US 1081260 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
v HJ ZOBLLY.
DEVICE PoR BLBGTROMAQNBTIG SUSPENSION. A APPLICATION FILED 00T. 29, 1912.
1,081,260, Patented Deo.9, 1913.
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f f 2 3 M H. ZOBLLY. DEVICE FOR ELEOTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION.
y APPLIOATION FILED 00T. 29, 1912. 1,081,260.`
Patent-.ed Dec. 9, 1913.A
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HEINRICH ZOELLY, OF ZURICH, SWITZERLAND.
DEVICE FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION.
To all whom it may concern.'
Be it known that I. HEINRICH ZOELLY, a
Citizen of the Swiss Republic, residing at Zurich, in the Swiss Republic, have invented new and useful Improvements in Devices for Electromagnetic Suspension, of which the following is a specification.
The invention relates t0 an electromagnetic suspension device, which is suitable for raising loads whichv have to be moved horizontally with as little resistance as possible.' A quite special use is for vehicles.
The essential feature of the invention consists in maintaining by suitable devices an air-space, adjustable within certain limits, between the support (plate, rail, or .the like) and the magnet poles. ThisV effect can be obtained 'in various ways. If the magnet carries the entire load alone, the natural relation of the air-space and carrying force is such that the load would be in an eX- tremely unstable equilibrium. According to the present invention however' special regulating devices are employed, in order to produce an artificial connection between the size of the air-space and the carrying power of the magnet, and t0 obtain a stable equilibrium. with other means (rolls, slides etc.), transfers the load to the supporting plate or rail, the air-space and equilibrium can be obtained, without special means, by balancing the action of the various agents used in transferring the load. It may however, even in this case, be found vantage to specially regulate the lifting power of the magnet. The combination of the magnet with other constructions can be of such a nature that the magnet only supports part of the load, or only furnishes an excess over said load. The regulating influence on the carrying power of the magnet can be effected as follows: 1. By altering the number of ampere windings in the exciting circuit, that is by altering the product: strength of current a' number of effective windings. 2. By influencing the magnetic resistance by means of an additional air-space, the resistance of which is determined bythe size of the space and of the sectional area of the interval. If the load, by means of resilient members, such as a spring (buffer or the like), is transferred to the magnet. the advantage is obtained, that, even on suddenly altering the size of the load, the react-ion on the magnets takes place Specification cf Letters Patent. Application led October 29, 1912.
Iance-regulator in the magnet-circuit.
When the magnet, in connection necessary or of ad? altered. The
Patented Dec. 9, 1913. serial N9. 728,358.
in'relatively long intervals of time. The requirements in regard to sensitiveness and speed of reaction of the regulation are accordingly much reduced. The deformation of such an intermediate member can easily be utilized to effect the regulation. As a consequence t-he reaction of the load on the magnet inuences the regulation immediately, that is, before an alteration of the air-space takes place.
Figure l shows a diagrammatic view in which the means for regulating the carrying power of the magnets consists particularly in varying the resistance in a resist- Fi 2 shows a mechanism for regulating tfe power by the variation or regulation of an air space. Fig. 3 shows a mechanism in which a regulating resistance is inserted in the energizing circuit and an additional variable air space is used to interrupt the circuit. In this form also the load is transferred to the magnets by means of springs, said springs serving to relieve the regulat- Fig. 4 shows the combination of a load carrying magnet with a slide shoe which is controlled by fluid pressure.-
In all the figures described below T is the support or carrying rail or plate, M,
the magnet, s, the space between the poles of the magnet and said rail orplate, E, the exciting coil, B, the source of electric current.
Fig. l shows diagrammatically the regulation of the carrying power of the magnet by altering the number of ampere windings in the exciting circuit. The two-armed lever l, which is adapted to turn about the point 2 on the magnet, owing to the tension of the spring 3, bears at its left end against the plate T. Its other end therefore, on
altering the space s, moves the contact piece 5 over the resistance W, which is switched into the exciting circuit E. According as the space s increases the strength of the electric current is therefore increased and vice versa.
