US 1093766 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. M. GAMPFIELD.
APPLIOATION PILBDIOGT. 15,1913.
Patented A111221, 1914 2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
Attorneys E. M. GAMPFIELD.
SEQTIONAL GONDUIT. v APPLIOATION FILED 0012.15. 191s.
1,093,766. y Patented 111112211911 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
v Attorneys v UNITED sTATEs yPATENT oEEIcE.
EDWIN M. GAMPFIELD, F RICHMOND, INDIANA.
SECTIONAL CONDUIT. i
To all lwhom t may concern.'
Be it `known that l, EDWIN M. CAMP- FIELD, a citizen of the United States, residing at Richmond, in the county of Wayne and State of Indiana, haveinvented a new and useful Sectional Conduit, of whichthe following is a specification.
This invention relates to sectional y0011.-'
duits and other like structures such as tunnels, sewers, etc., one of the objects of the invention' being to provide a structure of this character made up of courses of transversely arched blocks so shaped as to be built up readily and to permit the lowering of the keystone blocks into proper position, therebeing an arrangement of side, top and bottoni keys of peculiar contours and which cooperate with the remaining blocks' of the structure to offer the maximum resistance to the downward pressureexerted by the weight above the conduit and the corresponding pressure exerted by the contents of the conduit.
A further object is to provide blocks which can be formed readily, vcan be easily set up in the construction of the conduit or the like, and which are designed to'V lap both at their sides and ends, thus to pro# duce a tight and durable structure.
With the foregoing and other objects in view which will appear as the description proceeds, the invention resides in the combination and arrangement of parts and in the details of construction hereinafter described and claimed, itv being understood that changes in the precise embodiment .of the invention herein disclosed, can bemade l within the scope of what is claimed, without departing from the spirit of the invention.
lin the accompanying drawings, certain forms of my .invention have been shown.`
lin' said drawings :TFigure 1 is a vertical transverse section through a conduit embodying the present improvements. Fig. 2 is a central longitudinal section'through one of the blocks of the conduit. 'Fig` 3 is av view similar to Fig. 1 but showing another lili form. Fig. f1 is an end elevation of a modilied form of block.
Referring to the igures by characters of' Specification of Letters Patient.
. another Between the steps 2 isa transverse partition i-and another transverse partition is `ar-` ranged between the steps'3, as shown at 5, these partitions 4 and 5 being connected at their centers by 'a central longitud-inal partition 6v so that the interior of the block 1 is thus divided into parallel cells extending throughout the length thereof. 'As shown in Fig. 2, one end of the block has an outwardly projecting tongue 7 while a correspending recess 8 is -formed in its other;
end. Thus when the base blocks 1 are ar ranged end to end to form a course, 'the tongue 7 of each block will extend into the Vrecess 8 of the next adjoining block,thereby producing an end lap.
A Y Patented Apr. 21, 1914:.'` Application led October 1.5,- 1913. Serial No. 795,296.
Oppositely disposed similar side blocks 9 i are employed, each of these blocks being Ycurved or arched from side to side. and being provided, at each side, with stepsl() and' 11. These stepped sides of the blocks 9 diverge outwardly and formed between the steps 10 is a transverse partition 12 while corresponding partition 13y is formedbetween thev steps 11. These partitions are preferably parallelwith the inner and' outer faces lof the. blocks and any suitable. reinforcingmeans such as curved and straight webs 14 and 15 can be interposed between the partitions; and the inner (and outer walls of the blocks so as thus to divide the blocks into longitudinal cells egtending throughout the lengths thereof. It will be seen that the steps on the side key blocks 9 are disposed oppositely to the steps on the base key blocks 1. In otherwords, the base block l is stepped inwardly while the side blocks 9 are stepped outwardly. This will be apparent by referring to Fig. 1.
vThe side blocks 9 are adapted to lock at their ends inthe same manner as do the blocks l, they being provided .with end tongues and recesses corresponding with those shown in Fig. 2.
Interposed between each base block 1 and the corresponding side blocks 9 are lowerintermediate blocks 16 arrangedin any desired number of courses. ,Inv the structure shown in Fig. y1, three courses of these lower intermediate' blocks are provided between-the base blocks and each side block 9. Each of these blocks 16 is curved or arched transversely and has its lowermost side stepped outwardly while its uppermost side is stepped inwardly. The steps 17 and 18 formed at thelower side of the lowermost blocks 16 are adapted to bear downwardly upon the steps 3 and 2 of the blocks 4. The steps' 19 and 20 at the upper sides ofthe lowermost blocks 1'6 are designed to receive the downward thrust exerted by the steps 17 and 18 and the nextv adjoining blocks 16; This arrangement is continued through the several courses of the lower side blocks, the steps 19 Aand 20 of the uppermost blocks 16 being engaged by thelower steps and 11 of the side blocks 9.
