearing surface. This ball and socket joint enables not only raising and lowering of the forward portion of the inner foot member relative to the outer foot member, but also lateral motion or oscillation of the outer foot member about a horizontal axis. The foot is thus enabled to accommodate itself sidewise to any slight irregularities in the surface of the floor or ground, and any tendency toward unbalancing of the limb laterally is thus minimized or entirely prevented. The amount of such lateral motion or oscillation can be varied more or less as desired.
The ankle joint 5 is shown as made up of an outer sleeve or tube 24 secured to the leg as by bolts or screws 29 and inclosing a pin 25 rotatable therein (see Fig. 6) and to which is attached the bolt 27, which passes through the inner foot member 12 and is secured thereto by a nut 28. The sleeve 2a is rigidly secured to the le but is free to rotate in its bearing 26 which is shown as lined with soft leather, or buckskin, and which in practice can be suitably lubricated to give a noiseless and excellent bearing for the ankle joint.
In Fig. 7, instead of a ball and socket joint the inner and outer footmembers are pivoted by a joint similar to the ankle joint just described, and made up of an outer U- shaped sleeve 30 secured by bolts or screws 31 and inclosing a pin 32 into which is screwed the bolt 33. The outer foot member of this modification (Fig. 7) is not capable of lateral oscillation as is the case with the ball and socket arrangement of Figs. 2 to 6, but the outer novel features of the invention are nevertheless present. In this modification shown in Fig. 7, the forward portion 13 of the inner foot member 12 is made in one single piece, provided with a buckskin-covered end extension entering the hollow toe 10. Since there is no lateral motion or oscillation this extension into the toe need not be of circular cross section, and two springs 18 can be provided (Fig. 6) or only 1 as shown in Fig. 7. In this modification of Fig. 7 the extension 13 is provided with an upwardly extending portion 13 working in correspondingly shaped cut away portions of the foot and toe. This extension, when the toe is raised, is even with the top of the foot and supports the shoe at this point, preventing it from entering the joint between the foot and toe, and preventing unnatural creasing.
In Figs. 2, 3 and 6 two springs 18 are provided which aid in balancing the foot and in returning it to its normal position when laterally displaced.
The yieldable supporting member from the foot to the knee is shown as jointed to the knee behind the knee joint and to the foot behind the ankle joint, and is made up of the lower member 3a pivoted or jointed at 6 to the foot, and the upper member 35 which is hollow, and which is pivoted to the knee by the joint 7, the hollow member 35 being secured to this joint by a strap 36 passing over the bolt 7 and inclosing a bearing block, and riveted to the hollow member by the rivets 37. The lower member 34t is made hollow at 38 and at 40 and is provided with a partition (shown integral) 39. Within the hollow space 38 is placed a wooden block 42 surrounding a pin or bolt 41 secured to the hollow upper member 35, and above this block is a spring, shown as a rubber block 43 covered with buckskin. Above the partition 39 and inclosed within the hollow space 10 and the hollow member 35 is another spring also shown as a rubber block &4 covered with buckskin 45. In operation as this supporting member is placed in compression the upper spring block 44 is compressed between the partition 39 and the upper end of the member 35 and thus forms a spring sup port for holding the upper and lower members 35 and 34: yieldably. As this supporting member is placed in tension the rubber block a3 is similarly compressed between the partition 39 of the lower member 3a and the block 42 which is secured to the hollow upper member 35, and which slides in the slot 38 of the lower member. The member 8 (made up of the members 34: and 35) is thus capable of yielding both by compression and by tension and this forms a yieldable support from the heel to the knee throughout the entire walking operation.
In general it is more advantageous to place this yieldable support back of the knee and ankle joints instead of in front of them; for it is then shortened by compression when the weight passes to the heel and is subsequently lengthened slightly by tension as the weight passes to the ball and toe of the foot and in front of the knee joint; whereas if placed in front of the knee joint its modem opcramlz' would be reversed, it being then first stretched as the heel strikes the ground and afterward compressed as the weight passes to the toe and in front of the knee joint. The arrangement of the yieldable support behind the knee and ankle joint is also more convenient in the practical con struction of the limb. Furthermore with the yieldable supporting member pivoted or jointed back of the knee joint as shown, the knee is locked when weight is placed upon the heel and thus prevented from flexing or flying forward. For the line of support, when the heel first strikes the ground, is back of the knee joint, but in front of the joint 7 of the yieldable support, so that the action of the yieldable support, as Weight is placed upon it through the heel, is to hold the knee back in its normal position and to prevent flexing. This locking of the knee from flying forward when the heel first strikes the ground gives an added feeling of security and confidence to the user of the limb.
