US 1086916 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A, E. HOLBROOK.
AEROPLANE. APPLICATION FILED JAN.19. 1910;
Patented Feb. 10,1914.
4 SHEETS BHEET 1.
ATTORNEYS A. E. HOLBBOOK.
APPLICATION 11.51) .TAN.19, 1910. 1,086,91 6. Patented Febifl, 1914.
' 4 SHEETS-SHEET 2,
ATTORNEYS lliLFeilLFiFiLiL W/T/VESSES.
A. E. HOLBROOK.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.1'9,1910.
Patented Feb. 10, 1914.
4 SHEETS-ST a.
. ATTORNEYS E. HOLBRQO'K.
A'PPLIGATION FILED J A N.l9,1910.
Patented. Feb. 10, 1914.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
ATTORNEYS ra ns rarnnr orri ARTHUR snares nomseoox, 0F JOPLIN, iarssoonr.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 1851914.
Application filed January l9, 1910. SeriaLNo. 538,833.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that LARTHIER ERPJTT H01.- nnooK, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Joplin, in the county of Jasper and State of Missouri, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Aeroplanes, of which the following is a spec fiwith the smallest possible amount of weight,
.1161'80f, Figure 1 is a side view of the im-" wherein the balancing will be aiiltomatic, and. wherein a plurality of rudders is provided operated by a single shaft.
a .A. further obiect is to provide afnovel.
form of propeller, wherein the angle of the operating-simface of allthe blades may be simultaneously varied. w I
A further object is to provide .a novel method of attaching the covering to thesup-- porting planes or. wings, and for easily stretchmg the same- Referring to the drawings forming'a part provement, Fig. ,2 is a top plan view, 3 isan end View, Fig. at is an enlarged detail view of a portion of a wing,: Fig. 5 is a section on the line 55 :of Fig. at. Fig.-6 is a diagrammatic crosssection of the front of Fig. 1, showing the mounting of the guiding propeller shaft, unnecessary parts being omitted, Fig. 7 is a detail," perspective view of the rudder, Fig. 8 is a similar view ofthe operating mechanism for the same, Fig. 9 is an enlarged perspective View of one of the balancingplanes, Fig. 10 is an enlarged front View of a portion of the propeller, Fig. 11 is anend view of a propeller blade, Fig. l2'is a vertical section of the propeller lnih, and Fig. l3 is a front view of the-same.
In the embodiment of the invention shownin the drawings, a central framework is provided, consistmg of the upper andv lowerlongitndinal strips 1 and 2, connected by uprights 3, and by cross bars 4.. and lateral wings, fournin number, two upon each side of the central framework.
The wings 'are similarin construction, each consisting of a rectangular frame, composed of side strips 5 and vend strips 6, the
side strips being connectedv bycross strips 7.
and the end strips being connected by similar cross strips 8. The frame ofseach wing is also covered by a flexible preferably fabric covering 9, and the inner side strip of each wing is-connectecl with the adjacent upper longitudinal strip 1 of ,the central frame work.
The covering preferably .of canvas is arranged on the under side of the framework, and is preferably a few inches larger than the frame, and edges of the covering are provided with spaced eyelets 11, (Fig. 4.)-
A rod 12 is arranged on the upper side of the frame, being securedin place by. bearin'gringS 13, and a'lace let is passed through the eyelets and around the rod, so that the cover may be stretched evenly and smoothly on the frame. e
The planes or wings above described, have at heir-outer sides, at spaced inter-- vals, vertical bolts l5, which pass through the strips and extend above and below, and on each end of each bdlt isa sleeve 16., having an-eye l7, from which" extends a guy w1re 18 to a central mast 19, a turn buckle 2O bein i-nt erposed in each guyv wire.
A ru der is arranged at the rear end of the-central frame work, the said rudder consistin of three blades- 22, 21 and 21.
The bla cs 21 and 21 are arranged edge to' r edge, and are hinged together at, their meeting edges, and are normally in the same plane. The blade 22 is arranged in vertical position, and its front edge is hinged to the central frame work. 4 The blade 21 and the blade 22 are arranged incrossed relation. the said blades intersecting at their transverse medial lines. The said plates are of any desired construction, preferably of a light rigidmaterial.. I
The frame to which the blade 2 is hinged is composed of longitudinal strips 23 connected by vertical strips 24, and diagonal, braces 25 are arranged between the strips 23 and 24. A segmental hracket 26 .is .se-
. the blade 22supports .the blades 21 and 2-1.
