US 1104045 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. L. HENSON.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.15, 191s.
Patented July 2l, 19m
v 3 SHEETS-SHEET 1'.
Wu- Mona u /227% .A.L. HBNSON.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.15, 191s.
Patented July 21, 1914.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
luvowtoz mu meson ywz/ ALL. BENSON.
AAAAAAAA ION r IIIII AN. 111111 s.
Patented July 21, 1914.
3 SHEB ABRAHAM LINCOLN BENSON, 0F FORT COLLINS, COLORADO.
Specification of Letters Patent. I
Patented July 2 1, 1914.
Application filed January 15, 1913. Serial No. 742,255.
To all whom it may concern.
Be it known that I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN Hanson, a citizen of the United States, residing at Fort Collins, in the county of Larimer and State of Colorado, have invented new and useful Improvements in F lying-Machines, of which the following is a specification.
This invent-ion relates to flying machines of the heavier-than-air type, and particularly to those of the polyplane species, the object of the invention being to provide a flying machine having a low center ofgravity to secure a pendulum effect, whereby the machine will be inherently balanced, bot-h laterally and longitudinally, when in flight, and also to provide a novel construction and arrangement of supporting surfaces giving greater lifting power and stability, whereby a construction of machine is provided which i will be of maximum steadiness 1n fllght and I will maintain its balanceunder all conditions of service.
A further object of the invention is to provide a flying machine of the character specified in which the planes are grouped in a novel manner to secure strength and rigidity of construction, to avoid liability of ,collapse of the machine in the air, and which embodies novel steerin mechanism includ: ing a. warping plane arranged in advance of the supporting surface and adapted to be operated in conjunction with the vertical rudder to give a proper list or banking tilt to the machine in making a turn in either direction.
The invention consists of the features of construction, combination and'arrangement of parts hereinafter fully described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which z Figure 1 is a side elevation of a flying machine embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the same. Fig. 3 is a sectional front elevation taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudinal section on the line H of Fig. 2, through a portion of the machine. Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic perspective View showing the steering and controlling elements. In carrying my invention into practice I provide a suitable frame structure, including a car 1 and a rear or tail extension 2. The car 1 carries suitably cushioned launchmg and landing wheels 3, and the tail extension 2 carries suitable yielding skids or fenders 4, for an obvious purpose. The car '1 is substantially boat-shaped, to give a stream line effect, and tapers forwardly and rearwardly from 'its transverse center, and also curves in a longitudinal direction, its forward or how portion being curved on inclined upwardly at an angle of from 25 to 45, while its rear or stern portion in :clines upwardly to a similar degree.
Vithin the stern port-ion of the car is disposed the aviators seat 5, and the steering and controlling levers hereinafter described, while in the bow portionof the car is disposed the driving motor 6. The seat 5 is thus inclined to the plane of flight so that the aviator may have a free view ahead, while the motor 6 is inclined for transmit- ,ting motion to propellers inclined to the plane of flight, for a purpose hereinafter explained.
Secured to and extending transversely of the car 1, at the extreme portion of the bow thereof, is a horizontal warping plane 7, the wings 8 and 9 of which are'adapted to be warped or flexed helicoidally along the planes indicated by the dotted lines in Fig.
-: 2. Pivotally mounted at the rear end of the tail extension 2 is a horizontal ruddervor elevator 10 hinged or pivoted for vertical movement on a horizontal transverse axis. Supports 11 are provided upon the said tail extension in advance of the horizontal rudder for a vertical rudder 12, which is hinged or pivoted thereto to swing laterally in either direction on a vertical axis. Bracket,
'members 13 and 14 project from opposite sides'of the vertical rudder and serve the function of crank arms,.as hereinafter set forth. i
Rigidly fixed to the car 1 at a point in advance of the transversecenter thereof, and between such point and the warping plane 7, is a lower supporting plane 15, whose wings-16 and 17 incline upwardly and outwardly at a dihedral angle of about 25, and alsoincline rearwardly at an angle of from 25 to 45. By this arrangement of the wings of the plane 15, an inherent lateral, as well as inherent longitudinal stabilizingeffeet is secured when the machine is in flight. Arranged above the plane 15 is an upper supporting plane 18, which is longitudinally straight, 2'. e., straight between its lateral .margins, and is of somewhat less length than the plane 15 and connected at. its lateral margins to the plane 15 a short distance inside the lateral margins thereof. The plane 18 is also connected with the car and plane 15 by suitable struts or braces 19, whereby the two planes are rigidly fastened together andto the main frame. Arranged between the lower plane 15 and the said upper plane 18 is a central or intermediate plane 20, which is relatively shorter than the upper plane 18, and has its end portions secured to the lower plane at points between the car and the points of attachment of the upper plane to the lower plane. This intermediate plane is also fastened to the braces or struts 19 and connected with the upper plane by additional braces or struts 21. In addition, the parts of the planes, as well as the part-s of the machine, may be'connected and braced from each other by stay wires or bracing.
connections of any of the types in common use. As shown, the warping plane 7 is reinforced from the main planes by braces 22,
' while the supports 11 for the vertical rudder 12 are reinforced from the main plane by a brace 23, and the main planes in turn are reinforced from the tail extension by braces 24-.
