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Publication numberUS1095558 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 5, 1914
Filing dateAug 16, 1913
Priority dateAug 16, 1913
Publication numberUS 1095558 A, US 1095558A, US-A-1095558, US1095558 A, US1095558A
InventorsArthur Trevor Dawson, George Thomas Buckham
Original AssigneeVickers Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lock mechanism of breech-loading guns.
US 1095558 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

u A. TLDAWSON & G. T. BUGKHAM.

LOOK MECHANISM OF BREEOH LOADING GUNS.

APPLICATION FILED AUG.16, 1913.

-5 BHBETB-BHEET 1.

Patented May 5, 1914.

A77 NEYS A. T. DAWSONK: G. T. BUGKH'AM. LOCK MECHANISM OF BREEGH LOADINGGUNS. APPLICATION FILED AUG.16, 1913.

Patented May 5, 1914.

5 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

W/TA/gssa;

ATTO NEVJ Patented Ma 5, 1914.

APPLICATION FILED AUG. 16, 1913.

A. T. DAWSON & G. T. BUGKHAM. LOOK MECHANISM OF BREEGH LOADING GUNS.

.WIT/VLL.JES Y A. T LDAWSONKz G. T. BUOKHAM. LOCK MEGHANISMOF BREBOH LOADING GUNS.

- APPLICATION FILED AUG.1'6, 191a.v

1,095, 558, Patented May 5,1914.

5 SHEETS-SHEET 4.

W/TM-FSs S )Nw /Wo si A. T. DAWSON & G. T. BUOKHAM. LOCK MECHANISM 0)? BREEGH LOADING GUNS.

APPLICATION FILED AUG. 16, 1913. Q

- Patented May 5, 1914.

WITN5E 1W VENT'OPS w w a iihiiifiiiiiii tile amass rianvoza names ia'nn GEORGE THOMAS BUCKHAM, or mmmama,

LAND.

noon MECHANISM or BREECH-LOADING GUNS.

Specification. of Letters Patent. Application riled August 16.

Patented May v 5,1914. 1913. SerialNo/785J018.

lie it known that We, ARTHUR Tnnvoii; Dawson knighh andGEom-m THOMAs B noit than, both subjects of the King of Great 5 Britaiiu residing at Vickers House, Broadway jlli'iestminster, in the county of Lore don, England, have invented cei'taininew i and useful Improvements in or Itelatingto the Lock Mechanismof' Breech-Loading Guns, oi? which the following is a specification. z

This invention relates to lock mechanism of the kind in which the lock name is cav pable, of moving laterally in a box slide on the breech-screw carrier and in which a repriining device is employechthe said device comprising a. prin1er magazine or hopper andha bolt, vahich carries the firing pinor striker and operates to insert anew vprimer from the magazine into the primer chamber ofthe vent. axial.

According. to. one form of the invention 1 the. aforesaid bolt is mounted, oil the latl orally moving lock frame and is so con- E structed and arranged that. the h firing pin or striker remainsin the uncooked condi- 1 tion during the lateral opening and closing movements. of the look frame, but afte-ri the said lock frame has completed its lat- E eral closing movement, the bolt can be ainlocked and retracted toenable a new-primer from the magazine to assume a position in front of the bolt-head, and then movetor- 1 Ward to insert this primer into the primer chamber. this forward movement also, effecting the cocking of the striker; By these means the, primer is not inserted into the primer chamber, until the lock frame has assumed its completely closed position and e the. breech screw hasploecome fully closed and locked, so that if the primer should accidentally be fired no serious consequences \vould result. Furthermore during thei opening and closing movements of the lock frame the primers in the magazine are etiectnally cut 01F fromthe vent axial by the i bolt so that if the primers in the magazine should ignite by accident, the flash from them cannot enter the vent axial and tire 1 the powder charge before the breech lsclosed andglocked, since the boltisretracted only after the latter operation has been perl 'ATENT curios. 1

formed. The primer extractor may be in I dependent of the. bolt and so constructed and arranged thatit prevents the direct insertion of 5a primer into the primer chamber by. hand while the lock frame is opener partially open 'the primer being inserted from the magazine, by the bolt as aforesaid, afhen the lock frame is in-the closedfposition. The said extractor may furthermore be so eontriyed as to serve the purpose of a loading tray orguidefor the primers when they are inserted by the aforesaid forward movement of thelbolt, so. that the necessity for, andthe disadvantages. that result from thetap'ering of the ends of the primers, are obviated. 7. i-

