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Publication numberUS1080812 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 9, 1913
Filing dateAug 29, 1912
Priority dateAug 29, 1912
Publication numberUS 1080812 A, US 1080812A, US-A-1080812, US1080812 A, US1080812A
InventorsJesse B Cretors
Original AssigneeJesse B Cretors
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Storm-front for vehicles.
US 1080812 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

J. B. ORETORS. STORM FRONT FOR VEHICLES. APPLICATION FILED AUG. 29, 1912.

Patented Dec. 9, 1913.

'3 SHEETS-SHEET l.

ATTORNEY J. B. GRETORS.

STORM FRONT FOR VEHICLES.

APPLICATION FILED AUG. 29, 1912.

1 ,O80,812, Patented Dec.9,1913.

3 SHEETSSHEET 2.

7 INVENTOR ATTORN EY AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA c.

J. B. GRETORS.

STORM FRONT FOR VEHICLES.

APPLIGATION FILED AUG. 29, 1912.

1,080,812, I Patented vDec. 9, 1913.

5 3 SHEETS QHEET 3. .55 4 .50 .M

ATTORNEY ilhiliTEE dTATEd JESSE B. CRETQRS, OF ST. PARIS, OHIO.

STORM-FRGNT FOB; VEHICLES.

Application filed August 29, 1912.

To all whom it may concern Be it .znown that a, Jesse B. CRnroRs,a citizen of the United States, residing'at St. Paris, in the county of Champaign and State of Ohio, have invented a new and useful Storm-Front for Vehicles, of which the following is a specification.

This invention has reference to improvements in storm fronts for vehicles, and its object is to provide a weatherproof storm front which may be applied to vehicles of difierent sizes without the necessity of change in manufacture, whereby a single type or style of front may be adapted to many different types of vehicles and the owner of a'storm front may apply the same to difierent vehicle's should such owner possess more than one vehicle.

In accordance with the presentinvention the improved storm front comprises a frame which may be erected on the front of the body of the vehicle and this frame is pro vided with means whereby it may be also attached to the cover frame of the vehicle and with curtains by means of which the entire front of the vehicle may be closed in without, however, interference with the ready access to the vehicle from eithe side, since the curtain arrangement is such that a person may enter a vehicle or leave the same with the greatest facility and when in the vehicle may readily adjust the curtains so as to exclude the elements.

The invention will be best understood from a consideration of the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, with the further understanding that while the drawings illustrate a practical embodiment of the invention which in use has proven efficient, it is not confined to any strict conformity with the showing of the drawings, but may be changed and modified in its practical embodiments so long as such changes and modi-' fications mark no material departure from the salient features of the lnvention.

In the draw1n :F1gure 1 1s a perspective viewof a carriage body with the top up and the storm front applied, the running gear of the vehicle being omitted. Fig. 2 is a perspective view on a larger scale than Fig. l of a part of the body of the vehicle, part of the frame of the top of the vehicle in the expanded position and the framework of the storm front applied to the body of Specification of Letters Eatent.

PatentedBec. 9, 155 13.

Serial no. 717,782.

the vehicle, the curtains being in most part omitted, Fig.3 is a section on the linej3-3 of F ig. 4 looking forward from the interior of the storm front near the top thereof. 4: is a section on the line d% of Fig. 3

and continued to the bottom portion of the storm front, and also indicating in dotted lines a port-ion of the top of the vehicle to which the storm front is applied. Fig. 5 is a section on the line of Fig. a. Fig. 6 is 'a section on the line 66 of Fig. i. Fig. 7 is a section on the line 77 of Fig. 1 but drawn on larger scale. Fig. 8 is a section on the line 88 of Fig. 4. 9 is a section on the line 99 of Fig. l and drawn on a larger scale.

Referring to the drawings, there is shown a vehicle body 1 provided with a top 2 having the usual frame made up of bows 3 and such hinge bars 4t as are customarily employed for the support of the flexible portion of the top. The body 1 and top 2 may be taken as typical of any suitable vehicle.

