US 1104539 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
C. R. URD.
APPLICATION FILED 111113.17, 1912.
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CRAVEN ROBERT ORD, OF TdCADr/illl SUNCTIN, NEUW BRNSWCK, CAlTALDa/r.`
Application filed 'February 17, i912.
To all 1li/0m t may concern Be it known that I, CRAvnN Renner ORD, of McAdam Junction, in the Province of New Brunswick and Dominion of Canada, have invented new and useful improvements in Rotary Engines, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
This invention relates broadly to improveF ments in rotary engines, and more particularly to that class of engines consisting essentially of a rotor carrying a plurality of pistons having their axes arranged parallel with the axis of the rotor.
The primary object of this invention is to provide an improved construction of rotary engine in which all the reciprocating` parts move parallel with the axis of rotation, and in which the full expansive force of the motive fluidV is transmitted to the moving vpistons.
A further object is toprovide improved means for counteracting the centrifugal force which tends to cause the pistons to move away from the axis of the rotor, and bear against the outer sides of the cylinders.
ln the drawings which illustrate the inventi0n:-li`igure 1 is a side elevation of the engine. Fig, 2 is a partialvertical section showing the arrangement of the pistons, thrust blocks and valves. Fig. 3 is an end elevation of the rotor partly in transverse section, to show theports. Fig. 3 is an enlarged longitudinal section of one of the pistons and a fragment of thrust ring showing the direction of thrust.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, l designates a bed plate having a pillow block 5 attached to each end thereof. The adjacent faces of the pillow blocks are provided with bosses G on which are mounted the thrust blocks or rings 10. These rings 10 have their adjacent faces 11 inwardly sloped, the sloping face being part of an obtuse cone, that is, a cone having an angle of more than 90 degrees at the apexlhaving its axis parallel with and eccentric to the rings 10, as is clearly shown by the broken lines in Fig. 2. rlhe eccentric arrangement of the cone surface causes the ring l0 to be deeper at one side than at the other, as is clearly seen in the drawings.
rlhe rotor, generally designated by the numeral 12, is in the form of a cylinder, and may for convenience be made in two or more parts and connected by bolts or the like 13 passing through flanges 14 formed on the Speccaton of Letters Patent.
Patented July 21, 1914.
Serial No. 678,180.
several parts of the rotor. 'This rotor is mounted oli a hollow shaft 15 which `is journaled in the pillow blocks so as to pass concentrically through the rings 10. yThe rotor is providedwith a plurality of bores l@ parallel with its axis with a plurality of cylinders, each of which preferably contains two pistons 17 arranged to operate in opposite ends of the cylinder. These pistons are provided with rings `1&3 or other suitable moans for forming a fluid tight joint between tl'iemselves and the cylinder walls. rlhe motive fluid is admitted through a pipe 19 which passes through one end of the hollow shaft 15 .to the approximatecenter of the rotor. The inner end of this pipe is closed by a wall 20, and is provided on one side of its diameter vwith a port 21 through which the motive iiuid escapes from the pipe. Beyond the wall 20, the pipe is provided on the opposite side of its diameter with a similar port 22, through which the motive fluid is exhausted from the cylinders and escapes through that end of the hollow shaft not occupied hy the pipe 19. The ports 23 and 2li respectively are cut radially from the bore of the shaft into veach cylinder 16. The ports 23 are preferably centered in a vertical plane which bisects the rotor transversely, while the ports 24e are located in a parallel plane a short distance away from the ports 23. rlhe ports 21 and 22 of the duid pipe 19 extend through preferably less than half the circumference of the pipe so as to communicate with only a predetermined number of the cylinders at a time, as will bo clearly understood from an examination of Figs. 2 and 3, and a perusal of my former U. l. Patent #968,969, dated August th, 1910. A.' further and very important reason for forming these ports through less than half the circumference'of the pipe 19 is that there may be a dead space between the ports, that is to say, a space opposite which the ports 23 and 2-l`will he connected neither to the inlet port 21 nor to the exhaust port 22. rllhe reason for this will be fully explained hereafter.
the slope of the faces 11 of the thrust rings l 10. These rings 27 bear against the balls 26 so that they rotate on the pistons with practically no friction, and at the same time travel on the thrust rings so that friction vbetween the pistons and thrust rings is reform. At the present time, the preferred method of forming the same is to make a larger diameter than the cylinder and eccentric thereto. The ribs 33 of material between the counterfbores are provided with guidel bars 34C which engage the edges of the cross heads 31 and hold the samein the guides. The cross heads are formed with the same curvature as the guides.- It is obvious that numerous changes may be made in the shape of these guides without in any waydeparting from the spirit of the invention.