.According to another. form of the invention, the aforesaid bolt is carried by the laterally movable lock frame and is adapted to be automatically unlocked and retracted during the initial unlocking movement of the breech mechanism wand to thereby eiiect the ejection of the used primerin a similar manner to the ejection of. a rifle cartridge case. The bolt is moved forward to insert a new primer from the magazine and is locked to the box slide by means of a handle so arranged that the operator can stand out of the pathof recoil ofathe gun. this forward movement of the bolt also eiiecting -the cocking of the firing pin or striker. A plate or shutter maybe provided and so arranged that as the lock frame commences its lateral opening movement, the said plate or shutter will assume a .positionto close the rear end of thewentaxial and will only move into the open position when the lock frame is completing its lateral closing movement. In tl'llSl'l'IElIllljQ-I there is no liability of a flame resulting from the accidental ignition otthe primers in the magazine or from any other cause, entering the vent axial Whilethe lockwfr ame is in the open or partially open condition and the breech scream therefore unclo sed or unlocked. The lock frame may; be provided with a conical,,1-ecess to guide the primers into the primer chamber inthe vent axial during the forivardmoyementof the bolt, whereby a more eflic ient introduction of the primers is obtained. as] compared with the arrangements heretofore employed. 7

gitudinal vertical section, taken 40 scale, taken approximately on the 45 reference indicatesimilar parts.

'51. to 14, the bolt E is carried in a 55] E which engages therewith by means of the a sual helical grooves and projections and {which is mounted so that it can slide rear- In order that the said invention may be 5 ings in which Figures 1 and 2 are a rear elevation and a plan Qf the breech end of a gun showing our improved lock mechanism applied thereto in the form first above stated. Fig. 3 is a lonapproximately on the line 11 of Fig. 2. and 5 are horizontal section's taken approximately on the line 22 of Fig. 1; Fig. 4 showing the lock in the closed position and Fig. 5 showing it in the open position. In

these figures it is to be observed that certain of the constructional features differ slightly from those" of Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 6 is a plan showing the extractor adapted to alsoserve as a loading tray or guide for the-primers. Figs. 7 and 8 are sections taken approximately on the lines 33 and 44 of Fig. 6. Figs. 9, 10 and 11 are respectively a rear elevation, a sectional side' elevation and a plan showing a device for retracting" the striker and guide bolt. Figs. 12 and 13are respectively a side elevation and a plan showing a device hereinafter described, and Fig. 14 is a section on an enlarged scale taken approximatelyon the line 5- of Fig. 3. Figs. 15 and16 are respectively a rear elevation and a' plan of the breech end of a gun showing our improved lock-mechanism applied thereto in 3 5 accordance with the second form" ofhthe invention hereinbefore set forth. Figs..;17 and- 18 are vertical sections taken approximately on the lines 10 w and m m of Fig. 15. ,Fig. 19 is a horizontal section on an" enlarged ly of Fig. 15, and Fig. 20 is a vertical section taken approximately on the line- 23 23 of Fig, 19. s ,2; ,In all of the above figures like letters of 3A is the breech end of the gun, A f'the breech screw, A the vent axial, A -the breech screw carrier, and A. the breeclrac- 't-uating hand lever. B is the box sli e, and

50, the lock frame laterally movable t ierein.

represents the primer magazine oi hopper, E the bolt, and G the firing pin. v

I t Referring first. more particularly to Figs. bolt sleeve Wardly in the lock frame C. The head of the bolt is provided with the ushal locking c0 lugs e which are adapted to engage with interrupted collars in the lock frame. 1 The firing mechanism is shown as being percussive (although it may be electricalor a comblnatlon' of the two) and the firmg pin ,or

