|Publication number||US1122348 A|
|Publication date||Dec 29, 1914|
|Filing date||Feb 17, 1908|
|Priority date||Feb 17, 1908|
|Publication number||US 1122348 A, US 1122348A, US-A-1122348, US1122348 A, US1122348A|
|Inventors||Orville Wright, Wilbur Wright|
|Original Assignee||Wright Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
0. & W. WRIGHT.
APPLICATION FILED FEB.17,190B
Patented Deo. 29, 1914.
4 SHEETS-SHEET l.
0. & W. WRIGHT.
APPLIOATION FILED FEB.17,190B.
Patented Dec. 29, 1914.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
nvm um @9i tf1 @was waf MMM@ arroz mm3 0. & W. WRIGHT.
APPLICATION FILED FEB.17,1908.
Patented 1m29, 1914'.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
attorney 0. & W. WRIGHT.
APPLIGATION FILED FEB.17.1908.
Patented Dec. l29, 1914.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
UNTTE sTATEs PATENT onirica..
oRvILLE WRIGHT AND WILBUR WRIGHT. or DAYTON, omo,- yAssleruous 4To THE- WRIGHT COMPANY, A CORPORATION l Application led February 1?), 1908. Serial No. 416275.
' To all 'whom it may concern Be -it known that we, ORvILLE WRIGHT and VVILBUR VRIGHT, citizensv of the United States, residing at Dayton, in the county of Montgomery and State of Ohio, have in-4 vented certain new and useful Improvements in F lying-Machines, -of which the following is a specification, reference being had thereito the accompanying drawings. The present invention relates to that class of flying machines, in which the weight is sustained by the reaction resulting when one or more aeroplanes are ymoved through the air edgewise at a small angle of incidence either by the application of mechanical power or by the utilization ofthe force of gravity, and is in the nature of an improve` ment upon the machine shown and described in Letters Patent No. 821,393, granted to us May 22, l1906.
The object-of the invention is to provide means for regulating lateral balance by the use of horizontal surfaces adjustable to dif- 'ferent angles of incidence on the right and left sides of the .center of themachine, and I adiustable vertical surfaces for *counterbalancing any resulting turning force about the central vertical-axis of the machine.
lV ith these objects in View our invention consists in certain novel. features of construction and in .certain parts and combinations'hereinafter to bedes'cribed, and'then more fully pointed out in the claims.
In the'accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a perspective viewy of al flying machineL embodying our invention; `Fig. .2 is `a horizontal sectional'view of such a'machine looking downwardly;- Fig. 3 is asection'al view, taken on the line :v a: of F ig.' 2 and ,looking in the xdirection-of the arrows; Fig. `4 is a l detail view ofthe adjusting mechanism.
Fig. 5 is a rear perspective vi ew showing the arrangement of ithe cables for operating the adjustable margins or controlling surfacesl and illustrating the ,cables as attached to the horizontalmembers -of the aeroplanes, and omitting'V all, other parts, such yas the front standards` truss rods and operating.
"means for the cables; lI" ig. 6.is.a detail `,View
showing-in elevation one of the joints for the rear frame members g Fig. 7 is a top plan" view of ysuch a joint; andFig.,8 is a.top. plan View o f a porti onof the frame showingi the ,manner in wh secured thereto.
Specication of Letters Patent.
ich'` the. -cable guides .are 1 Y form adjustable truss systems of a novel QF. YORK.
In these drawings, we have illustrated the preferred form ofour invention and have shown the same as embodiedin a fiying machine, similar in its mainfeatures of construction to that shown and described in the above-mentioned patent, and comprising superposed connected aeroplanes capable "of raving their opposite lateral portions moved about a horizontal axisxto give each abelicoidal Warp or twist, thus enabhng the op- ,the aeroplanes have been shown herein as integral portions of the main planes of the aeroplanes, they may be .otherwise constituted. As here shown.` the aeroplanes 1 and 2 each preferably consist of a substantially rectangular frame 3 having its greatest length extending transversely of the direction of travel of the machine and construct- Patented nec. 2a, 1914. i,
erator to maintain the lateral'balance of ed of any-.suitable material which combines the -necessarv strength and the' desired degree of iexibility. such as a suitable quality. of wood or suitable bars of metal. These framesare provided with a' suitable covering 4 preferablyof fabric which forms the surface of the aeroplane, and the aeroplanes are connected one to the other by means of rods or standards 5, 'which are preferably. rigid throughout their length and 'are connectedat theiropposite ends to the respective aeroplanes, thus maintaining the aeroplanes at a. Xed fdistance.v one from the other. t .v j The frontrow of standards '5, the front .B together form a vrig-d truss system which .parts of the frames 3 and the stay Wires the frames and the standards 5 `are rigcenter of the machine. At the extremities.