Fig. 2 shows the use of an additional air-space. The iro-n plate P connecting the magnet cores'is interrupted by a. conical space F, in which a correspondingly shaped iron wedge K is adapted to be moved vertically. By this means the size of the airspace and the section of theinterval, and, consequently, the magnetic resistance are iron wedge is moved by the carries, at its left end, the bearing piece 8,
engine piston S, which is Controlled by the tion and the downward pull of the new load. valve V. This valve is adapted to be ad- A spring can also be inserted between the justed by the two-armed lever 6, .which is slide-shoe and the magnet, as shown in Fig. adapted to be turned about the polnt 7 and 4, to regulate `the movement of the slide shoe.
' In the form of special regulating device 70 shown in Fig. 5, 24 indicates a cylinder in which the piston 25 operates. Above said piston 25 the cylinder 24 is adapted to receive a quantity of the pressure fluid which supplies the slide shoe Gr through the pipe or conduit 32. Below the piston 25 and between the latter and the bottom of the cylinder is inserted a spring 2G, which normally presses the piston 25 upwardly. A stem 27 secured to the lower face of the piston 25 80 extends through the bottom of the cylinder 24 and is linked to an arm 28. Said arm 28 constitutes the movable contact member of a variable resistance W, the contact head 31 of said arm 28 being movable over the points 85 of said resistance W. The opposite end of the arm 28 is pivotally fixed at 29. The electrical circuit in this form then is as follows, current source B, the energizing coils E, the variable resistance lV, the sliding contact head 31, arm 28, and connection 29 to the current source. In the operation, when the load is increased, for example, then the space .s tends to increase. In this manner the cross section of the space between the sliding shoe Gr and the track or plate T is also increased, thereby the pressure of the fluid issuing from the slide shoe G is decreased and as a consequence there is a reduction of the back pressure in the pipe 32 100 and above the piston 25. As soon as the reduction in pressure above the piston occurs, the spring 26 will force the piston upwardly thereby actuating arm 28 to vary the resistance W, whereby the energizing current in the coils E is again brought to a balance.
The chief feature of the described invention lies in the maintenance of the air-space between the supporting plate or rail and the poles of the -magnets, all mechanical resistance to lateral movement being avoided. The invention is accordingly quite specially suitable to be used on vehicles. The principal advantage consists in the fact that all wear of the poles and supporting rail is avoided, in addition to which the power consumed in exciting t-he magnets and. remagnetizing the rails is much less than that required to overcome the mechanical frictional resistance in the constructions heretofore known. Also the combination of the magnet with the hydraulic sliding shoe is suitable for a vehicle. With due regard to which is pressed against the plate T by the spring 9. The link-work 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,
15 carrying the pivot 7 forms the return uide.
In Fig. 3 the regulation is effected by the combined action of the additional air-space and of an electric resistance. The letters and numerals have the same meaning as in Fig. 2. The piston S moves not only the iron wedge K, but also the contact 16 of the regulating resistance W. The load repre sented bv the arrows L is transferred by the plate 17 and springs 23 to the magnets. In this figure it is also shown, how the alteration of the length of the spring can be used, in order to effect the regulation simultaneously with the change in the' reaction of the load. This is effected by the plate 17 being rigidly connected with the cylinder Z of the engine. 1 According to the choice of the lever arms 19-14 and 14:-20 in regard to the length of the levers 12-13 and 13--15 the reaction of the regulation on moving the cylinder Z (without relative movement of the piston S and cylinder Z) can be reduced, or, indeed, rendered ineffective. The points 10, 18, 21 and22 are stationary on the magnets.
In Fig. 4 the combination of the magnet M with a slide shoe to which liquid under pressure is fed, is shown, and it is assumed that the attraction of the magnet is in eX- cess of the load. A current regulating device is operatively connected to the apparatus so that the fluid pressure, as varied by the approach or recession of the slide shoe toward or from the supporting rail, actuates said regulating device, and any one of the regulating devices for the magnet described above can be combined with this construction. A special form enables the liquid under pressure required for the slide shoe to be utilized for actuating the regulating organ of the magnet, in the event of the specific pressure altering in accordance with the size of the space s. In operation, if the load is decreased, the magnet will of course tend to draw upwardly toward the `supporting rail, thus decreasing the space s. This naturally brings the slide shoe closer to the rail, thereby decreasing thel .section of the space through which the fluid escapes from the slide shoe. This causes an increase in the pressure of the approximately const-ant flow of fluid from the pump which feeds the slide safety andrconst-ruction the greater part of 125 shoe, and the backpressure in the slideshoe the load ils-,transferred by means of the magand its feed members will continue until net, its .operation being more economical said backpressure causes the regulating dethan that of the slide shoe. On the other vice to vary the' current to equalize the difhand, according as a larger part of the load ference of pull between the magnetic attrae is taken up by the slide shoe, the requireen using more than one magnet it 'can row limits and with a low velocity in a horiters Patent of the United States 1s:-
to move freely over said support and means netic suspension, comprising in combination,
said magnet and said support.
