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Publication numberUS1111580 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 22, 1914
Filing dateFeb 9, 1914
Priority dateFeb 9, 1914
Publication numberUS 1111580 A, US 1111580A, US-A-1111580, US1111580 A, US1111580A
InventorsSamuel M Herber
Original AssigneeSamuel M Herber
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Oil distillation.
US 1111580 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

S. M. HERBER.

OIL DISTILLATION.

APPLIOATION FILED Hum, 1914.

1,11 1,580, Patented Sept. 22, 1914.

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SAMUEL M. HERBER, 0F INZA, MISSOURI.

OIL DISTILLATION.

To all w/zom t may concern Be it known that I, the undersigned, SAM- UEL M. HERBER, a citizen of the 'United States, residing at Inza, in the county of Buchanan and State of Missouri, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Gil Distillation; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and

exact description of the invention, such asv Will enable others skilled in the art to Which it appertains tomake and use the same. t

Myinvention relates .t0 oil distillation in which the energy of heat acts in conjunction With chemical energy, producing results Which have not hitherto been attained, so far as I am aware, materially increasing the `more valuable products obtained from proving the quality thereof.

lI obtain vthe foregoing results in the following manner. I desire it -to be understood that the apparatusV employed in carrying out my the distillation of crude petroleum and im-v process of distillation may be varied as desired, but in my experiments '-I have found a mechanism or apparatus substantially of the character which I have illustrated in the accompanying drawing eicient and well adapted to the requirements and I Will therefore describe the apparatus as follows:

A is a. retort provided With a detachable bottom Z, a filling pipe L, a man-hole J, a drain pipe K "and vapor outlet pipe D4 provided. With a relief valve N, and a regulatingv valve M, which may be an automatic pressure regulating valve if desired. The retort is alsol provided With chambers B3, U

and V, andv also the conveyer or delivery' pipes T, for a purpose hereinafter set forth. An air reservoir B is also provided having an air inletpipe I connected With a suittank. C also having a -pipe connection I-I' with a. suitable source of supply, as a'pump,'

reservoir or the like, said chamber C being connected with the chamber. V by conveyer pipe E, the latter having suitable valve G therein. In order to inclose the retort yI provide Walls'Bi, of suitable material, as {irebrick, properly lined, it being understood that the retort is supported Within said vSpecification. of Letters Patent.

Patented sept. 22, 1914.

l Application led February 9, 1914. Serial No. 817,675.

walls in any suitable manner, as by the lugs or arms A2. I- have-also provided the inclosing hood B2 on the upper end of the retort,

said hood having suitable openings Y for the escape of gas and other products of combustion. I have also providedl a plurality of needle valves V2 for the chamber V, whereby the flowvof Water or steam may be regulated, as desired. I have also provided a pipe connection between the air chamber B and the upper portion of the Water tank C, provided With a suitable valve H4. It Will be obvious that the pressureof water and air in tanks C and B may be maintained at any desired pressure, and that by simply adjusting the regulating valve M in the discharge pipe D4 any desired pressure of the vapors and gases may be maintained in theA retort A.

The 'operation'is carried out as follows:

-The retort A having been lled With oil to the desired height, a quantity of lime, preferably air slacked, is introduced '"into the retort through the man-hole J, or otherwise, thel quantity of lime as before referred to, vary-ing with different crude petroleums and also' With different results desired,

(usually about one measured part' of the steam so admitted and commingled with it downward throughthe distributing pipes T, etc., discharging the same at the bottom of the retort and through the mixed oil land lime.

As soon as the oil begins to vaporize, the

vapor is carried through the discharge pipe D4 having the relief valve N and the regulating valve M (which may be an automatic pressure regulating valve i'fdesired) into and through the condenser coil I), in the tank O containing wvlter or other suitable cooling agent. Said coil or' worm discharges `into the tank 2, the latter being provided with a suitable drain pipe S and also with a dischargepipe R in the upper por- *either quick lime or slaked lime, and WaterV tion thereof, both of said pipes having suitable valves. It will be seen that the discharge pipe R is provided for the gaseous products, for furtherltreatment, if desired.

The pipes T terminate at their upper ends at the bottom'of chamber U, or in the head X. The needle valves V2 project into the open ends of the pipes V3, and Ait is obvious that the supply of watermay be wholly cut ofi by said needle valves, or the flow controlled, as desired. It therefore follows that since the upper'V portion i of the pipes T, which are surrounded by the protecting jacket'B?, are' exposed to the heated gases of combustion, from the furnace in their escape through the openings Y in hood B2, they will become heated, thereby heating the contents thereof on their passage through. It will. be`seen that the chambers V andl U are separated by the members lV and X, the latter carrying the downwardly projecting pipes'T, as shown.

