US 1102653 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. H. GODDARD.
APPLICATION FILED oo'r.1, 1913.
Patented July 7, 1914.
ROBERT H. GODDARD, OF WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS.
Specification. of Letters Patent.
Patented July 7, 1914.
Application led October 1, 1913. Serial No. 792,707.
To all whoml it may concern:
Be it known that I, ROBERT H. GoDDAnD,
. a citizen of the United Sta-tes, residing at Worcester', in the county of Worcester and State of Massachusetts, have invented a newand useful Rocket Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to a rocketuapiparatus and particularly to a form of such apparatus adapted to transport photographlc or other recordin heights. Certam features of the inventlon are also applicable to\ the display of signals or to the projection of explosives.
Mathematical analysis shows that in any rocket apparatus of given mass, the necessary propelling charge varies according to` an expression in vhichthe percentage of the heat energy of the charge which is transformed to kinetic energy' enters. in an exponential relation. Hence, any increase 1n the eiiciency in the transformation results in greatly increased velocity of the appa-4 ratus hand also permits a reduction in the amoun of explosive used.
It is y ne ofthe objects of my invention-to provide a rocket apparatus in which the transformation above mentioned is perfrmed with great efficiency whereby the velocity and' range of flight are greatly in-I means for maintaining the speed of rotation thus attained; and to provide means for so supporting the recording apparatus within the rocket that said apparatus shall not par` take of the rotation of the rocket apparatus as a whole.
With these objlects in view my invention comprises certain devices, arrangements and combination of parts which will be herein'- after described and more fully set forth in the appended claims. l
A preferred form of my invention is shown in the drawings in which-4 Figure 1 is a longitudinal view, partly in.
instruments to extreme tube 11.
section,` of my rocket apparatus as a whole: Fig. 2 1s an enlarged longitudinal sectional vlew ofthe head of the apparatus: Figs. 3 and 4 are enlarged transverse sectional views taken alon the lines 3 3 and 4 4 respectively, in Fig.` 1: andFig. 5 is a vertlcal elevation of a frame work from which the apparatus maybe fired, drawn to a reduce scale. v
Referring to Fig. l, the rocket apparatus comprises a primary rocket having acasing contamln a combustion chamber 10 from whlch epends an elongated tapered The explosive material is indicated as a plurality of disks 12 secured within the chamber 10 by a, casting 13. The disks 12 are preferably formed of a series of materials having progressively increasing rates of combust-ion so that as each disk is ignited it burns with increased rapidity and keeps the pressure in `the chamber 10 constant, for which specic pressure the tapered tube 11 is designed. Similar results may be attained by using the explosive in a single mass of progressively varying comf position in place of the plurality of disks herek shown, and this construction is also within the scope of my invention. In the ordinary forms of rocket apparatus, the gases of combustion are discharged through an opening at the rear of theapparatus but I have discovered that by providing the elongated tapered tube 11, I am able to greatly increase the etliciencyof the device. The tube is shown in the form of a truncated cone of slight taper and the length of the tube should be not less than three times as great as its longest diameter, while a greater ratio than this will often be necessary to obtain satisfactory results. This construction takes advantage of the expansion of the gases as they .pass through the tube and also allowsthe combustion vof the gases to be completed before they nally issue from the tube. By experimentally determining the best proportions for the tube 11, a maximum percentage of the heat energy ofthe disks 12 may be transformed into kinetic energy. A fuse lft'is indicated which extends downwardly Within the tube 11 and provides means by which the disks may be ignited.
In order to provide the necessary speed of rotation of the apparatus so that it may produce rot-ation of the ap aratus.
To provide for ignitingt eseveral charges 16 simultaneously, I arrangeI withinl the outer surface of each charge a ne metal la- "ment or heating element 17, these filaments being all connected in series by wires 18 with a battery 19 and a key 2U. The closing of the key 20 sends a current throughthe wires.'
18 which instantaneously raises the temperature of the filaments 17 and simultaneously,
ignites the several charges 16. The exploL sive force of the gases from the material 16 forces the filaments 17 and the` wires 18 out of the tubes 15 so that they can not thereafter interfere with the rotation or iight of.y
the apparatus. l
In order that this preliminary rotation may be conveniently produced, I provide the;
vertical framework 21 shown in Fig. 5 in which the rocket is supported upon ball bearings 22 and 23. Ater the charges 16 have been ignited and the desired speed of= rotation has been attained, the fuse 14 may be lighted and the flight of the rocket will commence.
In order that the apparatus carried by the rocket may be 'given a further flight after the propelling charge of the main apparatus.
has been substantially consumed, I provide; an elongated tubular projection or firingl tube 24 at the forward extremity of the cast- .,10- ing 13.- -Within this tube I provide an auxil viary rocket comprising a combustion cham-l ber 25 ha'ving a rearwardly extendedA tapered` tube 26 an'd containing a plurality of disks of explosive material 27, these parts being substantially similar to the corresponding parts in the main apparatus but constructed on a somewhatreduced scale.