of this rigidly, trussed central portion, the
frame 3 .has hingedcon-nections, as shown frames 3.\vhich eXtendbevond the hinged connections, .together with-the .standards 5, ilo
idly trussed by stay Wireslonly near the kind which permit the regulation of the position of the rear edges of the aeroplanes without losing the characteristics of a truss system for supporting up or down pressures at the center of the machine, or at the tips. Thus, it will be apparent that one of the longitudinalmembers of each frame 3 is made up of a plurality of sections and that these sections are connected one to the other by hinged joints and that the corresponding longitudinal members of each frame are connected one to the other by ver- 'tical standards. The hinged member of the frame obviously may be arranged at either edge thereof, but We have, in the present instance, shown it at the rear edge of the frame, and, consequently, near the rear edge of the aeroplane. In the completed machine the two horizontal planes will have either their front or rear edges rigidly connected one to the other and will have the edges opposite said rigidly connected edges rigidly connected one to the other for a portion of Vtheir length, and those portions of said opposite edges extending beyond the rigidly connected portions will be movable relatively thereto.` As stated, however, we prefer that the front edge should be rigid throughout and the rear edges hinged. Further, it will beunderstood that the term front edge and rear edge, as used 'in the specification and claims with reference to the aeroplanes, refers to the longitudinal portions of the aeroplanes lying adjacent to the edges thereof. These' longitudinal portions may extend inwardly a considerable distance from the extreme outer edges of the aeroplanes, and, in the construction here l point removed brackets shown, each longitudinal portion or edge includes one of the longitudinal members of the. frame 3 which may be located either at the extreme edge of the aeroplane or at a therefrom. Stay wires A attachedto the aeroplanes within the rigidly trussed central portion serve to maintain the fore and aft position of the aeroplanes with reference to each other.
As stated, the aeroplanes 1 and 2 may be moved about a horizontal axis to impart the helicoidal twist thereto in any suitable manner, but'we prefer to impart this movement in the manner herein shown which consists of a cable 6, secured at its opposite ends to the opposite lateral portions of the frame 3 of the upper aeroplane, preferably near the rear corners thereof, extending around suitable guides 7, preferably supported from the frame 3 of the lower aeroplane, by any suitable means, such as the 8, and provided with suitable means for moving` the same in the direction of the greatest length` of the aeroplanes. This means may be of any suitable character, but we prefer the form herein shown,
which consists in securing the opposite ends of an auxiliary cable 8 to the cable 6 at points between the guides.7 and at some distance one from the other, and passing the central portion of the auxiliary cable about suitable guides 9 and thence about a drum 10 which is mounted on a suitable shaft 11 supported above the lower aeroplane, preferably by means of the brackets 12. The drum 10 is provided with a suitable 4handle 13 and its movement about the shaft 11 is controlled by meansof a suitable friction clamp, which, in the present instance, consists of a suitable split collar 11, provided with a thumbnut 15, whereby the friction between the collar and the shaft 11 may be adjusted. A single cable 6 may be employed, but we prefer to provide auxiliary cables 16 which extendV from the cable 6 at poi-nts near the guides 7 to the corresponding lateral portions or margins of the upper aeroplane and are secured thereto, preferably near the rear edge thereof. rfhe length of the auxiliary cables 16 and their manner of connection to the cable 6 and the upper aeroplanev is such that a strain imposed upon the cable 6 by the shifting mechanism is imparted to the outer end of said cable and to the auxiliary cables 16, and through these cables to the corresponding lateral portion of the aeroplane, thus distributing the strain along the rear edge of the aeroplane and preventing the same from bulging or becoming distorted between the outer end thereof and the' hinge. A second cable. 17 is secured to the opposite lateral portions ofthe frame 3 of the lower aeroplane, preferably near the rear corners thereof and extends upwardly and over suitable guides 18 supported from the frame 3 ofthe upper aeroplane, and is of such a length and connected to the. lower aeroplane in such a manner as to be always taut. The