In the attachment constituting the subject matter of the present invention there is provided a frame made up of side bars 5 and a connecting bow 6 constructed of wood or metal. The side bars at the ends remote from the bow are joined by a connecting strip 7 determining the spacing of the side bars and at an intermediate point these bars are conn cted by another strip 8, while the bow portion of the frame is provided with a connectin brace 9 stiffening such portion of the structure. The bars 5 may be closer together at the ends remote from the bow than at said bow end, but are spaced apart at the ends connected by the strip 7 su'liiciently to straddle the front end of the widest vehicle body to which the deviceis to be attached. Extending between the strip 8 and brace 9 are stiles l0 defining with the strip 8 and brace 9 a frame in which is mounted another frame 11 designed to receive and retain a sheet 12 of suitable transparent material, such as celluloid, and the frame 11 is connected to the brace strip 9 by hinges 13, whereby the frame 11 with the pane 19. constitutes a window and may be opened or closed, as desired.

The bars 5 and how 6 may be all in one piece appropriately bent and adjacent to where the bars 5 join the bow 6 there are secured hin es 14-, one leaf of each hinge beingfast to the respective portion of the bow 6 and the other leaf of the hinge being made fast to a bar 15 of a length about equal to that of the respective bar 5 and located adjacent to the inner face of said bar. Each bar 15 near the end remote from the hinge is provided with a longitudinal slot 16, and on the face remote from the bar 5 with a block 17 having a leather or other soft facing 18, since this block is designed to engage the body of the vehicle to clampv the frame structure described thereto, and it is desirable to prevent any marring of the varnish finish of the body of the vehicle.

At that end of each bar 5 connected to the strip 7 there is secured a plate 19 extending longitudinally of the bar and at the end adjacent the strip 17 formed with a boss 20 through which there is provided a passage suitably shaped for the reception of a clamp screw 21 having a wing head 22 or other suitable manipulating means at one end, The other end of this screw bears against the corresponding end of the adjacent bar 15 to force the padded block 17 into engagement with the vehicle body, whereby the frame structure may be readily clamped to a vehicle body against accidental displacement. Each plate 19 has a longitudinal slot 23 formed therein and on opposite sides of this slot the plate is transversely serrated or toothed, as indicated at 24, to receive and hold a follower block 25 similar-1y toothed or serrated. Traversing each block 25 and the slots 23 and 16 is a rod 26 threaded at the ends for the reception of wing nuts 27 The rod 26 serves as a support for the frame by resting on the upper edges of the side members of the body 1 and is held against movement along the slots 23 and 16 by the blocks 25 having their toothed or serrated portions in engagement with the teeth or serrations 24 of the plates 19.

At about the junction of the bow portion 6 of the frame with the side members 5 there are provided headed studs 27 standing outwardly from the frame and each ex tending through an elongated loop 28 in one end of a rod 29, the other end of which is formed into another elongated loop 30 extending from the rod at substantially right angles to the length thereof. Traversing the loop 30 is the shank of a hook 31, such shank being threaded for the reception of a wing nut 32 and a washer 33. The purpose of the hook 31 is to engage over an appropriate portion of the hinged rod 4 on the corresponding side of the frame of the top of the vehicle. Each stud 27 is elongated to extend through an appropriate portion of the bow 6 to the inner face thereof where it traverses the leaf of the hinge 14 fast to the bow and there is threaded for the application of a wing nut 34, so that by tightening the wing nut the headed end of the stud 27 may be made to clamp the loop 28 fast against the bar 5 in any suit able position of adjustment, the loop 30 permitting a like positioning of the rod 29 with relation to the hinge bar 4 of the folding top of the vehicle.

The ends of the loops 28 remote from the bodies of the bars 29 are each formed into an eye 35 for the reception of the bolt 36 in turn extending through an eye 37 on the corresponding end of a bow rod 38 disposed in front of what constitutes the frame of the attachment and provided for a purpose which will presently appear.