4While it is very desirable to employ water or steam as hereinbefore set forth, yet it will r be understood th t I may dispense with said -ter results .with .quick lime, and water or steam commingled therewith, and also with and air, but I prefer to use.- air slaked lime, with the current of air commingled with 'the .u Water or steampassing 'through the heated miXture. It is therefore obvious, that either the air, or water, or both, may be cut of, or

y e, applied at any desired period in the process o f Adistillation to meet thev varying conditions, such as the character of the distillate vbeing acted upon, and the desired character of the resulting distillate. l

Briefly stated, my invention consists inthe treatment of-crude oil vby mingling with ita given quantity of lime, the commingled product placed within a retort, to 4which air and heat are applied raising the temperature to 212` .degrees Fall., or over, when `I introducewater' or steamcommingled with s oil in the retort, then passing a current of 'air through the product so commingled While heating until. the temperature has reached or exceeded 212 degrees Fah., then commlnglmg with the air, water or steam,

and continuing the use of the commingled ,Water and air as long as it is desired 'to extract gasolene and kerosene from the resulting distillate, after which the flow of water,

or air, or both, may be'cut off.,

a further illustration, when a crude is employed having a` gravity of about 33 and normally containing about 13 per cent. of gasolene` I prefer carrying out the process in the following manner. First, placing the commingled lime, as hereinbefore vreferred to, and oil in the retort, passing the current of air through slowly at rst while heating,

and continuing the air alone, until the normal quantity of gasolcne contained in the crude has lbeen distilled out, then turning on the water, commingling it with the air and continuing thus, so long as it is desired to obtain gasolene or kerosene from the resulting distillate; after which I prefer to cut off the air and use the water or steam alone, 30

while distilling out the heavier, or lubricating, oils. It will be understood the water and air, combined may be used throughout the complete process if desired, or either the flow of water, or air, or both, may be discontinued at any' desired point in the proc,- ess. In thisv manner I obtain, first, the normal quantity of gasolene, contained in the crude, amounting to about 13%, next a disi tillate which, for convenience of explanation, I will call slop oil, amounting to about 65% (for a subsequent treatment, as hereinafter4 explained,) and the desirable portions of the heavier or lubricating oils, amounting to about"20%. Iprefer to carry out each of the foregoing variations of the process without pressure or with but 1% to 3 lbs. back pressure. Next, I prefer treating the distillate or slop oil obtained from the foregoing operation in the following manner. First, introducing the lime, as before referred to, into the retort, then heating-'withl v the air passing through, until a temperaturel of .approximately 800 degrees Fah. 1s reached, then turning in the Water or steam with the air, and pumping the oil into the retort gradually, as nearly as possible at the same rate as thevapors escape to the condenser, thereby having a minimum quantity of oil in the retort atany giventime, which admits of a maximum chemical action by the lime, on the commingled oil, and gases, or vapor, adjusting the regulating valve in the discharge pipe .from the retort, soa pressure of preferably 60 to 90lbs. per sq. in. is maintained in the retort, the quantity of lime, as

hereinbefore referred to, used being about 700 c. c. per gallon of oil, and about-() c. c.

of water, per gallon of oil, I prefer a,vol-' u'me of air sufficient to become saturated with the hydrocarbon products, suflicient to ignite when in contact with a flame, and which may be determined by ignlting the gases escaping through the condenser.

The distillate resulting from this operation will amount to about 55% of what I have termed slop oil, and when 'subjected to fractional distillation,lit yields about '50% of gasolene, 45% kerosene and 5% machine oil, thus the 50% -gasolene so obtained, added to the 13% normal gasolene distilled viously these proportions of the different products may be varied in almost any desired manner, by the manipulation of pro- I portions of lime, air, water, temperature and pressure, referred to in these specifications.

It is understood the commingled oil and lime may be introduced into the retort in bulk, or the lime commingled with the o il and pumped in gradually, also that either air, or water or steam, along-may be used, andthe quantities of lime, air, or water, or pressure or temperature, may be greatly varied, depending on the character of the distillate being acted upon, and the desired character of the resulting distillate'. Also the period of using the water, or air, or both, will be greatly varied; therefore, I can not confine myselfto any Xed rule, or proportions. And also, that While I have obtained the best resultsby using lthe air slaked lime, I wish to comprehend in this application linie in any suitable form.

