US 1082221 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
GEORG GRAF VON ARGO.
APPLICATION FILED PEER], 1912.
1,082,221 Patented Dec. 23, 1913.
GEOBG GRAB VON ARGO, OI" BERLIN, GERMAIil' Y.
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Specification of Letters i'atent.
Piiiiriteti nee; 23. was.
Application flled February 7, 1912. Serial Ho. 676,132.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORG GBAF you Anoo, a subject of the German Emperor, and residing at Berlin, Germany, have in- 5 vented certain new and useiul Improvements in Radiotelegraphic Stations, of whichthe following is a specification.
My invention relates to aerials for radiotelegraphic stations.
In radiotelegraphy the dimension and shape of the aerials are of the greatest importance for the range of the statibns. The selection of an antenna is connected with certain difficulties, however, because diiler- 15 ent points of view come into question for transmitting, from those for receiving electric oscillations- .When transmitting, the antenna should take up a predetermined, supplied quantity of energy and emit it'with a sufficiently high efiieiency. When'receiving, on the contrary, as much energy as possible is to be taken up from as large it space as possible. While the first requirement is best fulfilled by a relatively small aerial-capacity of large vertical extent, for receiving, a large aerialcapacity of as large superficial area as pos sible is desired. A largeyertical extent ofaerial when receiving is objectionable, when atmospheric and other disturbances should be carefully avoided.
The principal object of my invention is toprovide antennae of various shapes for receiving and for transmlttmg.
v Arrangements have heretofore been proposed which likewise comprise aerials of various shapes for transmitting and receiving. In these known arrangements, however, the aerials were of a form which led in practice to new difiiculties which consisted in'mutu'al disturbances occurring both when transmitting and when receiving. These disturbances could be obviated only by separating the two aerials in space some kilometers apart. whereby, of course, in practice other disadvanta es resulted. Now ac cording to my invention I obviate these.devfe cts by employing separate antenm'e for transmitting and for receiving, that for transmitting being formed as a standard antenna, while that principally used for receiving is formed as a low horizontal antenna, 2', e. as an aerial which extends, principally horizontally. in immediate proximity to the ground. When the antennae used for transmitting. and receiving are formed in this nnn'er it'is possible to arrange the same directly besideone an the]; without causing, mutual reaction 1 of any: kind. The directly contiguous arrangement. on of the two aerials besides has the advantage that not only the antenna'specially provided for receiving, but also the verticat'antennai; can be simultaneously used dbr receiving the electric oscillations. "QB; One illustrative embodiment of myinren-j tion and some modifications thereof are dim grammatically represented in the accent-1 panying drawing, wherein:-
Figures 1 and 2 are elevation and plan re view, respectively, showing an arrangement in which the low horizontal antenna is separated from the transmitter antenna and lo (rated symmetrically therewith; Fig. 2 is a modification of the antennae '0 shown in- Fig. 72 2. Fig. 3 is a diagram showing an arrange? ment in which the receiving antenna is combined with the transmitting antenna, and Fig. 4 is a diagram showing an arrangement in which the low horizontal antenna and 86 the aerial antenna act on one common re ceiving apparatus.
Referring firstly to Figs. 1 and 2, a designates a standard transmitter antenna, c. 7. an umbrella-shaped antenna energized in known manner over the transformer 5, which forms part of the transmitter en euit 25., It is used for emitting the signals, while the latter are received by the low hori 1 zontal antenna 1' which is connected to the 90 grounded plates (7', and transmits the cu' ergy by means of the transformer f in known manner to the receiving apparatus r. The transmitter antenna a is arranged lat orally of and symmetrically to the receiving antenna, as clearly shown in Fig. 2." While the transmitter acts equally strongly in all directions,"the receiver prefers the signals from that direction in which the low hori zontal antenna extends. As Fig. 2 shows, the low horizontal antenna is arranged laterally of and symmetrically to the antenna a and connected on both sidcs hy wires (Z' proceeding radially from their ends with a plurality of grounded plates d. Instead of the plurality of grounded plat-cs one single plale may, of course, he used at each end. Furthrl'morc, the grounded plates may be replaced by the full cquivalcnt'of horizontal nets or wires in the form of counterweights 110 relatively to the transmitter antenna no reaction of the high frequency of the trans mitter antenna. takes place on the receiver. The waves proceeding from the transmitter antenna impact, on the contrary, in Fig. 2 for example, both ends or the low horizontal antenna perfectly unitormly, so that disturbing potential difl'erenccs do not occur in the antenna and consequently duplex operation with a second station is possible.
It is preferable to utilize the means for grounding or balancing the transmitter antenna for grounding or balancing the low horizontal antenna. Fig. 3 shows an arrangement for using the same counter weight. The cinint'crwcight g which serves for balancing the antenna a when transmitting can be connected by the switch it with the low horizontal antenna and thus be used for forming the low horizontal antenna. Instead of the counterweight, however, the equivalent grounding arrangement g.used for thetransmittcr antenna a in Fig. .1. can likewise be used for the low horizontal antenna in the manner shown in Fig. 3 without departing from the spirit of the invention.
While the aerial antenna solely serves for transmitting it is preferable to useboth antennae for receiving which is readily possible in consequence of their li eing arranged close together. Fig. a shows such an arrangement. The transmitting antenna a besides being coupled with the transmitter circuit 1', is also coupled with an intermediate circuit 'i, and the receiving antenna 0 is coupled with the intermediate circuit 2'. Botl circuits i and i are coupled with oni-i'comrnon detector circuit 7;. Antenna a is disconnected from the receiving system by means of double switch s-s, located in circuit 27. In this case the energy taken up by the twoantennae is added to ether by the two intermediate circuits i,- in the common detector circuit k and the strengthened signals can be perceived in the telephone Z. The symmetrical ari'irngement of the two antennae in,
proximity to each other is advantageous also in this case.
1. in a rialiotelegraphic station, the combination with 21v vertical antenna for transmitting, of a low horizontal antenna for receiving, said horizontal antenna being symmetrically disposed adjacent to the vertical antenna and in operative relation therewith to avoid mutual disturbimce.
2. In a radiotclegraphic station, the combination with a vertical. antenna for transmitting, ot a low horizontal antenna for receiving, said horizontal antenna being Symmetrically dispimcd adjacent to the vertical antenna and in operative relation therewith to avoid mutual disturbance and means adapted to ground both the vertical and the horizontal antenna.
3. in a radioielegraphic station, the combination with a vertical antenna normally for transmitting, of a. low horizontal antenna for receiving, said horizontal antenna being syn'nnetrically disposed adjacent to the vertical antenna and in operative relation therewith to avoid mutual disturbance and a receiving apparatus operatively connected. with the vertical and with the horizontal antenna, for the purpose specified.
4. In a station for wireless tclegra 'ihy, a vertical antenna, a low horizontal antenna, a transmitting device connected with said vertical antenna, a receiving device connected with said horizontal antenna, means for coupling the receiving device of the hori: zontal antenna with the vertical antenna and for uncoupling it therefrom to permit the receiving device to receive energy from both antenmc at will.
5. In a station for wireless telegraphy, a vertical antenna, a. low horizontal antenna, a transmitting device connected with said vertical antenna, and a receiving device connected with said horizontal antenna, means For coupling with the vertical antenna and for uncoupling therefrom the receiving device ot' the horizontal antenna, the horizontal antenna being symmetrically aranged relatively to the vertical antenna.
In testimony "whereof, I a'llix my signature in the FLT-35501169 of two witnesses.
GEORG GRAF VON ARGO.
Witnesses? v lVoLnnMAR HarirT,
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