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Publication numberUS1118228 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 24, 1914
Filing dateAug 20, 1910
Priority dateAug 20, 1910
Publication numberUS 1118228 A, US 1118228A, US-A-1118228, US1118228 A, US1118228A
InventorsGreenleaf Whittier Pickard
Original AssigneeWireless Specialty Apparatus Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 1118228 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




Patented Nov. 24, 1914..


Specification of Letters Patent.


Patented Nov. 241, 1914i.

' 1 Application filed August 20, 1910. Seria11 Ip. '578,203.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, GREENLEAF VVHITTIER PIGKARD, a citizen of the United States of America, and a resident of Amesbury, Mas- 5- sachusetts, have invented, certain new and useful Improvements in Oscillation- Detectors, the principles of which are set forth in the following specification and accompanyingdrawings, which disclose the form of the invention which I now consider to be the best of the various forms in which the rinciples of the invention may be em- )odied.

This invention relates to oscillation re ceivers, or detectors, or mineral rectifier-s, used as wireless telegraphy detectors of the type of my prior Patents 877,451,; 886,154; 888,191; 004,222; 912,726; 92%,826; 933,263; d 963,713. 1

More particularl the invention relates to improvements on t e type of mechanical device disclosed in my said Patent 933,263, and to specific kinds of rectifying minerals or conductors constituting the detecting agent to be incorporated with said mechanical device or holder or with any suitable holder.

Of the drawingsfwhich are exact copies of complete working drawings to full scale,

Figure 1 is a plan of a device embodying the invention; Fig. 2 a front elevation; Fig. 3 a right side elevation of Fig. 1; Fig. at is a section of the details of arm 0 of Fig. 1: F i g. 5 is an elevation of part E ofjsaidarm; Fig. .6 is an elevation of part P of said arm 0; Figs. 7 and 8 are an elevation and plan respectively of the holder-block B of Fig. l, for the active detecting agentorconducting mineral or rectifying conductor X; Fig. 9 is aplan like Fig. 1 of a modification The detecting agent X m'ay be any of the substances hereinafter specified, but the device here is particularly adapted for-Rise with some such substance as the ironpyrite of my said Patent 933,263. In some-cases two of such substances may be employed in series in contact with each other, but inthe device as shown, the brass pointJ is the member in contact with a single substance X. hen two detecting agents X are em? ployed in contact with each other, the sec% 0nd one is substituted for the pointJ or otherwise suitably supported as X here and in my Said Patent 933,263 in a fusible metal button combined in any suitable way, as in any of my said prior patents showing hold.-

ers, with the mechanism here to be described. p i

The object of this device or holder is to obtain such an accurate adjustment of com tact location as I find to be elrtremely desirable if not absolutely necessary in order to secure maximum efliciency from the various agents'X to be specified, and also at the same time to provide adjusting means which shall be economically practicable for use in receiving wireless messages. I The screw H, E Figs. 3, '1 and 2 and its accessories A, Q, U, for the purpose of ad- Y just-ing contact-spring K, or combined springs K, K (Fig. 3), are combined with insulating base C, and may 'be duplicates of the corresponding parts in my said Patent 933,263; and likewisewith the fusible metal button M containing the detecting agent X,

and the use of a holdenblock, in general. such-as Band having a crew F to hold but- I ton M rigidly 111 place in the hollow Gr, of

the block M. But as to those various parts, any suitable substitute may be employed.

The mechanical novelty herein is embodied in the construction of the holderblock B for the button M, and cooperating means for working it to obtain the: desired accurate but easy adjustment. l

The block. B is held in place a three.

points, Fig.: 1, 21.0., the two adjusting-screws L, N and the yielding pressure-arm O, the

latter pressing block- Bagainst said adj usting screws. Arm 0 has nothing to do with the contact pressure of the rectifying agent X in circuit, that being attended to by spring K. Block B, by means of screws L,

N, may be moved about on metal sur-base D v which is connected to binding-post 1 as indicated in Fi'g. 1; the other circuit terminal being binding-post 2 which is connected to support A for contact-adjlisting-screw H.