Fast to the bars 15 near the ends thereof are spring roller brackets 39, 40 for the reception of spring rollers 41 like those usually employed in connection with window shades, and attached to these spring rollers are side curtains 42 each having at the free end a loop 43 for the reception of a curtain strip 44, such as is customarily provided in window shades. The free edge of each curtain has a flexible strap 45 made fast thereto and looped through a hook plate 46 in which it may be held in adjusted positions by a link 47. The hook plate 46 is designed to engage about an appropriate side member of one of the bows 3 of the frame of the folding top of the vehicle, so that when the curtain is drawn out against the action of the spring roller it may be fastened to the folding top of the vehicle to close the space between the main frame of the storm front and the side curtains of the folding top of the vehicle, but, at the same time, either side curtain may be readily released to roll again upon the roller, thus permitting the entrance to the vehicle or exit therefrom without other manipulation of the storm front. It is customary to provide a transparent pane 48 in each side curtain 42, and as this transparent member 48 may be made of celluloid or other such suitable material, it will readily roll upon the spring roller when the curtain is in the retracted position.

On opposite sides of the bow portion 6 of the main frame of the attachment strips 49 are secured, thus providing on top of the bow portion a longitudinal channel. Adapted to this channel is a flexible strap 50 made fast at one end by a nail 51, or other suit able fastening device to the how 6 beyond, the end of the channel formed by the strips 49, while at the other end this strap hasa buckle 52 secured thereto in position to receive another strap 53 made fast to the bow 6 by a nail 54 or otherwise beyond the other end of the channel formed by the strips 49.

Looped around the rod 38 is one end of a double web curtain 55 having side flaps 56, and at an appropriate point the inner web of the curtain 55 forms into a loop 57 to accommodate the strap 50, so that this web of the curtain 55 may be clamped fast to the bow 6, thus holding the parts in appropriately taut position. Since, however, the rod 88 moves with the rods 29 in different positions with reference to the frame made up of the members 5 and 6, the strap will engage the inner web of the double web curtain at different points, so that the loop 57 is in effect a changeable loop as to position, the two webs of the curtain 55 being secured together only at the ends.

That edge of the curtain 55 remote from the rod 38 is formed into a loop 58 in which is lodged an elastic cord 59. The curtain 55 is of sufficient extent to reach over the front edge of the foldable top of the vehicle when such top is in the extended position, and the elastic cord 59 serves to hold the corre sponding edge of the curtain 55 in firm but yielding engagement with said vehicle top. At one end the elastic cord 59 has a strap fast thereto, and this strap carries a buckle 61 at an intermediate point, so the free end of the strap may be looped about one of the hinge bars 4 and then introduced into the buckle 61 to connect the flexible cord 59 to the hinge bar of the vehicle top. The other end of the elastic cord 59 may be made fast to the corresponding end of the curtain 55, and this end of the curtain is likewise provided with a strap 62 and a buckle 63, so that the curtain at this point may be secured to the corresponding hinge bar 4. To provide for projecting portions of the vehicle top and for accessibility of the wing nut 32 and loop 30, the side portions 56 of the curtain 55 are cut away or recessed, as indicated at 64.

Each side bar 5 at an appropriate point is provided with a curtain button and each side flap 56 of the curtain 55 is formed with a suitable button-hole for permitting the passage of the button 65. Each side member 56 of the curtain 55 has the portion below the recess 64 provided with an elastic clip 66 designed to engage over an appropriate portion of the side extension of the front bow 3 of the vehicle top.

The frame made up of the side members 5 and bow 6 is covered by a curtain 67 with extensions 68 between the stiles 10 and the side members 5 and the material of these curtains is carried about the side members 5 and how 6, so as to entirely hide these parts from view and protect them against the action of the weather.

The lower outer edge of the frame 11 constituting the sash or window frame carries curtain flaps 68 acting to shed any water which may run down the pane 12.

To provide for the passage of the driving reins, the bar 8 has appropriate slots or recesses 69 therein and these slots or recesses are to an extent covered by one of the flaps 68 thus excluding the effects of the weather elements at these points.