4o tive between said support` and magnet for as 4. The described device for electromagtaining an air-space between said support 5: The described device for electromagadapted to free lateral movement over the set forth.
-6. The described' device for `electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a magnet adapted to exercise a lifting force on the -load to be suspended and leaving an air space between itself and said support, an auxiliary means to exercise a liftlng force on the suspended-load, means to changle the magnetic lifting force according-to t e size of said air space, and means yto maintain equilibrium between said magnet and said auxiliary means, whereby sudden changes in the suspended load react on the means for changing the magnetic lifting force to prevent changes in said air space.
7 The described device for electromag- 80 netic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a magnet adapted to exercise a lifting force on the load to be suspended and leaving an air space between itself and said support, an auxiliary means to exercise a lifting force on the load to be suspended,7 and means to maintain an equilibrium bements in regard to the regulation of the' magnet are less, and may, indeed, be entirely omitted., The power required' for moving the vehicle, which, in adhesive traction, is supplied by theresistance between the wheel and rail, can be produced Without `contact, between the driving part and rail by purely magnetic means or also by the mutual action of electric currents and magnetic fields.
be sufficient to onlgy7 make one part -of the' same adjustable. Also when it is desired to raise very heavy objects, which contrary to vehicles., are onlyto be moved within narzontal direction with the slightest resistance, the invent-ion can be employed with advantage. Y
What I claim and desire to secure by Let- 1. The described device for electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a load-carrying means magnetically attracted to said support and adapted load whereby such changes are prevented from affecting the air space between said magnet and said support.
'8. The described device for electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination,
a support, a magnet carrying the load to be suspended adapted for free lateral` movement and leaving an air-space between itself and said support, and means to regulate the lifting force of said magnet by changing the number of ampere windings in the exciting circuit to maintain the air space substanti ally constant under varying loads, substantially as, and for the purpose, set forth.
9. The described device for electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a load-carrying magnetsuspended to have an air-space between itself and said support, depending on the magnetic attraction of said magnet, said magnet also having an air-space in its body, and means for varying said last mentioned `air space to control the magnetic attraction of the magnet.
10. The described device for electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a magnet carrying the load to be suspended and caving an air-space between itself and said support and having an additional air-space in the path of its magnetic lines of force, means to regulate the lifting force of said magnet by changing the number of ampere windings in the exciting circuit, and means to adjust said additional air-space, substantially as, and for the purpose, set forth.
11. The described device for electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a magnet, means formaintaining an air-space between said magnet and support, a resilient member to transfer the 13o for regulating the magnetic attraction of said load-carrying means for said support to maintain an air-space between them.
2. The described device for electromaga. support, a load-bearing magnet adapted to free lateral movement, and means for Varying the magnetic strength of said load-bearing magnet to maintain an air-space between 3. he described device .for electromagnetic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a load-bearing `magnet adapted to freellateral movement, and means operabearing magnet to malntain a substantially constant space between said magnet and said support.
netic suspension, comprising in combination, a. support, a load-carrying means magnetically attracted to said support and adapted for free movement over the latter, and mainand itself, and means for regulating the magnetic attraction of said support and load-carrying means tohold the air-space substantially constant under varying loads.
netic suspension, comprising in combination, a support, a magnet carrying the load to be suspended and leaving an air-space between itself and said support, said magnet being latter, and means to change the lifting magnetic force according to the size of the airspace between said magnet yand said support, substantially as, and for the purpose,
Weight of the load to be raised to said mag- In testimony whereof I have signed my net, and means to regulate the lifting force nume to this speciication in the presence of o' said magnet according to the deformation two subscribing Witnesses.
of said resilient member and independent HEINRICH ZOELIJY. 5 of the size of the air-space between'said. Witnesses:
magnet and support, substantially as, and BENJAulN GROENIGER,
:for the purpose, set forth. CARL GROVER.