It is understood that the nal residue of lime and carbon left in the retort may be highly heated. either in the same or a separate retort, while a current of air, and steam, or steam alone, is passing through the mixture thus yielding illuminating gas, and decarbonizing the lime whichmay be used again.

I am Yaware of lime having been comi mingled with oil for purifying purposes after the process of distillation, to separate the oil into the various products which it contains, had been carried out, and do not v claim the commingling of oil and lime, as

my invention broadly. So far as I am .aware lime has not been used commingled wlth oil prior to a destructive distillation thereof for the purpose of assisting 1n separating vthe oil into the various products which it contains, and for the purpose of increasing the yield of the lower fractions.

Having thus describedmy process of distillation, what I claim as'my invention is:

1. The herewith described process of oil distillation, consisting of commingling with oil a quantity of lime, (as hereinbefore re ferred to) (usually about 1 measured part of the lime to 7 measured parts of the o1l), heating to thevaporizingvtemperature of the oil, and at the same .time passing `a desired current of air into or through the oil and vapor, and, subsequently at a desired tem-.,

perature, introducing the desired quantity of steam, and condensing the resulting vapor.

2. The herewith described process of oil i distillation consisting of the commingling of oil and lime (as hereinbefore referred to), then heating the product to a vaporizmg `temperature of the oil, while a current of air, commingled with steam or water, is passed through the commingled product, and the vapor condensed.

3.y The herewith described process of oil distillation, comprising the commingling of oil with lime (as hercinbefore referred to),

the introduction of steam or water thereto while the oil is at a vaporizing temperature, and condensing the resulting vapor.

4. In oil distillation the commingling of limev (as hereinbefore referred to) with oil heatin the product to a vaporizing temperature o the' oil, passing a current of air into or through the heated products, and condensing theV resulting vapor, for the purpose of assisting' in separating the oil into its various products and increasing the yield of lower fractions.

5. In oil distillation the commingling of lime (as hereinbefore referred to) with oil, through which a current of air commingled with steam is passing while the product is heated to a vaporizing temperature of the oil, and maintained at any desired temperature and pressure, and condensing the resulting vapor.

6. In oil distillation the commingling of lime (as hereinbefore referred to) with oil, through which a current of steam is passing, While the product is heated to a vaporizing temperature of the oil, and maintained at any desired temperature and pressure and condensing the resulting vapor, for the purpose of assisting in separating the oil into its various products and increasin the yield of'lower fractions.

g. In oil distillation the commingling of oil with lime (as hereinbefore referred to), heating the product to the vaporizing temperature of the oil, while a current of air is passing through the commingled products land the commingled products maintained at any desired temperature and pressure,and condensing the resulting vapor, for the purpose of assisting in separating the oil into its variousvproducts and increasing the yield of lower fractions.

8. In oil distillation the combination stated in the hereindescribed process, consisting of rst comminglinof with oil, a quantity of lime (as hereinbefore referred to), introducing into a retort, heating the commingled product to a vaporizing temperature, while a current of air commingled with steam or water is passing into or through the product, and condensing the resulting vapor, rst obtaining the desired quantity of light distillate,after which a portion of the dist-illate is cut out-for subsequent retreatment with lime, air, and water, under pressure, continuing the distillationiuntil the desirable lubricating oils have been distilled outv substantially as set forth. l9. In oil distillation the combination stated inthe herein described process, consisting of introducting into a retort a quantity of ,lime (as hereinbefore referred to), v heating the product to a temperature of ap- 5 proximately 860 'degrees Fah., while a current ofair is passing into or through the retort, then adding thereto and comminglin it ywith water or steam and the gradual a dition thereto of oil which is added as nearly 1o as possible, at the rate the vapor escaped to the condenser, a pressure of approximately 75 lbs'. per sq. in., being maintained in the retort throughout the operation, and the condensation of the resulting vapor, substan- 15 tially as set forth.

` 10. In oil distillation the commingling of oil with hydrated or air slaked lime (as hereinbefore referred to), for the purpose of distilling the oil to separateitlinto various products and increasing the yield of lower f. fractions, by heating the commingled products up to a-sufcient temperature to decom- I pose or crack the oil, and condensing the r ff sulting vapors.

.In testimony whereof I have signed my 25 name to this specication in the presencev of two subscribing witnesses.

SAMUEL M. HERBER.

Witnesses:

' C. A. NEALE,

W. T. IFrrz GERALD.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification208/7, 196/127
Cooperative ClassificationC10G9/38