When the storm front is applied to a ve: hicle, the rod 26 is adjustable at such a distance from what constitutes the lower end of the frame of the attachment that this rod will rest upon the upper edges of the sides of the body of the vehicle with the top of the frame of the attachment substantially level with the upper surface of the expanded top of the vehicle. Now, by manipulating the screws 21 the padded blocks 17 are brought into clamping engagement with the sides of the body of the vehicle, the attachment being placed as near the front of the body as possible, there being room for a dash if present between the rod 26 and the curtain 67. The bars 29 are now adjusted after the studs 27 are loosened so that with the frame of the attachment substantially upright the bars 29 may be secured to the hinge bars 4 and to the frame of the attachment in a rigid manner by a suitable manipulation of the thumb nuts 32 and 34. Before the attachment is applied, the strap 50 is loosened, so that the rear edge of the curtain 55 may be drawn over the front of the expanded vehicle top and then drawn into close engagement therewith by the straps 60 and 62, the elastic card 59 stretching suitably for the purpose. After this is accomplished the strap 53 is manipulated to draw the strap 50 tight to the bar 6, thus clamping the inner web of the curtain 55 thereto. the side members of the front bow of the vehicle top and finally after the driver is seated in the vehicle the curtains 42 may be unrolled and fastened so as to thoroughly inclose the portion of the vehicle occupied by the driver and all weather is effectively excluded, even wind finding no point of entrance which will render it uncomfortable for the driver. Should the occupant of the vehicle desire to alight, it is only necessary to unhook one of the curtains 42 and allow it to roll upon the spring roller, thus affording ample room for egress. The front and side windows afford large sight openings and admit plenty of light while excluding the weather.

When the storm front is not in use, it is very quickly detached by merely unhooking the side curtains 42 and 56 and unbuckling the straps 60 and 62 and then manipulating the screws 2l to unclamp the frame of the device from the vehicle body and the thumb nuts 32 to release the hooks 81, whereupon the entire device may be removed as one structure from the vehicle. The parts may remain in adjustment for subsequent attachment, or the thumb nuts 34 may be loosened when the bars 29 and 38 may be folded into close relation to the main frame of the de Now the clips 66 are forced over GIT vice, thus compacting the device for storage. Should it be desired to apply the storm front to another vehicle differing in size from the first vehicle, the adjustments are all readily accomplished in but a very few moments.

The storm front is particularly useful in connection with vehicles employed by postmen either in city collections or in rural collections and delivery, affording ample protection without material interference with frequent exits from and entrances into the vehicle.

The adjustable curtain carriers comprising the bars 15 make it possible to apply the storm front to vehicle bodies of different widths without affecting the curtains at the front of the vehicle, and, moreover, the side curtains are always brought into close relation to the sides of the body of the vehicle irrespective of the width of such body and Without change in the shape of the front. Again, the elastic cord or tension strap at the rear edge of the top curtain of the storm front causes this part of the curtain to cling tightly to the vehicle top thus excluding air or moisture from the vehicle at this point. Again, the adjustable connections carrying the top curtain admit of the placing ofthe main frame of the storm front in an upright position at the front of the body irrespective of the arrangement of the vehicle top. Moreover, the attachment is wholly outside the vehicle body and there is nothing inside the body to interfere with the full use thereof and the clamping occurs where the body is best capable to stand it, that is, directly in line with the bottom and front of the body. The top curtain 55 of the attachment'is held in overhanging relation to the front of the attachment, so as to protect the window 12 very largely from the effects of rain or snow, so that there is little liability of obscuring the outlook during the prevalence of a storm.

The spring rollers e1 with the curtains 42, especially when the curtains are unrolled, leave a space between them and the boss 5, wherefore elongated flaps are made fast to the bars to overlap the rollers 41 so as to exclude the weather at such point.

Vvhat is claimed is l. A storm front attachment for vehicles having tops, comprising a frame substantially rigid throughout and of a length substantially equal to the full height of the storm front and also of a width greater than the body of the vehicle, said frame being provided with curtains, clamp members carried by and interior to the side members of the frame and adjustable to move one toward the other to grip the body of the vehicle, side curtains carried by the clamp members and participating in the movements of adjustment toward and from the body of the vehicle, and means for con- 2. A storm front attachment for vehicles having tops, comprising a frame substan tially rigid throughout and of a length sub-.

stantially equal to the full height of the storm front and also of a width greater than the body of the vehicle, said. frame being provided with curtains, clamp members carried by and interior to the side members of the frame and adjustable to move one toward the other to grip the body of the vehicle, side curtains carried by the clamp members and participating in the movements of adjustment toward and from the body of the vehicle, and means for connecting the frame to the vehicle top when the latter is extended, the frame being also provided with a member extending transversely thereof between its sides and adjustable lengthwise of the sides of the frame, and positioned to engage the upper edges of the sides of the vehicle.