' The following construction is adapted to permit block B to be quickly moved about over metal base D so that any point of agent X may be connected in the circuit between spring K and 'sur-base D and also to keep block B rigidly in a single plane so as not only to keep it in good contact with base D but also to keep it at a uniform height, so that, when the top surface of detecting agent pressure for all adjustments; and also, and particularly, to prevent block B from'movmg the slightest degree in its plane, after an 'X is level, there will be uniform contact adjustment has been made. These objectir are accomplished as follows: Block B is provided with sides or lateral portions as at R, T,ivhich are beveled at about eighty degrees to the horizontal, 2'. 6,, ten degrees to the vertical, Figs. 3, 7 and 8; the screws L, N being inclined at about ten degrees to bear directly on the sides R, i The end of part P of arm 0 is fixed to block B as by threaded extension P (Fig. 1) so that both arm 0 and block B move together as a. unit, the pressure arm 0 being pivoted at its other end at 3 and being telescopic, so thatblock B can be adjusted by screws, L, N into any one of an infinitely large number of positions within the limits of thesmal'l'part of" the circumference of a wide circular path having the pivot 3 of an arm 0 asa center;

the width of said path being determined by I the extent of the shortest and longest radii of the arm 0. Screws L and N are shown as at right angles with each other, but that is not necessary. The precise construction and arrangement of arm O is not of essential importance, providing that it serves its principal function of yieldingly pressing block B against screws L and N. It is clear from the above that the three lateral supports of block B keep it not only in the same'plane but also rigidly in any position to which it may be adjusted." In a device accurately constructed, and without lost motion, it is found that a given adjustment will be preserved throughout the most abnormal mechanical disturbances. It is clear that the adjustments are most readily made, by merely turning one or the other or both of screws L, N.

BloclnB should slide freeiy over stir-base D, and for best results their contacting surfaces should be truly plane and preferably nickel-plated; and so also with the beveled sides or-edges 11,1 of block B and the con tacting ends of screws'L, N.

Arm 0 (Figs. 4, 5, 6) may consist ofsleeve E, pivoted at 3 (Fig. 1),,and plunger P telescopinginsi'de of E and provided with the threaded projection P (Fig. 6) which is screwed into the corner of block B (Fig.

When that corner of B is beveled, as at W (Figs. 8 and l), the main part of P may bear as a shoulderagainst it as shown (Fig. 1). It is not necessary to bevel that corner W at an angle to the vertical, when, as shown, the arm 0 is held down in its pivoted position by the pivotscrew at 3 (Fig; 1), or when the entire arm 0 is suiiiciently rigid to prevent vertical movement at its end which is connected with block B. The screw at 3 is not adjusted so tight as to prevent the movement of arm 0 about its pivot 3 as a center.

The springs S (Fig. 4) inside sleeve E and around plunger P (Fig. l), is preferconfined therein to obtain additional rigid- .ity of the assembled parts.

The device of Fig. l is extremely accurate in operation, provided that it be constructed with excellent workmanship, and it is then the best form in so far as it is the simplest, as wellas accurate. But the device of Fig. 9 is preferable iii-cases where it is not desired to use as great care in construction as is required by'the device of Fig. 1; because in Fig. 9 there isused the steadying means consisting of the jointed arm 4, 5, the part 5 of which forms a continuation of block B, the arm O 'being simply pivoted to B at 6, so that B moves rigidly with 5 instead oi (Fig. 1) with 0 Part 4 is pivoted at the pivot 3 of part E of arm Parts 4' and 5 are pivoted together at 7 and that joint is free to move over base D The top of sur-base D and the lower surfaces of 4 and 5 are true planes and are preferably plated as with nickel, in order to preserve the smooth surfaces which allow free movement and accurate adjustments of parts land 5.. The motion of block B in Fig. 9 is more complicated than in Fig. 1, because it does not,as there, mdve about 3 as a center; but on the other hand, it moves about point 7 as a center, that joint being not fixed but moving about 3 as a center. w

W hen the above steadying means is used, it is not so important to construct arm rigidly as is desirable for arm 0 in Figs; 1 and 4, and the arm maylack the parts T and V of Fig. l.

