US 1125162 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. M. PAGE. REINFORCED COPPER AND PROCESS OF MAKING SAME.
APPLICATION FILED JUNEZB, 1911 Patented Jan. 19, 1915.
' pound metal rods obtained in the manner I uNI'r-nn srarrnsi ma orrron.
WILLIAM MARSHALL PAGE, or BIDLEY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA. 7
REINFORCED COPPER PROCESS OF MAKING SAME.
' a specification.
. This invention relates, to reinforced copper and processes of making same; and it comprises a body of copper relnforced I by interiorly incorporated relatively fine threads of steel s 'locked engagement with said copper and eachof said threads being of very small or minute diameter as compared with the crosssectional diameter of said body of copper;
and it also comprises a method of making such reinforced copper whereina'pluralityof rods, of the like, of steel are placed in a mold in a spaced and isolated substantially parallel arrangement, thisarrange entbe ing such as to leave a comparative-y wide unobstructed space around the inner periphery of the mold, copper is cast into the mold filling the spaces between the spaced rods and the space between the rods and mold walls, and the compound ingot so formed is worked downflto rods or the like in such a manner as-to l'zeep-the. copper shrunk down on the steel during the work-- ing operations; and it furtlfer comprises an extension of'said invention wherein comjust described are in their turn used as cores in a molding operation, copper is cast about them to form a secondary billet, and this billet is worked down, the operation being repeated as many times as may be desirable to form tertiary, quaternary, etc. billets; all
as more fully hereinafter set forth; and as Ithas long been a desideratum' 'm' the art to'obtain compound or joined bodies of copper and steel which would unite the merits ofthe two'metals, having thenon-corrosive properties, the color and surface appearance (where the copper exists as a facing or sheath) and conductivity of the. copper-and the high strength of the steel, the idea ordimain y steel but is faced or sheathed with Specification of Letters Patent? insubstantially parallel arrangement, said steel threads being innaril being to produce-an article which is the weaker and more expensive but more conductive and more ornamental metal.
These efforts until recently have not been crowned with success for reasons depending, on the. nature of the two metals, which do [not readlly unite together. It is impracticable to produce a rolled union'between. substantial bodies of copper an'dof steel, as by rolhng dow n relatively thick hot juxtaposed plates of the two metals." Relatively thin Z'plates of either metal cannot well be usedv since they would be consumed by oxidation. Both metals readily oxidize when hot and air cannotin practice be excluded during heating'and rolling. The two metals also roll differently and expand and contract differently, while under steel rolling conditions their surfaces exhibit little or no tend- 'ency to unlte with an integral'union which 'would compel uniform extension on working down together. Furthermore with comw paratively heavy plates of both metals, and it is not worth while trying to work with Patented Jan. 19, 1915; I Application filed June as, 1911. Serial No. 634,886.
thin sheets of either in rolling mill'practice, the plates are too thickto be. sufficientlyv yielding to allowforcing of absolute con:-
not even a good 'frictio'nfit. The same considerations apply in most ways to the pro- :Iduc't'ion of round-coated material'by rolling a core and an annular sheath together.
. Recently material composed of copper andfsteel united by a true weld union has become commercially available (Patent 8h tact at all points between abutting surfaces, 1 so there is in plate-uniting processes usually while it does not readily corrode, there being no seam, or line of disuni'on between the metals or pore orcrevice in the coating into which molsture can penetrate and set up a galvanic couple.
.95 p This material is however rather copper coated steel than reinforced copper since under the most feasible methods of makingit substantial bodies of steel are. employed. A substantial body of steel may be dipped in very highly heated molten copper, or supermolten. 'copper (Patent 853.716) ,7 to produce a clinging film of alloy,
withdrawn-into a protective atmosphere and more copper cast on wlth the production of -thick1-"-'coated. billet which can. be rolled wnto any extent desired. It is V difiiwlt o hand e sm ll o thin and are rolled and drawn down to the.
dimensions desired t'orthe finished articles, such as' wire, rod, sheets, etc.