3. A storm front attachment for vehicles having tops, comprising a substantially rigid frame of a length substantially equal to the full height of the storm front and of a width greater than the width of the body of the vehicle and also provided with curtains, clamp members on opposite sides of the frame each hinged at the upper end to a respective side member of the frame near the upper endthereof at the inner side of the side member and at the lower ends said clamp members being constructed to engage the outer faces of the respective sides of the body of the vehicle to which the storm front is applied, a side curtain car ried by each hinged clamp member and participating in the movements thereof, connecting members carried by the frame atthe end thereof remote from that to be attached to the vehicle body, and means for attachment thereof to the top of the vehicle.

4. In a storm front for vehicles, a frame comprising side members and top and bottom members, longitudinally slotted toothed plates carried by the frame near one end thereof, a. clamp screw carried by each plate near one end thereof, a rod extending through the slotted plates and between the side members of the frame, clamp blocks and nuts carried by the rod to engage the toothed plates of the frame, and a bar interior to each side member of the frame and hinged thereto near the end of the frame remote from the clamp screws, each bar being provided with a slotted passage for the rod and with an engagingmember at the end remote from the hinge to contact with the vehicle body and at said end being'located in the path of the clamp screw on the adjacent side member.

5. In a storm front for vehicles, a frame comprising side members and top and hottom members, longitudinally slotted toothed plates carried by the frame near one end thereof, a clamp screw carried by each plate near one end thereof, a rod extending through the slotted plates and between the side members of the frame, clamp blocks and nuts carried by the rod to engage the toothed plates of the frame, and a bar interior to each side member of the frame and hinged thereto near the end of the frame remote from the clamp screws, each bar being provided with a slotted passage for the rod and with an engaging member at the end remote from the hinge to contact with the vehicle body, each of said hinge bars being provided with a spring roller and a side curtain attached thereto and also at the slotted end being located in the path of the clamp screw on the adjacent side memher.

6. In a storm front for vehicles, a curtain carrying frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle and securing means for the end of the frame remote from the body of the vehicle comprising a rod on each side of the frame having at one end an elongated loop extending lengthwise of the rod and at the other end with an elongated loop extending transversely of the rod, each loop being provided with means for securing it in adjusted position lengthwise of the loop with relation one to the frame and the other to the top of the vehicle.

7. In a storm front for vehicles, a curtain carrying frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle and securing means for the end of the frame remote from the body of the vehicle comprising a rod on each side of the frame having at one end an elongated loop extending lengthwise of the rod and at the other end with an elongated loop extending transversely of the rod, each loop being provided with means for securing it in adjusted position with relation one to the frame and the o-ther'to the top of the vehicle, and a connecting rod between the outer ends of those loops extending lengthwise of the firstnamed rods.

8. In a storm front for vehicles, a curtain carrying frame having means at its upper end for securing it to the protecting top of the vehicle comprising a rod on each side of the frame having at one end an elongated loop extending lengthwise of the rod and at the other end an elongated loop extending transversely of the length of the rod, a clamp device on the frame extending through the first-named loop for clamping the rod in different positions of adjustment lengthwise of the loop with relation to the frame, and a clamp device adapted to extend through the second-named loop in position to engage a portion of the frame of the vehicle top.

9. In a storm front for vehicles, a curtain carrying frame having means at its upper end for securing it to the protecting top of the vehicle comprising a rod on each side of the frame having at one end an elongated loop extending lengthwise of the rod and at the other end an elongated loop extending transversely of the length of the rod, a clamp device on the frame extending through the first-named loop for clamping the rod in different positions of adjustment with relation to the frame, and a clamp device adapted to tend through the second-named loop in position to engage a portion of the frame of the vehicle top, and rod connecting those ends of the first-named loops remote from the second-named loops.

10. In a storm front for vehicles provided with tops, a curtain carrying frame having an outstanding support at the upper end mounted on and adjustable with relation to said frame, and a curtain or canopy conected at the front to and carried by the outer end of the outstanding support in front-projecting relation to the upper end of the frame and extending rearwardly beyond the frame and there provided with means for engaging and holding it to the front of the vehicle top.