Figs. 4

.with a corresponding segment 6 magazine and-ta striker G is mounted co-axially within the bolt E. The bolt sleeve E is connected by suitable gearing. with a handle E which we term the cocking handle and which is pivoted on a horizontal axis pin e (Figs. 2, 4 and 5) situated on'the right hand portion of the lock frame C. This handle is arranged in such a position that the operator can actuate it while standing out of the path of recoil of the gun. The said gearing comprises in the example shown, a bevel segment 6' onthe cocking handle E gearing (Figs. 12 and 13) on an arm E This arm which we term the cocking arm is pivoted on the lock frame by the vertical pin e and has a ca 31 slot 1!) which engages wit-h a pin or stud e on the under side of the bolt sleeve E.

When the breech is being opened, the lock frame G moves laterally toward the right to assume its open position in the usual manner, carrying with it the bolt E and its parts, together with the cocking handle E and the parts operated thereby. -When the breech is being closed, the lock frame moves laterally toward the left to assume its closed position. During both these movements of the lock frame,.the striker G remains in its uncooked position and the bolt E lockedto the lock frame by means of the lu s e as aforesaid, the magazine opening. t rough which the primers escape being therefore at Y such times kept closed b the bolt. The parts remain in this conditlon until the cocking handle E is actuated, which operation is not performed until the breech 'screw is fully closed and locked. When the cocking handle is displaced in a clockwise direction j (Fig. 1) the cocking arm E is rocked in an anticlockwise direction (Figs. 4.- and 5) and the bolt sleeve E drawn rearwardly, thereby unlocking and retracting the bolt E and enabling a new lprimer to escape from the e up a position in front of the bolt. The cocking handle E is then displaced in the'reverse direction to that indicated above, and the bolt'E thereby moved forward to insert the new primer in the place of the used primer which has previously been extracted during the opening movement of the lock frame. The forward movement of the bolt causes it to be angularly displaced as aforesaid so that it becomes locked to the lock frame C ;the striker G is leftsin the cocked condition (Fig. 4) by its engagement with the usual sear G (Fig. 2).,

The magazine or hopper D which is car- 'ricd by the lock frame C, is shown as being curved and of the type in which the primers are pushedinto position in frontofthe bolt. E by a sprin The said magazitie idprefei ably detachi bly' held in position inthe lock frame byga spring catch d ('Fig ."r. n. 1 2) so gun and having an arm or cam 71? for cobox slide B at f (Figs. 4 and 5) and is adaptedto be displaced to extract a used or defective primer, by the cooperation of an inclined projection a of the lock frame C with atoe-piece f of the extractor. The ejection of the primcris effected by the cooperation of another projection 0 on the lock frame with another toe-piece f on the extractor. The said projections 'on the lock frame are so arranged that while the latter is in the open or partially open condition, the extractor F is retained in its rearward position and its jaws thus serve to prevent a primer from being inserted by hand into the primer chamber, as is clearly seen in Fig. The extractor is formed with a. horizontal lug or lip F (Figs. 6, T-a'nd 8) which is curved as shown to serve as a loading tray or guide for the primers during their insertion into the vent axial.