In the present invention ll desire to produce a reinforced copper rather than a coated steel and to this end I produce a material which is for the major part composed of copper, being advantageously as high as 90 per cent. copper, and instead of having the steel reinforcement occur as a unitary body or single core, -ll employ the steel as a plurality of relatively fine embodied spaced and isolated threads having the characteristics of worked down metal. This gives me a double advantagein that the steel of the threads is made much stronger, which means that l can secure higher tensile strength with less steel, and
in that the compound material is much more flexible than is possible with all the steel occurring as a single stifi core, which is a desideratum in many cases, and particularly where the compound material is to be used for hung and strung wires. For many purposes,such as wire, it is desirable that the compound material shall have as nearly as possible, all the properties of copper save that it shall. have a hi h tensile strength and high elastic limit. i ure copper in wires tends to sag and neck under strains and temperature changes; and while it may be hardened and strengthened to some extent by various alloying treatments, these alloyings run down its most valuable property, its high conductivity for the electric'cur rent.
and in-working hot after reheating this is.
.particulfily apt to happen. Rolling of juxtaposed unwelded thick bodies of steel,
. whether as platesor as core and sheath, is
quite diflicult. But this tendency of the metals to partdoes not happen to such an extentswhere the steel body is relatively thin and of small diameter since the smaller it is of course the greater the friction, propor tionatelv, tending to resist mechanical part ing of the two metal surfaces. But such a paratively large steel' core could not.
to resort to an expedient.
sorted to, and so on till the'diameter of the thin body of steel must be surrounded or included by the copper since otherwise it would perish in rolling. By using a relatively large number of relatively small steel rods in a mold, andcasting copper around 7o the rods to form a'relatively large ingot or billet, the rods being spaced from each other by'substantial areas or layers of copper and from the inner margin of the mold, a primary compound billet can be produced 7a which will withstand the strain and stresses of rolling to an extent suflicient for my purposes. lLf, for example, say 54 rods of it inch steel be laced in a mold of a diameter appropriate or making, say, a 6% billet, so copper cast about them and the billet thus made rolled down to rod, each of the 54 rods will have suffered a concomitant reduction and will be in the form of fine threads contained within the rod so pro- 86 duced so that such rod may be readily drawn down-to wire'in a way inwhich a similar rod having a single unitary unwelded comlin the preliminary stages of the rolling down at of the rod-reinforced primary billet care must be taken to avoid parting while the steel cores are still of some substantial diameter; and for this purpose it is desirable As stated, expansion and contraction are greater with copper than with steel and this may be utilized in the rolling. If the hot compound billet be allowed to cool super-- ficially before-introducing to the rolls, the copper shrinks down on the steel rods binding on them tightly. After entering the rolls the temperature of the whole mass underthe' roll pressure equalizes again, and the shrinkage is relieved; but prior to equalization considerable extension-may be effected. llf now the coextended metals be -ll hile as stated it is dificult to roll and allowed to cool again superficially to shrink on the copper shell, rolling can be again rellll contained steel threads is sufiiciently reduced to allow friction to hold the metals together in the wire drawing. After a steel reinforcement in a comparatively massive body of copper becomes threadlike in diameter friction will hold it. lit is not possible to roll down a thin unwelded copper sheath on a steel corejthat is, to start with a steel core and'an unwelded copper shell of small diameter and roll down to a point Where the shell will become film-"like. But it, is possible to roll down relatively small steel rods'included in a relatively large and massive copper body, even if they be un-' welded thereto. For some reasons it is delies sirahle to weld such rods to the main body of the copper, but for other reasons it is dellllii sirable that they shall not be welded. And,
as stated, with prpper precautions included isolated comparatively small steel rods can 1% steel rods of small diameter in a mold and casting around copper of a temperature ap-.'
propriate to attack the surfaces to the steel rods to form a weld union, the bodyof the copper necessarily becomes much contaminated with dissolved iron. The small rods its full conductivity. v
of a character permitting quick solidificaof course expose a relatively large surface to contact with inflowing metal. But by using low-temperature molten copper, that is copper at a temperature at which it will not readily unite with steel, the copper cast in does not become contaminated and retains The molds should be tion.