A fuse 28iextends from the explosive ma-;
y'terial 27 through an opening in thec'astingx 13 and projects a short distance into the last. disk 12 of explosive material in the 'chamber 10. Thus when the propelling) charge in the main rocket apparatus "is su stantially exhausted, the fuse 28 will be ignited and the firing tube 2 4 will act as a gun from which the'* auxiliary rocket will be projected for much .less weight .than the com further Hight. As the auxiliar rocket is of j ined weight of'l'sthefprimary land 1 auxiliary rockets, a giveiamount ofjexplosive in the auxiliary rocket will givev a much greater increase in Hight than vthe-same 4alnount of explosive wollltld produce if burned in the primary (eti: l .4 Y. y
.if Tofprovde for thel speed-of if rotation of the auxiliary emparatus,y which will have been somewhat reduced by the fric; tion of the atmosphere during the Hight, I provide in the vhead 29 of the auxiliary rocket a plurality of transverse backwardly curved tubes or recesses 30, similar to the recesses 15 shown in Fig. 3. The recesses 30 arey provided with explosive charges 31 and within the recesses are also mounted a series of small tubes 32. extending inwardly to the axis of the apparatus where the unite and are further extended downwar ly `into the explosive charge 27 These tubes are filled with a rapidly burning compound which is ignited when the explosivev char-ge 27 has been consumed to a predetermined point and by which the charges 31 are thereafter igl nited to increase or restore the speed of rotation of the auxiliary rocket.`
Within the apparatus head 29 is pivotally mounted a support 33 upon which in turn is mounted any desired form of recording apparatus. In the particular embodiment of my invention shown in the drawings this apparatus is indicated as a camera 34. The
head 29 is provided with a series of openinlgs'-y 35 separated by narrow su ports 36. y speed of rotation of the head) is so great that the passage of the-supports 36 iii front of the camera does not interfere with the taking of photographs thereby. In order that the sup ort 33 may not partakeof the rotation of t e'head 29, I provide within the supporta roscope 37 mounted in bearings 38 upon said support and to provide Ithe high'initial speed of rotation nec` essary for the operation of the gyroscope, I construct'the, latter asl the armature of a threefphase induction Jnotor having `field coils 39, mounted on a frame 4() also secured to the support 33. The field coils are connected to wires 41 secured within an insulating plug 42 in thesuplport 33. lVires 43 maybe introduced throug an opening 44 in the head 29 and caused to make contact with the wires 41 in the .plug 42, the wires 43 being 'connected to anymsuitable source of threephase current. 'en the gyroscope has attained lthe requisite speedof rotation, the wires 43 ma be withdrawn and the opening '44 may be c osedrwith the screw 45 shownin Fig. 1.
In order that the apparatus" may be brought back to earth without damage thereto, a parachute arrangement may be provided but as such arrangements arev well .known and form no part of my invention, I
have omitted the same from the drawings for the sake of showing other features more clearly. It is also within the scope of my invention to provide the auxiliary rocket with a firing tube from which a third rocket may be discharged and to continue this arrangement to any -desired extent. Several eatures ofmy invention. are also applicable to a structure in Which the apparatus head is secured directly to the casting 13, the auxiliary rocket being omitted, and this construction I also consider within the scope of my invention.
The operation of my device has been clearly indicated in the preceding description but may be brieiy restated as follows:
apparatus a high speed of rotation and when this has been attained the fuse 14 may be ignited to start the rocket on its Hight. When the apparatus as a Whole has been projected to a considerable height and the propelling charge 12 has been substantially exhausted, the fuse 28 will be ignited which in turn will ignite the charge 27 resulting in the firing of the auxiliary rocket from the tube 24. When the charge 27 is partially consumed, the explosive material 31 in the tubes will be ignited to increase the speed of rotation of the auxiliary rocket. While the rocket as a whole and the auxiliary rocket revolve at a high speed of rotation, the effect of the gyroscope is to AVmaintain the support 33 in the same relative position in which it commenced the iight so that the camera 34 may be di,- rected before the flight in any desired direction and will retain that direction throughout the flight.
While a preferred form of my invention is shown in the drawings, it is obvious that many changes may be made in the construction herein shown without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention and I do not wish to be limited to the details herein disclosed, but
What I do claim is 1. In a rocket apparatus, in combination, a primary rocket, comprising a combustion chamber and a iring tube, a secondary rocket mounted in said irinfg tube, and means for firing said secondary rocket when the explosive in the primary rocket is substantially consumed.
2. In a rocket apparatus, in combination, a combustion chamber containing an explosive and a rearwardly extended tapered tube connected with said chamber through which the gaseous products of combustion are discharged, said tube beingin the form of a truncatedcone of slight taper and having its length equal to not less than three times its longest diameter.
3. In a rocket apparatus, in combination, a primary rocket having a firing tube, a secondary rocket mounted in said firing tube, and adapted to be ired therefrom, means in said primary rocket for causing initial rotation of said rockets, and means in said secondary rocket for thereafter maintaining said secondary rocket in rotation.
4. In a rocket apparatus, in combination, a casing, means in said casing for propelling said rocket apparatus, and additional means in said casing for rotating said apparatus, said latter means comprising ay plurality of substantially radial transverse tubes back- Wardly curved with relation to the direction of rotation of the rocket apparatus and containing explosive material to ether with heating elements embedded therein by which the explosive material in all of the may be iired simultaneously. 5. In av rocket, in combination, means for producing initial rotation of the rocket, a casing, a chamber therein containing a charge of propelling explosive, a plurality ,of substantially radial curved tubes in f said casing also containing an explosive, and iring means connecting said explosivesl by which the explosive in the radial/tubes is ignited when the propelling explosive is consumed to a predetermined extent and acts to restore the initial speed of rotation of the rocket.
6. A rocket having in combination a combustion chamber, an apparatus head containing a support for the apparatus, means for rotating the rocket, and means to prevent rotation of' the apparatus support.
7. In a rocket apparatus, the combination,
a combustion chamber and an apparatus head, said head containing a pivotally mounted support for the apparatus and having a lgyroscope mounted thereon by which Y thesupport may be restrained from rotation with the head.
8. In a rocket', in combination, an apparatus head, a support forthe apparatus pivotally mounted within the head, a gyroscope mounted upon the support, and means for imparting a high initial speed of rotation to said gyroscope.
In testimon whereof I have hereunto set my hand, in t e presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ROBERT H. GODDARD. Witnesses:
FRANCIS W. HIxoN, C. FoRREs'r WEssoN.