Appropriate means are employed for slightly ret-racting'the firing pin or striker G during the-initial unlocking movement of the breech mechanism before the lock frame C commences to move, thus preventing the point of thefiring pin from hearing against .the face of the box slide B during the opening movement of the lock frame, as is well understood. The lock frame C is adapted to be moved laterally by hand, independently of the opening movement of the breech mechanism, in the event of a misfire or hang-fire occurring, the opening movement of the lock frame causing the defective primer to be ejected. For this purpose we employ an improved device, the actuation of which causes the guide bolt C (Figs. 5, 10, and 11) to be withdrawn from engagement with the actuating link (not shown) and the firing pin or striker G to be retracted, the pull on the said device then effecting the lateral opening movement of the lock frame C. This device comprises a lanyard lever H (see particularlyFigs. 9'to 11) carried by a pivot h arranged in the lock frame C parallel to the axis of the operating with a projection or arm 71- on a spindle H. This spindle is situated translevers h it of which the lever it? engages Witha slot in the guide bolt C (Fig. 10) and the lever h (Figs. 1, 2 and 3) epgages, when the striker is in the forward position, with the casing G" to which the firing pin or striker G is attached. Suitabl .means are provided for limiting the angular moveai ment of the lanyardv lever H. Afte lthe lock 'rame has been closed by the opera r push- .ang it toward the left, the cooking handle E as the lock frame resumes its closed pc is actuated as aforesaid to unlock and retract the bolt E,' move it forward to insert a new primer from the magazine into the primer chamber, and eventually lock it in its forward position, the firing pin or striker being left in the cooked position.

Means are provided between the lock frame C and the cooking handle E to prevent the latter from being actuated when the breech is open. These means comprise, in the example shown, a flat portion c3X (F igs. 12 and 13) formed on the boss of the cockin'g arm E (which is connected by gearing as aforesaid to the cooking handle E the position of this flat portion (3 being such that when the breech screw is closed and locked the cocking handle E can be actuated, while on opening the breech and thereby moving the lock frame C lgtprally, the

said flat portion 6 will slide overTGrrespo'nding flat surface a formed on the car rier, thus preventing any angular movement of the lever and also preventing a new primer from being inserted until the breech screw is locked.

Referring now more. particularly to Figs. 15 to 20, the bolt E is connected to the bolt sleeve E by means of helical grooves and projections in the usual manner. The head of the bolt is formed with an extracting groove for engaging with the heads of the primers and is also formed with the usual locking lugs e which are adapted to engage in front of similar lugs 6 (Figs. 17 and 19) on the box slide P). The bolt sleeve E is provided with a pin 6 adapted to engage in a cam groove E in an arm E forming part of the aforesaid cocking handle E which is carried by the right hand portion of the lock frame C. This pin 6 has a roller a which is disposed in the path of a projection a on the breech actuating hand lever A T his arrangement is such that the initial n:ove-' ment of the hand lever A in unlocking the breech screw causes the projection a to cooperate with the aforesaid roller 6 whereby the bolt E is unlocked and retracted and the used primer ejected. At the same time, owing to the pin 6 engaging in the cam groove E of the arm E the latter and .the cocking handle E are moved in an anti-- clockwise direction (Fig. 16). When the bolt has been retracted the projection verse to the axis of the gun and has two moves clear of the said roller 0 leaving the. bolt E together with thearm E andthe cocking-handle E in the displaced position. During the opening movement of the lock frame G the plate or shutter F" which is carried by the box slide-and is spring controlled, follows the movement of the look frame and covers the vent axial A? as aforesaid, the said plate orshutter being displaced against the. resistance of ?ring s tiom After the breech has been. closed and the breech screw locked, the cocking handle E is 'returned in a clockwise direction (Fig. 16)

to its normal posit-ion, thereby moving the bolt E forward to insert a new primer from the magazine D into the primer chamber, and finally locking the bolt head to the box slide B. The striker G is thereby cooked and is left in engagement with its sear. The ,primer magazine D is shown as being of the usual kind in which the primers are under the influence of a spring in which case the magazine is preferably made readily detachable in order'that, when empty, it may be replaced by a full magazine. In the event of a misfire or hang-fire occurring, the act-uation of the cocking lever E causes the bolt E to eject the defective primer and insert another in its place, leaving the striker G cocked as aforesaid. In order to enable the lock frame C to be displaced by hand independentlyof the breech mechanism we provide a handle or finger piece H, the actuation of which disenga es the guide bolt C from .theact-uating lin C -(Fig. 18)..

What we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. Inlock mechanism for ordnanceg 'the combination with the laterally sliding lock frame, of' a primer bolt carried thereby, a firing pin mounted in said bolt and means for retractingthe bolt and moving it forward to insert a new primer into the rimer chamber and to cock the firing pin a ter the lock frame has completed its lateral closing movement.