A cord 33 is connected to the center of the the brackets 2G,.and each of the said cords,
29, 30, and extend forwardly to steering mechanis njto be described,
A rectangular frame 28 issupported' near: the front of the central frame, between two" strips 3 of the said central frame, and the said frame 28 is pivoted at 31 to the strips 3.' The pivot pins 31 are arranged at the center of'the end members of the frame 28, and a pulley 32 is connected to the inner end of each of the said pivot pins. The wires 33 before mentioned extend forwardly from the brackets-32, and inwardly where they wind in opposite directions upon a drum 34, secured to a shaft 35, journaled vertically at the center of the frame 28, and a hand wheel 86 is secured to the upper end of the, shaft for operatir the said shaft.
The wires 29 extend forwardly from the upper ends of the brackets 26 til at connection with theupper corners of the frame 28, and the wires 30 extend forwardly from the lowercorners of the brackets to the lower corners of the said frame-28.- It will be evident that by means of the hand wheel :36, the frame 28 may beoscillaled on the pivot pin 31,to swing the segmentary brackets 26 and the plate 21 connected thereto, on the blade 21 When the upper end of the shaft '35 is pulled rearwardly, the free edge of the blade 21 is swung downwardly. WVhen the shaft is rotated by means of the hand wheel, one of the cords'or wires-33 is wound on the frame, while the other is unwound, and the three blades 21, 21 and 22 are swung laterally with respect to the frame 28, Ql, 25, the direction of movement depending upon the direction the shaft is turned.
A shaft 37 is journaled in a horizontal position at the front of the central frame, in a bearing 38 supported between two bolts 39, which connect two substantially vertically arranged braces 40 extending between and connected at their ends with the upper and lower cross-bars 41., and in a bearing 42 in front of the frame, and supported by links The inner end of the shaft is provided with a pulley ell, and the outer with a propeller to be described.
Vertical shafts 4A and 45 are journalednear each end of the centra frame, and each shaft supports on its upper end a propeller,
similar to the propeller on the shaft 37.
Each of the propellers (l igs. 10, 11, 12 and 13) consists of a hub composed of two sections 47 and 47. Each section is provided at each end with aflange 484-8 the flange 48 being interrupted and having openings 49, while the flange 48 is provided with arc shaped slots 57. The sections are'placed with theflan ges 48* abutting, and are secured together by bolts 58 passing through the slots,
frame 59, Covered by a covering (30, and, each is secured by its apex to a flange 48, by means of bolts 61. Each side of the frame of one blade is continnoiis with the corresponding'side of the frame of the other blade of the propeller, as shown in Fig. 10, and the center or junction ofthe sides is bolted to the flange 4-8 of the adjacent sec- ,tion by bolts 61.
The covering is provided at one edge with n series of eyelets 62 and at a point somewhat. removed from the other edge with a second series 63. to lit the frames, and are placed thereon, and secured inplace by a lace 64-, the arrangementbeing such that the fran'i-e is completely covered on one side, and partially covered on the other side. it will be evident that by rotatingthe hub sections with respect to each other,- the angle of the blade may be increased or diminished.
Each of the shafts 44: and 45 is provided with a pulley 50, and the pulleys are con nected by belts 51, with pulleys 52, on; a vertiral shaft journaled near the center of the central frame, and. proi 'lded at its upper end with av pulley 54 connected'by a belt 55,
with the'pulley ell on the shaft 37. Two pulleys 56 are provided above and on each side of the pulley ll to change the direction of the belt. The shaft is the power shaft, and may be connected toand driven by any suitable motor. the said shaft is rotated by the motor, the propellers will all be set in motion.
One or more balancing planes 65 shown more particularly in Fig. 9 are arranged on each side of the central frame, being snpported by the frame of the adjacent wing, and the balancing planes are preferably near the front of the machine. The said planes are constructed inany' usual or desired manner, preferably of a light substantially rectangular frame having a suitable covering.
The coverings are shaped It will be evident that when shaft 75 supported for lateralswinging movement in any suitable manner, near the front of the machine, the lower end having a Weight 76 of suitable size, and the cord. 73 is connected with the shaft. I
' and is provided With a hand wheel 83 for. operating the same. The mast 19', to which.
masses The connection between the planes and the pendulum shaft is each that when the machine tips to one side, with a consequentswinging of the pendulum shaft, the balancing planes will be swung to compensate, thus uutoimitically righting the machine.