'cable 17 is also preferably provided with auxiliary cables V19 connected thereto and roperating in a manner similar to the auxiliary cables 16 of the cable 6. Thus, it will be seen that, when the drum 10 is actuated to movey the cable 6 to the left, thereby drawing down l'the rear of the right-hand lateral portion of the upper aeroplane, the corresponding portion of the lower aeroplane is likewisedepressed, owing to the connection formed between the upper and lower aeroplanes by means of the rods 5. The downward movement of the lower aeroplane, acting through the cable 17, serves to elevate the rear of the left-hand lateral portion of the lower aeroplane, and thereby, through the medium of the connecting rods 5, to elevate the corresponding portion of the upper aeroplane, thus simultaneously imparting the desired helicoidal twist to both lateral portions of both aeroplancs. lit will be seen that the location of this system of cables is approximately in one vertical plane. s This arrangement performs a very useful function, namely, it prevents the planes from being shifted edgewise when the margins are adjusted to different angles of incidence by theaction of the cables, and so avoids fore and aft strains.
While we have herein shown and described our invention as embodied in an aeroplane in which the lateral-balance controlling-surfaces are formed integral with the bodies of the planes and to which a. helicoidal warp is imparted in maintaining lateral balance it will be 'understood that this particular -typejof aeroplane is chosen for the purpose of illustration only and that the lateral-balance controlling-surfaces need not be formed integral with the planes themselves but may-be arranged in any suitable manner.
Bv thus turning the right and left lateral portions of the aeroplanes about a horizontalaxis, they are caused to present different angles of incidence to the atmosphere, the side presenting the greater angle of incidence being. caused to rise or move upward by the wind pressure, while the side offering the smaller angle of incidence is permitted to move downward. This action, while` enabling the operator, by the adjustment of the angles of incidence, to maintain the lateral balance of the machine, also causes the machine to turnabout its vertical axis` this being due to the fact that the increased angle of incidence also produces a greater horizontal resistance to the atmosphere and permits that portion of the aeroplane having the smaller angle of incidence to moveforward at a greater speed than that portion having the greater angle of incidence. To overcome this effect, we provide a suitable adjustable surface iny the rea-r of the machine, such as the vertical rudder 20, which is pivotally mounted between rearwardly extending arms 21, and is provided near its lower pivotal support with a. pulley 22, about which passes a cable 23 which extends to within reach of the operator, thus enabling the rudder 2O to be turned to receive a pressure from the air on that side which is toward the wing having the smaller angle of incidence. A turning movement can be produced lonly by a. combination of forces acting in different directions. In the case of a machine of this character, the inertia. of the machine may act as one of these forces and the pressure on the side of the vertical rudder placed behind the center of the machine may act as the other. In the present construction, the inertia of the machine is supplemented by active forces pro-` duced by wind pressure on additional vertical surfaces consisting of an adjustable rudder in front of the center of the machine and a fixed surface preferably7 situated between said rudders. However, this arrangement is the manner of operation of the several rudders being determined by the conditions existing in the particular machine to which the same is to'be applied. Ve prefer, however, to employ in addition to a rear rudder an adjustable rudder in front of the machine, with a fixed vane lnounted between the front adjustable rudder and the machine itself and arranged preferably in alinement therewith. This construction is shown in the drawings and consists of a vertical rudder. 2l, pivotally mounted in arms 25 extending forwardly ofthe machine. This rudder is also provided near its lower end with a. pulley 26, about which extends a cable, preferably the same cable 23 which extends about the pulley 22 of the rear rudder, the cable being crossed in order to turn the rudders in opposite directions. A fixed vertical vane 27 is preferably mounted between the arms 25 which support the forward rudder 24 and coperates with the adjustable rudders, and, in case one of said adjustable rudders is more powerful than the. other, the fixed surface, by its resistance to lateral movement, assists the weaker rudder in forming a turning couple, and, if one rudder is disabled or lost, it maintains with the remaining rudder a turning couple in the same direction as before. And a further function of this fixed vertical surface in its relation to the supporting plane is that of producing an acceleration of speed of the lower wing when, because of being tipped out of lateral balance, it tends to slide sidewise in the direction of the lower side. In aeroplanes, lateralI sliding takes pla'ce y0r starts to do so when the supporting plane is out of lateral'balance. This fixed surface being forward of the plane and being resisted by air pressure on the lower side, when lateral sliding starts or takes place, causes the depressed side of the plane to move forward relatively faster than the e high side. This gives the greater angle at such depressed side increased lifting effect to restore lateral balance.