In practice, each main or supporting plane is composed of suitable longitudinal bars or I .the longitudinal center of the lower plane spars and connecting ribs, suitably fastened together and provided with a suitable fabric covering. The car andframe of the machine may also be covered with fabric or other suitable material, if desired, to reduce head resistance. -It will be observed that the upper plane 18 is arrangedmainly in rear of 15, while the intermediate plane 20 terminates inrear of the foremost portions of the wings of the lower plane and extends in ad- Vance of the foremost portion of the upper plane, the, planes thus being arranged in stepped but lapping arrangement, by which the center of pressure of the air upon the supporting surface as a whole may vary to a considerable extent without affecting the longitudinal stability of the machine, while under normal conditions the centers of pressure will tend to meet at a common point, thus automatically maintaining longitudinal stability. By this arrangement .of the planes, and the action of the air thereon, as well as the dihedral relationship of the wings of the lower plane, any tendency of the machine to tilt unduly upon its longitudinal or transverse axis will be counteracted by the equalizing and stabilizing action of the air upon the planes, by which the equiiibrium of the machine is positively, and automatically maintained. Experiments with models dropped from heights have shown that even if the machine should turn upside down, it will automatically right itself within. a range of fall not much greater than its length.
It will be observed that the car and weight of the motor, as well as of the load weight carried, are disposed below the main frame and supporting surface and at such a point that these different weights will perform the function of a pendulum operating by gravity to also maintain stability. This, in conjunction with the stabilizing action of the supporting surface, provides a machine which will retain its normal state of equilibrium even when flying in high winds or partially disrupted by accident.
J ournaled in bearings upon the wings of the central plane 20 are longitudinally extending shafts 25 carrying propellers 26 arranged to rotate at points in rear of the supporting surface. These shafts are driven by sprocket chains 27 or other suitable gear from the shaft of the motor 6. It will be observed that the parts of the propelling mechanism are inclined to the plane of flight, in such a manner that the propellers give both a driving and sustaining thrust. By this means the lifting capacity of the machine is increased and its stability further promoted without sacrifice of driving speed.
The car supports a rock shaft 28 arranged transversely in front of the aviators seat 5,
and provided with upwardly and down wardly extending crank arms 29 and 30.,
Loosely mounted on said shaft, for independent fore and aft-movement, is a lever 31 coupled by wires or cables 32 and 33, passing over suitable guide pulleys 34 to crank arms 10 -on the elevator or horizontal rudder 10, whereby said rudder may be rangedcin crossed relation, respectively con- I nect the crank arm 29 with the right hand crank 13 of the vertical rudder and the crank arm 30 with the crank arm 14: of the vertical rudder. By this construction when the lever 35 is moved forwardly the rudder 12 will be swung to the right to cause the machine to travel in such direction, while at the same time the surface 9 of the warping plane 7 will be warped'down to lift the left hand side of the machine to the desired degree .for a banking action in turning. On the other hand when the lever 35 is moved rearwardly the rudder 12 will be turned to the left to steer the machine in that direction, while the warping surface 8 of the warping plane 7 will be warped downwardly to lift the machine at the right hand -'side to the desired degree for the banking mice under adverse conditions.
action. The plane 7 is provided for use in conjunction with "the vertical rudder in the manner described in order that the automatic stabilizing action of the plane's may be temporarily overcome when it is necessary to turn the machine horizontally in one direction or the other and to give it the necessary degree of lateral list or tilt for the required banking action. I
From the foregoing description, taken in connection withthe drawings, the-construction and mode of operation of my improved flying machine will be readily understood, and it will be seen that a type of machine is rovided which is inherently stable, both longitudinally and laterally to a high degree, and which will ,thus maintain it bal- It will also be seen that the invention provides amachine which has great liftln tively controlled in. flight. I claim v 1. In a flying machine, a supporting surface comprising a lower plane having wings angled upwardly and outwardly and rearwardly, an upper plane extendingbetween' and secured to the wings of the lower plane and arranged in-rear of the foremost portions of the latter, and an intermediate plane arranged between the upper and lower planes and secured to the wings of the latter and having its forward portion disposed in rear of the forward portion of the lower plane and in advance of the upper plane.
2. In a flying machine a supporting surface comprising a lower plane having dihedrally angled wings, an upper plane ex tending between. and secured to the wings of the lower plane, and a relatively shorter intermediate plane extending between and secured to the wings of the lower plane, sai'd planes being arranged in stepped as well as superposed relation; e
3. In a flying machine a supporting surface comprising a lower plane having wings inclined upwardly and outwardly and uppower and, speed, and which may be eas y and sensi-- wardly and rearwardly, an upper plane extendlng between and secured to the wings of the lower plane near'their extremities, said upper plane having its leading edge terminating in rear of the leading edges of the wings of the lower plane between thevinner ends of the latter and such points of at-- clined upwardly and rearwardly in rear of its transverse center, a lower plane having wings secured to the forward portion of the v car and inclined "out and upwardly and re rwardly, a motor upon the for-ward portion of the car between the wings of the lower plane and inclined to cor-, respond to the inclination of such portion of the car, an upper plane extending between and secured to the wings of the lower plane, an intermediate plane extending between and secured to the wings of the lower plane, the said several planes being arranged in stepped relationship, an aviators seat mounted upon the reari inclined portion of the car, longitudinally extending shafts upon the wings of the intermediate support ing surface and having a degree of inclina: tion corresponding to-that ofthe motor, gearing between said shafts and the motor, and propellers upon said shafts operating in rear of the wings of the supporting planes.
In testimony whereof I aflix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN H Witnesses: V
H. E. FRnY, JESSIE SHOEMAKER.
rdly and upwardly I