Erected on the side blocks 9 are courses of upper side blocks 21 of the same construction as the blocks 16`but arranged oppositely thereto, the upper sides ,of these blocks being stepped outwardly while the lower sides are stepped inwardly. The uppermost courses O blocks are held apart by -upper key blocks 21 of the same construction as the blocks 16 but disposed oppositely thereto.
All of theV blocks 16 and 20 are provided with transverse partitions 22 connected at .intermediate points bylongitudinal webs 23 l so that'each block .is thus provided with cells extending l'longitudinally throughout the length thereof.' Furthermore the blocks 16, 20and 21 have their ends disposed in la ped relation in the same manner as the bloc s `1.
It is to be understood that the various courses of blocks used'in building the conduit are to be connected by means of asuitable cement and that the various blocks can l be made of any desired material such as conposit1on.
L vthat by arrangin crete, clay, or other' plastic material'. The conduit is to restl upon a bed of dirt or other material Vand afterithe courses made up of blocksl 1 and 16v have' been assembled, the side blocks?) are placed in osition. 'The upper courses made -upkof t e blocks 2O are then set up after which the course made up of the upperA key blocks 21 is lowered into After the various courses have been assembled and cemented together, any
forms necessary in the setting up ofthe conduit can be removed and the conduit can ybe covered as ordinarily. It has been found the steps onthe various blocks as set fort the downward pressure exerted by the wei ht above the conduit will be distributed su 4stantially in the direc-` thermore it will be noted that alll of the blocks `entering into lthe constructionof the conduit are so sha ed as to be easily manufactured and read1ly placed in position.l
While each block used in the construction of the conduit may be formed with two steps at each side, it is to be understood that eachv block may utilize a single step, as shown, for example, in Fig. 3. Furthermore, and as shown in said figure, the number of courses employed can be reduced and the arrangement of the cells withinl the blocks may be modified. However, the relative positioning of the stepped faces is the same in thev modified structure as that disclosed in Fig. 1. It is also to be understood that instead of utilizing the forms of blocks illuslmerely being necessary to step the blocks so that they will iit together 1n the manner disclosed in Figs. 1 and 3, the lower sides of the upper courses of blocks bearing downwardly and inwardly upon the steps of the upper sides of the next adjoining blocks while the lower sides of the lower courses of blocks bear downwardly and outwardly upon the upper sides of the adjoining blocks. In this manner the lines of force exerted by the weight above the conduit are so distributed as to prevent crushing of the conduit.
Furthermore instead of making the conduit circular as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, it canbe made oval, elliptical, or of other curved cross sectional contour,l it beine` necessary of course to provide special shaped lblocks for the different courses in order to Ahaving their sides stepped outwardly, the
blocks of the courses between the bottom course and the side courses havin their lower sides stepped outwardly an theirl upper sides stepped inwardly and the blocks between the side courses and the top courses having their lower sides stepped inwardly and their upper sides stepped outwardly.
2. A conduit or the like made up of superposed courses of blocks, the blocks of the bottomcourse having their sides stepped inwardly or upwardly, the blocks of the top course having their sides stepped inwardly or downwardly, the blocks of fthe side courses having their sides stepped outwardly, the blocks of the courses between the bottom course and the side courses having their lower sides stepped outwardly and their upper sides stepped inwardly and the blocks between the side'courses and the top courses havin their lower sides stepped inwardly and tieir upper sides stepped out- Wardly, the blocks of all the courses having lapping ends.`
3. A conduit or the like made up of superposed courses of blocks, the blocks of the,A
bottom course having their sides stepped inwardly or upwardly, the blocks of the top course having their sides stepped inwardly or downwardly, the blocks \0 the side courses. having' their sides )stepped outwardly, the blocks of the courses between the bottom course and the side courses having their lower sides stepped-outwardly and their upper sides stepped inwardly and the blocks between the side courses and the top courses having their lower sides stepped inwardly and their upper sides stepped outwardly, each of the blocks having a transverse partition and intermediate radial webs.
4. A conduit or the' like made up of superposed courses of blocks, the blocks of the bottom course having` their sides stepped -inwardly or upwardly, the blocks of the top course having their sides stepped inwardly or downwardly, the blocks of the side courses having their sides stepped outwardly, the blocks of the courses between the bottom course and the side courses having their lower sides stepped outwardly and their upper sides stepped inwardly and the blocks between the side courses and the top courses having their lower sides stepped inwardly and their upper sides stepped outwardly, each of the blocks `having a trans# verse partition and intermediate radial webs, the blocks of each course having lapping ends.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my own, I have hereto affixed my signature in the presence of two witnesses.
EDWIN M. CAMPFIELD.