The adjustable rudders may be controlled by any suitable means, but the means which we prefer to employ, and that which is herein shown, consists of a drum or pulley 28, about which the cable 23 passes and which is controlled by the operator to shift thehandle. 13 of the drum 10 and occupies such a position relatively thereto, that, 1f desired, both the handle 29 and handle 13 may be grasped with one hand and both the form herein shown, which consists of a split collar 30 which is secured to the side of the drum 28 and provided with a suitable thumb-screw 31, by means of which the friction between the collar 30 and the shaft 11 may be regulated, thus enabling the rudders to be adjusted to the. desired position and to be held in that position by the friction of said clamp until the drum is again operated by force applied to the handle 29. It will be noted that in this method of control we provide manually operated devices, such as the handles 13 and 29 and their cooperating devices, which are connected respectively with the horizontal lateral-balance controlling-surfaces and the adjustable vertical surfaces, and are so arranged that they may be manipulated either simultaneously to adjust the respective surfaces in unison or they may be manipulated separately to adjust the vertical surfaces relatively to the horizontal-surfaces or vice versa. In the present embodiment of the invention the lateral-balance controllingf surfaces comprise the adjustable wing tips, and the adjustable vertical surfaces comprise the front and rear adjustable rudders,
but it will, of course, be understood that the particular construction and arrangement of these parts. here sho\vn.-are not essential to the successful control of the aeroplane; nor is it necessary that there should be two adjustable vertical surfaces. as the coperation between the several lparts `would be substantiallythe same if a single adjustable vertical surface was used. l/Vhile we have here illustrated one embodiment of this feature of the invention it will be understood that the invention is not limited to this specific embodiment but that the same results mav be secured by use of various devices which will readilv occur to one skilledin the art. It is known that the lcenter of pressure on aeroplane rudders does not maintain a fixed position for different adjustments. Tt is, therefore.v impossible to hinge the rudder so that it will alwavs be in balance. The Wind pressure will sometimes assist and sometimes'resist the movement of the rudder bv the operator, thus making ac- -curate adjustment diiicult. We have. therefore, introduced this friction so that the operator will be compelled to overcome resistance in making all adjustments. The
amount of the friction is preferably regulated to be greater than the disturbing forces produced by the rudder, but less than that at the command of the operator for making adjustments. l
While the fixed vertical vane has been shown as a single thin surface of greater height than breadth, it may" be otherwise constituted, the essential feature being that a considerable fixed surface be exposed to the action of the air when the direction of the machine through the air is to the right or left of the horizontal axis of the machine. If an adjunct or part of the machine should, besides its other intended functions, also present a. surface so exposed to the air when the direction of the. machine through the air is to the right or left, as just stated, it would be an instance of otherwise constitutino` this fixed vane aforesaid.
Referring to Fig. 5, it willbevseen that the operating cables G and 17 are fastened to the horizontal members of the aeroplanes and run over supports fastened to such members, as also illustrated in -ligs 1 and 3. T he effect is that of avoiding fore and aft strains, as before explained; and it will be understood that itis immaterial-whether the cables be fastened to the horizontal members of the aeroplanes, by running over' supports secured to such members, or be otherwise secured, so long as they be in' substantially a "ertical nlane` as explained.