The yieldable supporting member of the present invention is similar in its structure and operation to that described and claimed in my prior application, Ser. No. 6403M.
Secured to the lower end of the hollow member 35 by brazing, riveting or otherwise is an extension 46 to which is secured one end of an elastic strap 47, the other end of which is secured to the back portion of the leg by the cords 48 passing through holes 49. This elastic member or strap at? is stretched as the leg is bent and when the weight is removed from the leg aids in straightening out the leg and in returning it to its normal position. This elastic strap can be otherwise arranged diagonally with respectto the leg and yieldable supporting member, but is shown as attached to the back of the leg and to the back of the yieldable supporting member 8.
A pad of yieldable material 57 is provided in front of the member 35 and attached to the knee as a stop or abutment for the mem ber 35, and a similar covering of felt or buckskin or leather 58 on the top of the back part of the leg. These pads or stops serve to absorb any shocks and assist in maintaining the leg and knee in proper relative position. The recess in which the upper end of the member 35 is jointed is shown as provided with a lining 59 of leather or buckskin.
Extending upwardly from the knee is the socket frame 50 secured to the knee by rivets which are hidden by a leather band 51, and in this socket frame is a socket 52 attached to the frame by its upper end 53 folded over the top of the frame and reinforced. This socket is shown as made up of soft and pliable leather or buckskin and as provided with perforations which are arranged diagonally, and which when sufficiently close together make the socket readily adjustable circumfeij'entially to conform with any unevennesses of the stump to which attached. This socket is fastened at its back by cord or lacings 5d, and its position in its frame can be further controlled by means of the bands of leather, secured to the frame by rivets 56, and adjustable by lacings. By means of these bands the socket can be positioned nearer the front or to one side in its frame and the position of the frame and socket relative tothe stump cor respcndingly controlled. This is of advantage particularly in cases where it is desired to relieve the more sensitive portions of the stump or of the body from undue pressure or chafing. The socket frame is shown as extending to the hip, and is pro vided with one side higher than the other in order to more nearly conform to the shape of the portion of the body by which it is supported.
The arrangement of the supporting me1nher from the foot to the knee, and the ar rangement of the socket above the knee are similar to those described and claimed in my eopending application, Serial No. 6410,284
In the modifications of the invention shown in 1* igs. 9, 10 and 12 the yieldable supporting member extends from the foot to the lower leg member instead of to the upper leg member or knee as in Fig. 1. This member is shown as made up of members 34; and 35, comiected to the foot at the heel by the joint 6 the same as in Figs. 1 to T, and constructed and arranged as already described so that it is capable of yielding and supporting the leg from the foot both when compressed and when stretched. The lower member S lis made shorter and of a slightly different shape to adapt it to its changed location, but otherwise the construction and operation of this yieldable sup wrting member is the same as already described in connection with Figs. 1 to 7. In Fig. 9 this yieldable supporting member is attached. to the forward portion of the leg by the joint (3 which has its bearing 62 shown as formed in the wood of the leg 1,
itself. In Jig. 10, it attached at the back of the leg by the joint (51 whose bearing is also formed in the wood of the leg. These two figures show structures which are 1ntended for use with stumps which extend a short distance below the knee as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 9. The leg member 2 is provided at its upper end with a socket 6% attached to the upper end of the leg by the overturned edge 65 and containing a soft bearing pad for the end of the stump. The hollow leg member in this case is made of a size and shape corresponding to the stump for which it is constructed. This limb is attached to the limb of the wearer by the stiff sleeve 69, laced at 70, and supported from the leg by the hinges made up of the straps 68 attached to the sleeve 69 and the straps 66 attached to the leg member 2. The length of these straps can, of course, be varied as desired to give the necessary bearing and relative arrangement of knee joint and supporting sleeve. Also the knee joint 67 can be raised or lowered or moved forward or backward to coincide with the knee joint of the wearer. In Fig. 12 the leg member is shown as having the yieldable supporting member jointed to its lower forward portion just above the instep. Such a limb can be used with a stump which eX- tends well below the knee as indicated in dotted lines in this figure. The position of the upper joint of the yieldable supporting member can be located at the back of the leg, as shown in Fig. 10, or at the front as shown in Figs. 9 and 12, and its length can be varied as desired. Its action is similar to the action of the corresponding member of Figs. 1 to 7. In both cases, whether the yieldable supporting member is jointed to the upper leg member or knee as in Figs. 1 to 7, or to the lower leg member as in Figs. 9, 10 and 12, it forms a yieldable support from the foot, or more specifically from the heel of the foot, directly to the limb. The limb of the present invention is accordingly equally adapted to be used with stumps extending below the knee and with those which extend only above the knee, and the same yieldable supporting action from the heel to the leg and the same yieldable arrangement of the foot and toe, are ob tained in both cases.