The process just described results in the formation ofya primary reinforced billet ;v a
" billet of cast copper containing a multiplicity of incdrporated steel rods, which on reduction of the primary billet give a primary rod or wire having distributed through its mass threadz-like linear bodies of steel. These thread-like bodies having been worked down hoiiwhile' shielded from actual contact with the air and with the working tool, have an exceptionallyhigh strength.
And the further this reduction can be carried, the greater becomes the tensile strength of the steel perunit of sectional area. It is' therefore frequently desirable to carry the .process further and make secondary, tertiary or quaternary billets, or even further. In so doing, the extension of the steel threads, and the consequent heightening of their tensile strength, is concomitant. For example, steel rods may be placed infa mold,
copper cast around them to form a primary billet as described, and this primary billet drawn down to half inch 011% inch-rods, and
' these rodsin turn placed in a mold and used as the reinforcing elements in forming a new or secondary reinforced compound billet which, in turn, can be; reduced to ifrod wire. The =3 rod resulting'from the secondary billet can be used to make a tertiary billet; the rod therefrom in turn used to pro-' duce a quaternarybillet, and so on indefinitely. This process can be carried on till the incorporated steel threads' become indefinitely fine. v 50 steel rods in the pr mary billet, each 3 rod from it will contain 50 steel threads. If
. now 50 of these rods .be used. in making a secondary-billet, such secondary billet .will.
contain 50x50 or 2500 steel threads. a. ter- Where the .wire to be produced is to be If, for examplefthere be mold havin' may bc-need 'thesje heat removing molds, to cast the moltiary billet made with the aid of 50 of the secondary rods will in turn, contain 50 2500 threads or 125,000; and a quaternary billet will contain 50 125,000- or 6,250,000 threads, and so on. Wire drawn from a quaternary billet will contain, under the stated circumstances, 6,250,000 steel threads and this wire may be very fine; the fineness to which the contained steel threads must be reduced will be readily evident.
While as stated it is not practicable to roll-weld substantial bodies of steel and of copper, and particularly where there is any possibilit of air gaining access to the line of inten ed union, with a comparatively fine, flexible and yielding thread of steel in a comparatively massive body of copper,
with absolutely no possibility of access of air to the abutting bounding surfaces and with such surfaces constantly pulled outand extended by the working operation in such manner as to constantly expose new and,
very likely, molecularly reactive faces in forced contact, there occurs some sort of union, possibly mechanical but possibly also an alloying m the sense of a molecular interpenetratlon. The new surfaces constantly being produced are in absolute contact and, so to speak, within molecular reach offeach other.
It is advantageous to make a secondary material in the way described becausethe steel threads in the duplicated reduction become so very fine'that they have little stiffness while their tensile strength is very great. The secondary material therefore be-' haves, so far as flexibility'is concerned, very much like copper, while it has a much higher tensile strength. With a secondary billet, contamination of the cast copper in making the, primary billet, is not so important since there is no chance for contaminationv of the main bod) of the copper in making the secondary billet, the steel reinforcing rods being of courseprotected by the copper jacket coming from the primary billet.
By using low temperature copper in the 'castingoperation in making the primary billet, however, contamination can be readily I Y avoided. V Since it is not necessary to make a -weld union in the present invention, the
casting copper can be at such a low temperature as not to unite with, alloy with, or dis-.