The 'operation ofthe machine as a whole will be readily understood from the description of the several parts thereof` and it will be apparent that we have provided in a iiyving machine comprising superposed conthat we have provided means for adjusting these vertical surfaces either simultaneously with the adjustment of the horizontal surfaces or independently thereof, and means for maintaining such .adjustments until the operator forces a change. And furthera it will be apparent that'the construction of the several parts herein shown may be changed and widely varied without departing from the spirit -of our invention, and, therefore, we wish it to be understood that we do not desire to be limited to the exact details of construction shown and described, for obiso tion, what we claim as new and desire to sey cure by Letters Patent, is
l. In an aeroplane flying machine, Athe combination, with horizontal, adjustable' surfaces, and means of operating sald sur-v faces while in flight to cause the same to face forward at different angles of incidence on the right and left sides of the machine,
of a vertical, adjustable rear rudder, a ver-v tical, adjustable front rudder, and means for operating said rudders.
2. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane having lateral vportions capable of being adjusted to different angles of incidence, of a vertical rudder adjustably ond vertical rudder adjustably mounted in front of said aeroplane, and means for simultaneously operating said rudders.
3. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane having lateral portions capable of being adjusted to different angles of incidence, of an adjustable, vertical rudder, and a fixed vertical vane coperating therewith to form a turning couple.
4. In'a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane having lateral portions capable of being adjusted to different angles of incidence, of a 'vertical rudder adjustably mounted in the rear of said aeroplane, and a fixed vertical vane mounted in front of said adjustable rudder.
5. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, having lateral -portions capable of being adjusted to different angles of incidence, and means for operating said portions, of a vertical rudder adjustably mountedu in the rear of s'aidaeroplane, asecond vertical rudder adjustably mounted in front of said aeroplane, and a fixed vertical vane mounted between said adjustable rudders. l
6. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, and means for imparting a helicoidal warp thereto while in flight, of a vertical lrudder adjustably mounted in tbe rear ofsaid aeroplane, a second vertical rudder in front of' said aeroplane, and a fixed vertical vane mounted between said rudders.
7. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane having lateral ortions capable of being adjusted to difieren angles of incidence, of a vertical rudder adjustably mounted in the rear of said aeroplane, a second vertical rudder adjustably mounted in front of said aeroplane, and a fixed vertical vane mounted between said last-mentioned rudder and said aeroplane.
8. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, and means for moving the right and left lateral portions of said aeroplane to cause the same to face forward j for controlling said rudd at different angles of incidence, of vertical rudders mounted in the frontA and rear of said aeroplane, and means'for simultane- .ously actuating both said rudders and saidv aeroplane. i V
9. In a flying machine, the combination, wlth superposed connected aeroplanes, of a cable secured atl its opposite ends to the opposite lateral portions of one ofsaid aeroplanes, a guide carried by the other of said ,aeroplanes and adapted to engage said cable,I ran auxiliary U cable connected at one end to sald cable intermediate said guide and the point of connection of said cable with `said aeroplane, and at itsother end to said firstv'mentioned aeroplane al! a point removed from the pointv of connection of the main -cable to said aeroplane. mounted in the rear of sald aeroplane, a secy hinged joints'fby vertical standards, of' i guides and cables connected with said frame, one of said beams, the guides and cables lying in approximately one vertical plane.
In an aeroplane flying machine, the combination, with lateral-balance controlling-surfaces, a cable for adjusting the same, an adjustable vertical rudder, and a cable r, of actuating `devices connected with s id cables and arranged to permit said cajoles to be adjusted with reference to each ther or simultaneously, and frictional Imeans to control the movement of said actuating devices.
12. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, a able connected to said aeroplane for adjusti gthe opposite lateral' portions thereof, a vertical rudder, and a cable connected to said rudder, of a shaft supported from said aeroplane, a plurality of drums journaled on said shaft, each of said drums being' adapted to be engaged by one of said cables, and lneans for controlling the movement of said drums. l
13. In a flying machine, the combination, with an aeroplane, a cable connected to said aeroplane for adjusting the opposite lateral portions thereof, a vertical rudder, and a cable operatively connected to said rudder, of a shaft supported from said aeroplane, a plurality of drums journaled ony said shaft, each of said drums being adapted to be engaged by one of said cables, means for controlling the movement of saidjdrums, and
handlesI secured to said drums and lying in close proximity one to the other, whereby said drumsI may be actuated simultaneously or individually.