2. In lock mechanism for ordnance, the combination with the laterally sliding lock frame, of a primer magazine carried thereby, a bolt also carried by'the said frame,,a;

firing pin mounted in said bolt, and means for retracting the bolt and moving it for-- ward to-insert a new primer from the magazine into the primer chamber and to cook the firing pin a fter the lock frame has completed its lateral closing movement. I p

32 In lock mechanism for ordnance, the

' combination with the laterally sliding'lock frame of a primer magazine carried thereby, a primer bolt also carried by the said frame, a

- firing pin mounted in said bolt, means for preventing the bolt fron'i being moved when;

the lock frame islin the open position and "after the lock framev has com means-for retracting the bolt and moving it forward to insert a new primer into the primer, chamber and to cock the firing pin pleted its lateral closinv movement. i 4. fir-lock,mechanism for ordnance,-the dombinptidn with the "laterally sliding lock -frame, ,of',a1. iiimer magazine jcarried thereby,,a primer b0lt ,.,a ls o. car.ried the said frame, a firing pin mounted in saldbolt, and

'a handle for retracting the bolt-andmoving it forward to insert a new rimer from the magazine into the primer c iamber and 'to cook the firing pin after the lock frame has completed its lateral closing movement.

5 In lock mechanism for ordnancefthe combination with the laterally sliding lock frame, of a primer, magazine carried the'leby, a primer bolt also carried by the said frame, a firing pin mounted in said bolt and a handle also carried by the lock frame for its lateral closing movement.

7. In lock mechanism for ordnance, the

combination with the laterally moving lock said aiid the bolt for imparting movement to the latter after the lock frame has completed frame, of a primer bolt also carried by the frame, a firing pin mounted insaidin mounted in said Bolt, a handle carried by thelock frame, an

arm, meansfor connecting said handle and arm, means for preventing the bolt from.be-. ing moved when the lock frame is in the open position and means interposed betwep the arm and the bolt forimparting movement to the latter after the lock frame has completed its lateral closing movement;

8. In lock mechanism for ordnance, the combination with the breech screw carrier and the laterally moving lock frame of a primer bolt also carried bythe said frame flattened portion-of the breech screw carrier with which latter portion the flattened por tion of the arm is adapted to cooperate, and means interposed between thearm and the bolt for imparting movementto the lat ter after the lock frame has completed its lateral closing movement.

9. -In lock mechanism for ordnance, the combination with the laterally moving lock frames'of a primer extractor, projections onthe lock frame and the extractor which, when the lock frame is moved toward its e primer chamber. I

a firing pin mounted in said-bolt, a handie carried by the lock frame, an arm, means for connecting said handle and arm, a flat-' toned portion of said arm,,a corresponding open position, coiiperate to displace the ex-- for the primers f I18- gun, a projection on said spindle in confactnrlth and arm, two levers on 831d transverse spndle one Of which engages \vlth the 1 guide bolt and the other with the casing of the firing pin.

tin-es in the presence of two Witnesses.

ARTHUR TREVOR DAWSON. GEORGE THOMAS BUCKHAM.

Nitnesees:

JNO. R. C'Aswnul,

G. W. GIBSON.

ln testimony Wherenf we uflix our signa-

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3951041 *Dec 9, 1974Apr 20, 1976Rheinmetall G.M.B.H.Breech mechanism with separate clearance for misfired primer cartridge
US5331880 *Aug 24, 1992Jul 26, 1994Rheinmetall GmbhWedge-type breechblock for a gun
US5544563 *Dec 9, 1993Aug 13, 1996Vickers Shipbuilding & Engineering Ltd.Primer cartridge leader for guns
US7228779 *Aug 13, 2001Jun 12, 2007United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyAutomatic primer feed mechanism
US7318369 *Apr 27, 2005Jan 15, 2008United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyOut-of-battery lock for automatic primer feed mechanism
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/27.13, 89/20.2, 89/27.11
Cooperative ClassificationF41A19/57