The foot member of Figs. 9, 10 and 12 is shown as the same as that of Figs. 2 and 3, but it is obvious that the particular foot of Fig. 7, or other foot member could be used, the novel foot of present invention, however, giving particularly advantageous results in combination.
The operation of the novel limb of the present invention will now be more fully described.
As the heel strikes the ground in the walking operation the weight is transmitted partly to the ankle joint and leg, but chiefly at first to the yieldable supporting member 8 which is somewhat compressed and shortened. The heel thus acts yieldably to support the knee or the leg above the knee, or
the leg below the knee, and sudden shocks are thus avoided, and the smoothness of the walking operation facilitated. At the same time in the arrangement of Fig. 1, the knee is thus locked against flexing or flying forward. As the weight passes from the heel to the ball and toe the yieldable member 8 changes from compression to tension and yields somewhat in length thus giving further spring to the walking operation and preventing shocks. The yieldable member thus both shortens and lengthens as it is subjected to compression and tension respectively during the walking operation, and thus supports the knee and the leg above the knee, directly, or the leg below the knee, as the case may be, from the foot, both directly when in compression and indirectly when in tension. Then the heel first strikes the ground, and when no weight is as yet supported by the ball or toe of the foot, the toe is held raised as shown in'Figs. 2 and 7 and the inner foot member 13 is held raised from the outer foot member 9 by the springs 18. As the weight passes to the ball of the foot, however, or as it passes from the heel through the ankle joint, the weight acting downwardly through the ankle joint depresses the inner foot member 13 against the springs 18, and the inner foot member in turn depresses the toe member. The weight of the body is thus supported partly through the heel, partly through the toe, and partly through the ball of the foot through the spring 18. Thus when the weight is on the foot the toe member is held depressed until the weight is removed, when it is again elevated and remains elevated until again depressed at the next step by the weight applied to it. Accordingly when the weight is on the foot, and the foot is on the ground or floor the toe member is held depressed and straightened but when the weight is removed, and particularly during the forward stride, the toe is raised and is thus enabled to pass over obstructions more readily and to clear the ground much more easily. In its mode and smoothness of operation it approximates that of the natural foot. It will thus be seen that through out the walking operation the body is supported yieldably and in such manner that shocks are avoided. As the heel first strikes the ground the knee and the leg above the knee, or the lower leg member, is yieldably supported through the yieldable supporting member 8; as the weight passes to the ball and toe of the foot it passes more and more through the ankle joint which is yieldably supported from the toe and ball as already described. The yielding of the member 8 under tension further aids in this yieldable supporting action. The embodiment shown in Figs. 2 to 6 and 9, 10 and 12 has in addition to the operation and advantages already indicated the added advantage that the outer foot member is capable of lateral motion or oscillation and is thus better able to adjust itself to lateral obstructions and unevennesses. The yieldable supporting features of the limb already described onablo itto acccnnnodate itself to any unevennesses or obstructions usually found in walking, and the added feature of lateral oscillation or motion makes the limb prac tically uni crsally adaptable to all ordinary walking obstructions. its a result the limb of the present invention a tfords an ease and sincotlmcss of operation and a feeling of security comparable with that of the natural human limb.
lVhile in the specific embodiments of the invention shown and described in the drawing the yieldable supporting member 8 is shown as provided with spring means yieldable both in tension and in compression, yet these spring means are also shown as independently constructed so that the action of the one does not affect the action of the other. Thus in the structure shown in the drawing the spring 44 which is compressed when the member 8 is shortened is independent in its action of the spring a3 and would operate in the same way if the spring member 43 were omitted altogether, and vice versa. The use of spring means yield able both in tension and in compression, however, has many advantages over the use of a spring yieldable only in compression, since the limb can thus be yieldably supported from the foot throughout the walking operation.