14. A flying machine comprising susbtanj' -v`the remainder thereof mov-able relatively to Asaid rigidgportions', and meansfor controlling saxdinovable portions. e
15. A flying macliinefcomprislng substantially parallel horizontal planes, a rigid truss'system connecting the front edges. of said planes, a rigid truss system. cpnnectmg a portion of the rearedges of said planes, and a flexible truss system connecting the remainder of saidrear edge, whereby the central portions of the planes` are rigidl trussed landjthe portions of one edge exten 'ing beyond said central portion are adjust-` able relatively thereto, and means for controlling said. adjustable portions.
16. 'lhe combination, with an aeroplane having ad justable'lateral portions, of an adjustable vertical surface mounted in the rear of the aeroplane, and a second adjustable vertical sin-face mounted in front of said aeroplane, and means for operating said surfaces 1to throw them laterally more or less out of lineof flight, whereby, through the coperation of the adjustable lateral portions of said aeroplane and said adjustable surfaces, `the lateral balance of the machine is maintained and controlled.
17. In a flying machine, the combination, with superposed aeroplanes and interconnecting standards, of operating cables for manipulating the aeroplanes and their guides suitably connected and occupying substantially .onevertical plane.
18. In a flying machine, the combination, with superposedconnected aeroplanes having a rigidly trussed central portion, and guides carried by said aeroplanes, of a cable secured at its opposite ends to the opposite lateral portions of the upper aeroplane and engaging the guides carried by the lower aeroplane, and a second cable secured at its ends to the opposite lateral portions of the said lower aeroplane andl engaging the guides on said upperraeroplane, whereby when one of said cables is actuated to move one of said lateral portions of one of said aeroplanes downward, theV opposite lateral portion is moved upward, yand vice versa, the said guides and cables being located in substantially one vertical plane.
19. In a flying machine, the combination, with horizontal adjustable surfaces and means for adjusting said surfaces while in flight,` of an adjustable vvertical surface mounted in therear thereof, and a second adjustable vertical surface mounted in front thereof, and means for operating said vertical surfaces to throw them laterally more or less out of line of flight, whereby through the coperation of the horizontal adjustable surfaces and said vertical adjustable suraisance faces, the lateral balance of the machine is maintained and controlled.
20. In a flying machine, thecombination with horizontalt adjustable surfaces and means for adjusting-said surfaces while in flight, of an adjustable vertical surface and a fixedvextical surface cooperating therewith to form a turning couple.-
21. Ina flying machine, the combination, with horizontal adjustable surfaces, of cables and guides for adjusting said surfaces While in flight, saidV cables and guides being located in substantially one plane.
22. In a flying machine, the combination, with horizontal adjustable surfaces, of cables for adjusting said' surfaces while in flight, said cables and guides being located in substantially one plane, and vertical fore and aft surfaces, and means for operating one or more of them.
23. In an aeroplane flying machine, the combination, with horizontal lateral-balance controlling-surfaces, and an operating member connected therewith, of an adjustable vertical surface, and an operating member connected therewith, said operating' members being arranged in close proximity one to the other, whereby both may be grasped by the hand and operated in unisoxi, or one may be-operated relatively to the ot er.
24. In an aeroplane flying machine havv ing adjustable lateral-balance controlling surfaces, an adj ustableforward vertical ,surface, an adjustable rear vertical surface, and means to adjust said surfaces.
25. In an aeroplane flying machine having adjustable lateral-balance controllingsurfaces, an adjustable vertical surface, and a fixed vertical surface.
26. In an aeroplane flying machine having adjustable lateral-balance controlling- ORVILLE lVRIGI-I'll. WILBUR WRIGHT.
C. E. Tarma, Lauosmn MILLER.,
surfaces, an adjustable forward vertical l
|Cooperative Classification||B64C13/00, B64C2700/6256|