11. In a storm front for vehicles having tops, a curtain supporting frame provided with means for securing it to the vehicle body in a substantially upright position, connecting means carried by and adjustable on the upper end of the frame for attaching the latter to the vehicle top, and also extending beyond the front of the frame, a curtain attached to the front extension of the connecting means, securing means at the rear of the curtain for attaching it to the front portion of the vehicle top, and means for attaching an intermediate portion of the curtain to the supporting frame and constructed to permit adjustment of the connecting means and curtain with respect to the frame.

12. In a storm front for vehicles, a curtain carrying frame having means for attaching it to the body of the vehicle in a substantially upright position, connecting means for the upper end of the frame for attaching it to the front of the vehicle top, said connecting means having means for securing it to the frame and to the vehicle top in different positions of adjustment, and a top or canopy curtain carried by the frame and connecting means and participating in the movements of adjustment thereof.

13. In a storm front for vehicles, a supporting frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle in a substantially upright position, a top or canopy curtain therefor having one edge provided with an elastic insert and adapted to engage the front portion of the permanent top of the vehicle, a supporting member for the other edge of the canopy curtain projecting beyond the front of and adjustably carried by the frame and means for securing an inter mediate portion of the canopy curtain to the top of the supporting frame in different positions of adjustment of the supporting member thereon.

14. In a storm front for vehicles, a supporting frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle in a substantially upright position, a top or canopy curtain on the upper end of the frame and project ing to both the front and rear thereof and movable thereon to different positions of adjustment toward the front or rear, and a binding strap on the frame in transverse relation to the curtain and constructed to bind said curtain between the front and rear ends thereof to said frame in different positions of lengthwise adjustment.

15. In a storm front for vehicles, a frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle in a substantially upright position, a top curtain or canopy for the frame of a length to project both to the front and rear of the frame when in position on the vehicle, the rear portion of the curtain having means for securing it to the front portion of the vehicle top, means for supporting the front portion of the top curtain or canopy in the frame in overhanging relation to and beyond the front of the frame, and means for clamping the curtain to the frame in different positions of adjustment.

16. In a storm front for vehicles, a frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle in a substantially upright position, a top curtain or canopy for the frame of a length to project both to the front and rear of the frame when in position on the vehicle, the rear portion of the curtain having means for securing it to the front portion of the vehicle top, means for supporting the front portion of the top curtain or canopy on the frame in overhanging relation to and beyond the front of the frame, and means for clamping the curtain to the frame in different positions of adjustment said last named means comprising a strap fastened at one end to the frame and at'the other end provided with securing means and the curtain having two plies for the interposition of the strap between them.

17. In a storm front for vehicles, a frame adapted to be attached to the body of the vehicle in a substantially upright position,

a top curtain or canopy for the frame of a length to project both to the front and rear of the frame when in position of the vehicle, the rear portion of the curtain having means for securing it to the front portion of the vehicle top, means for supporting the front portion of the top curtain or canopy to the frame in overhanging relation to and beyond the front of the frame, and means for clamping the curtain to theframe in different positions of adjustment, said last named means comprising a strap fastened at one end to the frame and at the other end provided with securing means and the curtain having two plies for the interposition of the strap between them, the top of the frame being also provided with spaced strips for receiving the strap between them to clamp the ply of the curtain engaged by the strap to said frame.

18. A. storm front for'vehicles comprising a relatively rigid frame adapted to be ap-' plied to the body of a vehicle in a substantially upright position, adjustable means on the frame for supporting iton the upper edge of'the sides of the vehicle body, adjustable clamping means on the frame for engaging the sides of the vehicle body and extending to near the top of the frame, side curtains carried by the adjustable clamping means, adjustable connecting means near the top of the frame for attachment to the frame of the vehicle top, said adjustable connect- 7 Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents,

Washington, D. G.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2423748 *Dec 2, 1943Jul 8, 1947Ernest AchesonCollapsible top for vehicles
US6419303 *Feb 8, 2000Jul 16, 2002Jeffery William Thomas FlemingCab enclosure for a self-propelled earth moving machine
Classifications
U.S. Classification296/77.1
Cooperative ClassificationB60J5/0487