In the foregoing description and the accompanying illustration certain specific embodiments of the invention have been described, but it will be evident that arious modifications and variations can be made in the specific structure shown and described without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such variations and modifications are intended to be embraced within the invention as set forth in the accompanying claims.
1. In an artificial limb, a lower leg member, a foot member jointed to said leg member, and a supporting member longitudinally yieldable in compression jointed to said foot and leg members.
2. In an artificial limb, a lower leg member, a foot member joint-ed to said leg member, and a supporting member longitudinally yieldable both in tension and compression jointed to said footand leg memhere.
3. In an artificial limb, a lower leg member, a foot member jointed to said leg memher, and a yieldable supporting member jointed to said leg member and to the heel of said foot member, said supporting memher being made up of telescoping rigid sections provided with spring means yieldable both in tension and in compression.
t. In an artificial limb a leg member, an upper foot member jointed thereto, a yieldable support from the heel of said upper foot member to the leg member, and a lower foot member ointed to said upper foot memher and yieldably supporting the same.
5. In an artificial limb a leg member, an upper foot member jointed thereto, a yieldable support from the heel of said upper foot member to the leg member, and a lower foot member jointed to said upper foot member and laterally oscillatable with respect thereto.
6. An artificial foot comprising a foot member, a toe member jointed to said foot. member, spring means arranged to elevate said toe member, and means combined with said foot member for depressing said toe member againstsaid spring means when the weight is applied. to the limb.
7. In an artificial limb comprising leg and foot members, a lower foot member, an upper foot member jointed to said lower foot member and to the leg member, and means for supporting the forward portion of said upper foot member yieldably from said lower foot member.
8. In an artificial limb, a leg member, an upper foot member jointed to said leg memher, and a lower foot member jointed tosaid upper foot member and laterally oscillatable with respect thereto.
9. An artificial foot comprising an upper foot member provided with an ankle joint, a lower foot member jointed to said upper foot member back of the ankle joint, and yieldably supporting said upper foot mem her in front of the ankle joint, and a toe member jointed to one of said foot members and arranged and adapted to be raised and lowered by the other of said foot members.
10. An artificial foot comprising an outer hollow member provided with a hollow too member jointed thereto, an inner foot member joint-ed to said outer foot member near the heel thereof and provided with an ankle joint, and extending into said hollow toe member, and spring means for yieldably supporting said inner foot member in front of the ankle ointfrom said outer foot member.
11. An artificial foot comprising an outer hollow foot member provided with a hollow toe member jointed thereto, an inner foot member provided with an ankle joint jointed to said outer foot member behind the ankle joint, and laterally oscillatable with respect thereto, and extending into said hollow toe member, and spring means for yieldably supporting said inner foot member in frontof the ankle oint from said outer foot member.
12. An artificial foot comprising an outer hollow footmember, a hollow toe member jointed thereto, an inner foot member pro vided with an ankle joint and jointed to said outer foot member back of the ankle joint, said inner foot member being provided with an extension pivoted thereto and extending into said hollow toe member, and spring means for yieldably supporting said inner foot member in front of the ankle joint from said outer foot member.
13. An artificial foot comprising an outer hollow foot member, a hollow toe member jointed thereto, an inner foot member provided with an ankle joint and jointed to said outer foot member back of the ankle joint,
said inner foot member being provided with an extension pivoted thereto and extending into said hollow toe member, and said inner foot member and extension being laterally oscillatable relative to said outer foot member and said toe member, and spring means for yieldably supporting said inner foot member in front of the ankle joint from said outer foot member.
In testimony whereof, I affix my signature in the presence of witnesses.
JAMES E. HANGER.
F. E. BARROWS, M. J. BARRETT.
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