The strips of the: central frame are braced against each other by the angular brackets 77, shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 6, and forks '58 depend from the end uprights of the central frame, between whose arms 79 are journaled rubber tired wheels 80, and braces 81 are arranged between the arms and the frame.
A- controlling shaft 82 is journaled vertically near the center .of the central frame,
theguy wires supporting the side wings are connected, is braced by an arched brace 84, the shaft 4.4 being also braced by the same brace, and a similar brace the shaft 45.
The cord 73'passes through an eye 86 the pendulum shaft, andbuttons 87 are ar-** ranged on each side of the eye, to permit;
some lost movement.
When the swinging frame shown in Fig. 8', is oscillated on the pivot pins 31 by means of the shaft-35, the rudder '21 is swung on its transverse axis, the free edge thereof being lifted or lowered to steer the flying machine vertically, that is, to raise or lower the same. When the wheel 36 is turned, the
rudder-22 is swung laterally on the auxiliary frame 23, and the planes 21 and 2l 'do not change their horizontal position, remaining in alinement and substantially horizontal.
\Yhen however the swinging frame is moved, as before stated, and the Wheel 36 is turned, a combined movement is obtained, on the part of the rudder. This movement consists of lateral swinging of the plane 22,
and vertical swinging of the plane '21, andthe two planes may thus together act tobalance the planes somewhat in'the same manner as the warpable wing tips now in use. lhe plane 21 is fixed with respect to the plane 22, and, moves with the said plane 22 from side to side.
I claim: a
1. In an aeroplane, a central frame, wings on each side, of the frame. a frame extending.
rearwardly from the central frame, and a rudder supported by said frame,said rudder comprising a plane hinged on a vertical axis to the frame, a second transverse-plane at the center of said first named plane, and a third plane hinged to the rear edge of the second plane, segmental bracket-s secured to the ends of the third plane near the hinged edge, a swinging frame pivoted near the front of the central frame on a horizontal axis transversely of the central frame, a
- connection between the corners of theswingof said first named plane,
85 is provided for ing flame and the adj acent and corresponding ends of the brackets, a. shaft at the center of the swinging frame, a pulley at each end of said frame, and a cord connected with each rearwardly from the central frame, and arudder supported by said frame, said rudder comprising a plane hinged on a vertical axis to the frame, a transverse plane at the center hinged to the rear edge of the second plane, and a common means for swinging all of said planes.
.3. In an aeroplane, a wing composed of a substantially rectangular frame, rods secured on the upper face of the wing parallel with one side edge and with oneend'edge, a cover of-fabriomaterial on the under face of the frame, the cover being of greater length and breadth than the frame, and se-.
cured to the frame at the edges remote from the rods, and having rows of eyelets at the edges ad acent to the rods, andlaces passing through the eyelets and over the rods.
, 4. In an aeroplane, a wing composed of a substantially rectangular open frame, and a cover on the-under face of the frame and of greater area than the frame, andsecured to the frame at one sideand one end, the
; opposite end and side of the cover being provided with spaced eyelets, a rod on the/opposite face of the frame from the cover and adjacentto the eyelets, and laces passing through the eyelets and over the rods.
5. In an aeroplane, a Wing-composed of a substantially rectangular open frame, and a cover on the frame, and of greater. area than the frame, and secured to the frame at one side and one end, the opposite end and side of thecover being provided with spaced eyelets, a rod onthe opposite .face of the frame from the cover and adjacent to the eyelets, and laces passing'through the eyelets and over the rods. p I
6. In an aeroplane, a wing composed of an open frame, a cover of fabric material on the frame, and secured thereto by adjacentsides, the other sides having spaced eyelets, rods on the opposite side of the frame from the cover and adjacent to the eyelets, and laces passing through the eyelets and over the rods. v
7. In an aeroplane, a main frame, asapporting' plane at each side of the-main.
frame, a balancing plane at each side of the main frame and near the front thereof, said planes'being mounted to swing on an axis transverse to the 'mainframe and at ap-- proximately the center of the balancing plane, an arm rigidly connected with each .of the said'planes for swinging the plane on a third plane its axis, an endless cord connected with each 'Iin'ited swinging movement to the shaft of the said arms, a pulley on each side of without affecting the cord.
each connection over which the cord passes 5- v a. shaft pivoted to the main frame adjacent?- ARTHUR ERRITT HQLBROUL 5 to the cord, 2; Weight on the lower .end of \Vitnesses:
the shaft, and a slidable connection between U. S. BARNsnmY,
the cord and the shaft, 'for -permit ting a O. A. MAT'I INGLY.