The pipe 19 in addition to forming the motive fluid inlet forms a valve, and is therefore a means for reversing the engine. To effect this reversal, the pipe 19 which is normally stationary is provided with a shifting lever 35 operating over a quadrant 36. A suitable locking device 37 is provided to hold the lever in any position to which it is set.
The rotor and thrust rings are entirely inclosed by a casing 38.
The operation of the engine is Very simple and will be readily understood. Assuming the pipe or valve 19 to `be in the position shown in Fig. 2, when the motive fluid is admitted it iiows through the ports 21 and 23 between the pistons 17 in the lower part of the cylinder, these pistons being in their inward positions, as clearly seen in the figure. The expansive force of the iuid tends to separate the pistons, and this outward movement of the pistons is by reason of the sloping faces 11 of the thrust rings of cams 10 transformed into rotary motion, so that the rotor is caused to rotate. This rotation brings the next cylinder in line with the port 21 so that the motive fluid is admitted between the pistons thereof.-v As the rotor moves, the port 23 of the first cylinder is carried past the port 21 so that the admission of the motive fluid is cut off, and the expansion of the fluid already imprisoned between the pistons continues to force them apart, until at approximately the time that the cam surfaces 11 commence to drive the pistons toward each other, the port 24- comes opposite the exhaust port 22'0f the valve and the fluid is allowed to escape or is driven out by the approaching pistons. Shortly before the pistons reach their limit of inward movement, one of them closes the exhaust port 24C. At the time of this closure the dead space between the inlet and exhaust ports of the valve previously referred to is rin register with the inlet port 23. In this way a certain amount of steam is imprisoned between the pistons and is slight-ly compressed by the completion of the inward j movement of the pistons, so as to form the y cushion which has been found to be essential in practically all types of fluid motors. The
compression formed by this cushion is sufficient to hold the ring 27 of the piston in encounter bore, indicated at 32, of suitable gagement with the thrust ring 10. AIf this engagement were not maintained and the piston were allowed to disengage from the ring, the sudden admission of steam would drive the pistons outwardly with such force that a veryv heavy blow would be delivered to the thrust rings. As this blow would invariably occur at the same point, a depression would rapidly become worn in the thrust ring. This fact has been amply demonstrated by experiment. 1t is believed that heretofore in this type of engine, this condition has not been foreseen, or if its occurrence was noted the use of a cushion of the mot-ive fluid to prevent the pistons leaving the thrust members has not been thought of. The size of the ports 21 and 22 may be made as desired so as to supply any number of cylinders at the same time, or to supply only one cylinder. To reverse the engine, the lever 35 isl thrown to upright position so 105 that the tube 19 is rotated until the port 21 admits motive iiuid equally on both sides of the vertical center. If t-he lever is left in this position, the pressure will hold they rotor motionless and in equilibrium. If the move- 110 ment is continued and the lever thrown over so that the valve tube 19 is rotated sufficiently to bring the ports 21 and 22 on the opposite sides of the rotor, the iuid is admitted on the opposite side, and the engine will start itself in the reverse direction.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is 1. A device of the character described comprising a rotor, containing a plurality of bores forming cylinders and a plurality of counter bores of larger diameter than said cylinders, pistons adapted to reciprocate in said cylinders, crossl heads on the ends of said pistons, ribs between said counter bores having guide bars thereon engaging said cross head, and thrust members engaging` said pistons.
2. In a device of the character described, a rotor, a thrust block having the thrust sur- 130 face thereof in the form of a truncated cone, the axis of Which is parallel and eccentric to the axis of the rotor, and pistons in said rotor engaging said conical thrust surface.
3. A device of the character' described comprising a rotor, containing aplurality of cylinders located axially parallel therewith2 pistons reciprocating in said cylinders, thrust members adjacent the ends of the rotor, a conical roller mounted on each piston engaging said thrust members, a ball bearing between said roller and piston,
guides extending from the ends of the rotor, and cross heads on the pistons engaging said guides and arranged to receive the resultant force from the piston and conical thrust surface, and to impart turning motion to the rotor.
In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two Witnesses.
@RAVEN ROBERT ORD. Witnesses:
L. G. SPEEDY, H. A. THOMAS.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for ve cents cach, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.