The simpleand accurate adjustment'pro-- vided by .the above mechanism is found to increase the efliciency of any. of the rectify ing agents hereinafter specified, to a remarkable degree, and in the case of some agents, such as galena and huascolite for example, that adjusting means seems absolutely necessary in orderto permit, thesatisfactory employment of such. regular commercial service. i l

. The following substances may be employed in the disclosed or any other suitable device, either individually as members X in contact with the brass point J, or in pairs,

substances in -11? v chalcocite; chalco'cite, ferif.; chalcophanite,

chalcopyrite, chanarcillite, chathamite, chilj breithauptite,

' miargyrite,

.querite, arsen argentite; arsenic, xnative'; arsenio-tellurite, arseno-allemontite, arsenopyrite, arseno-skutterudite, avaite, beegerite, berthierite, bismuthgalena; bismuth, native bismuthinite, .bisrnuto-skutterudite, bismuto-smaltite, bjelkite, blatterite, :bolivianite, bornite,bournonite; :bournonite, ferit; briiggerite, brogniardite; brogniardite, cuprif; brookite, calaverite, .cantonite, carborundum, carrolite, castillite,

.en ite,'- chivati-te, chloanthite, clarite, clausthalite, cobaltite,. coloradoite, condurite, cop- .per, corynite, covellite, crookesite, cubanite, cupro-geocronite, cupro-plumbite; dalem- :inzite, cuprif.-.; danaite, diaphorite; diaphorite, plumbif.; dogsnacskite, domeykite; domeykite, argentii; dycrasite; dycrasite, argentif. emplectite, enargite, epiboulangerite; epiboulangerite, bismuthinous; eucairite, famatinite, ferro-ilmenite, ferroferro-rammelsburgite, ferrotetrahedrite, fre'ibergite; freibergite, argentifl; freieslebenite, frieseite, galena, galeno-bismutite,- geocronite, gersdorfiite, glaucodot, glance-pyrite, graphite guadalcazarite, g'uanajuatite, hattenburgite, hausmannite, henryite, hessite; hessite, aurif; heteromorphite, .horsfordite, hauscolite, .huntilite, ilmenite, ilsemannite, inverarite, iron-platinum, 'iserite, jacobsite, jaipurite, jalpaite, jarnesonite, johnstonite, jordanite, joseite, josephenite, klaprothohte, lmopite, kongsbergite, krennerite, lantite, lehrbachite. leucopyrite, linnaeite; linnaeite, ferif; livingstonite, lollingite, magnetite, maldonite, manganeese, manganite,. marcassite; marcassite, arsenlcalz marcylite, mercury, metacinnabarite, m1? argyrite, millerite, mohawkite, molybedenite, nagyagite, niccolite, nivenite, onofrlte, orileyite, pentlandite, petzite, plumbo-ferrite, plumbo-stibite, plumbo-tellite, polianite; polianite, ferif polyargyrite, polybasite; polybasite, zincif; polydymite, polymigmite, polytellite, porpezite, proust te, psilomelane, pyrargyrite, pyrite; pyrite, cuprii; pyrite, nickelif.;' pyrolusite, pyrostilpnite; pyrrhotite, cobaltif. .pyrrhotite, rammelsburgite, rathite, redruthite, rittingerite, ruthenite, safliorite, saterbergite, schapbachite, schirmerite', schulzite,schwalzite, selen-tellurium, semseyite, shuvite,siegenite, silaonite, silicon, skutterudite, smaltite,

sommarngarite, spathio-pyrite, specular iron,

sp'errylite, stannite, stephanite, sternbergite, stibio-domeykite, stibio-gersdorfiite, stibiokrennerite, stiemannite, stromeyerite,studerite, stiit-zite; stiitzite, cuprif.; sychnodymite, sylvanite,tennantite tennantite, antimonial tetradymite; tetradymite, sulfurous; tetraheclrite, tiemannite, tilkerodita, tin; tin, tellurif.; troilite, ullmannite, umangite, Wad,

Wehrlite, Whitneyite; Whitneyite, antimonial;


'wo1faclnte,.zincite; zinc.o xid,'fused.; zinkenite; .zinkenite, cobaltif; zorgite; zorgite, rcuprif, and also various other compounds, artificially produced, and having similar properties.

Asthere are about two hundred and fifty of :these substances, as above, which can be employed, (as distinguished from the .thousands .of other minerals which are not "elec-' trical conductors or rectifiers), and therefore r'nany thousands of useful pairs'thereof, (each .one with any of the other constituting a .useful pair), it is impractical-to specify here the detailed properties of each pair. Each individual has its general characteristics of direction .of rectification, sensitiveguess or etficiency of rectification, optimum contact pressure, stability, and degree of case of adjustment, including .the number vof operative contact points. Each sample, of ,the same substance, of slightly differing de- .grees of chemical and physical properties, may vary as to the above characteristics,

and each substance usually operates slightly dlfferently in various aspects when employed in contact 'Wlth each of the variousether substances. All "these may be readily .deternuned by trial. In general, the various substances are to be employed as in my said prior patents, particularly as to the lack of microphomc or unperfect contact. The

good or substantially perfect contact which contact detector, and the above is there fore considered a suflicient instruction.

In general, the contact pressure for many. of the substances is less than one or two grams, and for some substances is less than tenth of a gram,.anol for some others as high as ten grams or more. But no matter.

.how low the pressure, there must always be enough to prevent microphonicaction in order to utilize the rectifying property. In general, the best substances are thosewhich are efficient when the contact pressure is high, in the sense that they are the most stable. But some substances which are best as to some conditions, are very inferior in others, and arbitrary selection and trial under (ilfi GIGIIt COIIImBIClG-l conditions will indioate the use of substances of different characters best suited for use in the different conditions.

Certain substances operate much better With certain others or classes of others, although the reason for this is as yet obscure. For example, While the rectifying solid oxid named above as pairs with it.

of Zinc (or the Specific zinc oxid, zincite) is usually operative with any conductor X, yet, as I have found,- it operates best with solid chemical compounds of sulfur and copper, and next best with solid chemical compounds of sulfur not containing copper.

of adjustment and electrical stability bornite, chalcocite, stromeyrite, chalcopyrite, cuproplumbite, cubanite', covelliteL Of the sulfur non-copper compounds, of less efficiency than the sulfur-coppercompounds,

but of greater efficiency than non-sulfur compounds, I have found the following to be extremely useful with an oxid of zinc such as zincite:galena, iron pyrite, molybdenite, etc. Of the substances listed,

' there are many individually, and many pairs, which average at least as commercially satisfactory as any of those just mentioned by way of illustration. But each individual substance, and each pair of sub stances, has its own characteristics which it is not here practicable to specify in detail. In general, the attributes of stability, sensitiveness and ease of adjustmentare about equally important; although ease of adjustment is not so important where the stability is high, and vice versa; and sensitiveness is not so important, provided it be fairly high, when either ease of adjustment or stability is high.

For example, although a form of oxid of zinc such as zincite, is an excellent and practical material, its sensitiveness and stability are not nearly so high as those of many others of those above listed. But it is very easy of adjustment, 6., has many sensitive contact points, and its sensitiveness can be improved to a considerable degree by pairing it with the other substances particularly It is not so efficient at rectifier, for strong nearby signals, for example, asthe pyrite of my Patent 933,263,. and it is more liable than that to have its stability affected by such signals;

so that under suchconditions it may be preferable to employ such other material. Furthermore, in general, the physical conditions, such as softness, of a given substance which may have all the best properties otlierwise, may be such as to make it less desirable for service of a given kind.

All the above various properties of the above various suitable conductors, are to be adapted to special conditions by a process of mechanical device here disclosed is such as.

to improve the operation of allthe various substances.

I claim 1. an element of a device of the class described, the conducting non-copper com pound of sulfur, Linnaeite, possessing, when in contact with another electrical conductor, the property of rectifying oscillating cur rents, substantially as and for the purpose described.

2. As an element of a device of theclassdescribed, a conducting compound of sulfur not containing copper, which possesses, when in contact with another electrical conductor, the property ofrectifying oscillating currents, substantially, as and for the purpose described. r Y v 3. The combination with the non-copper conducting metallic compound ofv sulfur, Linnaeite, of a conducting solid consisting of oxid of zinc, in electrical contact therewith, each of said conductors possessing the property, when in such contact with one another, of rectifying oscillating currents, substantially as and for the purpose described.

4-. The combination with a conducting compound of sulfur, not containing copper, of acooperating electrical conductor in electrical contact therewith, each of said con-. ductors possessing the property, when ,in

such contact, with one another, of rectifying oscillating currents, substantially as and for the purpose described.

5. The combination with a conducting compound of sulfur, not containing copper, of a cooperating electrical conductor in electrical contact therewith, said sulfur compound possessing the property, when in such Jcontact with the electrical conductor, of rectifying oscillating currents, substantially as and for the purpose described.

6. The combination with a conducting compound of sulfur, not containing copper, of a conducting solid consisting of oxid of zinc, in electrical contact therewith, and when in such contact with said sulfur compound, possessing theproperty of rectifying oscillating currents, substantially as and for the purpose described. f


. Witnesses:


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2530110 *Jun 2, 1944Nov 14, 1950Sperry CorpNonlinear circuit device utilizing germanium
U.S. Classification257/43, 252/519.4, 252/62.30V, 252/516
Cooperative ClassificationH01L29/7869