solve the steel againstwhich it is cast. 'If
desired,'th'e casting may be in a water-cooled mold, or a mold having thick, heat conductive walls, so that the copper cast in shall solidify at once; i. 6., shall not remain in contact with the steel -,cores in a; fluid state I for an appreciable time. An iron or steel a thick cast-on rim of copper It is a useful expedient, using pure. copper solidifies against the walls prior No weld union being contemplated in th present invention, the presence of a spacing layer of oxid between the steel and the copper is not always disadvantageous. some electrical purposes, indeed, it is desirable to have such a spacing layer. However, it is usually moreadvantageous to have the rods metallic surfaced, as by previously' pickling or sandblasting them, as this gives the surface a sort of tooth which is useful later in producing the desired friction fit.- Where pickling is done by hydrochloric acid, a little chlorid of iron may adhere to the steel and proves useful in the subsequent casting. operation, as it is volatile and 'displaces air. The rods may be given a twist or bendin'order to promote locking union with the billet of copper in the preliminary stages'of drawing down. The arrangement of the rodsin the mold is best substantially parallel; that is, they should all have the same general direction. They may be grouped orclusteredor spaced in any arrangement desired. In the ultimate wire the rods will reappear as linear thread-like bodies of steel and it is desirable that these thread-like incorporated reinforcing members 'bespaced away from each other the same distance throughout the Wire so that each part of the wire will-be like each other part; and this is best done by making a parallel arrangement of the rods in the original primary billeti Where it-isdesired to obtain very fine threads of steel in the wire from a primary billet, of course fine rods or even Wires of steel may be employed in making the primary billet. Even with relatively fine wire employed as cores in making the primary billet, with the use of low temperature casting copper no contamination of main copper body-need be feared.
For some purposes,
' The bronze coated primary rods may be used the cast copper in making a primary in reinforcing a secondary copper billet or secondary bronze billet as may be desired.
An expedient which is sometimes useful in reducingthe possibility of contaminatignuof i et is to electroplate the rods or wires employed with a coating of copper. lit is less useftil to the copper used in forming the primary billet may be replaced by bronze, thereby producing a reinforced.
brass coat, zinc coat or tin coat the cores For some purposes rods of aluminum,
nickel, cobalt, etc. may be used in lieu of steel. lltis not usually desirableto employ sections of stranded cables as reinforcing cores in making theprimary billet. With low temperature casting-copper, the copper does not penetrate a stranded core though subsequent working tends to close up cavities. a
lln compound wire andother material ot reinforced copper made under the present invention, the steel threads are so very fine that even if not welded to the'copper no substantial seam or avenue for moisture exists between any thread and the copper surrounding it; there isno substantial opportunity for the capillary penetration of corrosive fluids. And should by chance such corrosion-occur around one thread, it does not afiect the remaining threads. The amount of steel exposed at any one place in a cut face of a reinforced conductor under the present invention, is wholly negligible. Neither is there any possibility of the re moval of the reinforcing threads of steel by ing it in-pla'ce. The threads should always 'loe incorporated in the body ofcopper at a substantial distance from theperiphery or jniiargin. lit. is always desirable that there s iall be a relatively substantial shell or coating of purecopper outside the reinforced portion of the metal; and the rods should consequently always be clustered or located in-the billet was to leave an unobstructed space between the assemblage of rods and the'inner periphery or margin of the mold used in makin the compound-billet. The rods orcores s ould be spaced apart sulii ciently to 'allow-the cast copper to enter between.
Since the main object of the present in vention is tov produce a reinforced copper, rather than a coated steel, it is usually desirable to restrict the amount of steel to a low proportion; say around 10 per cent.
' Material may be made with as high as 50 per cent. steel but such high-steelmaterial is less and less like copper as the percentage of steel increases." llili h steel reinforced- Wire under the present invention has however certain unique properties which make it useful-in some relations. A wire carrying, say, 50 per cent. of embodied steel-1n the time form of excessively thin, very strong isolated parallel linear threads of strong steel spaced by films of softer copper has mechanical properties quite different from other available materials. A stranded body of steel wires is stiffer and not so strong even when of the same diameter and so carrying much more steel. The individual steel threads in the present material are, or may be, much finer and stronger than wire can be commercially drawn. For conductor wires, of course, the conductivity of the copper is I the'main thing to be considered, and the row of reinforcing bodies in annular arrangement; Fig. 5 1s a S1m1lar'S 8Ct10Il'0f amore steel there is in the compound wire the less copper there can be. As 10 per cent. of
' steel in the form of a multiplicity of distributed thread-like linear bodies will give an ample strength for most conductor wire purposes, it is usually desirable. not to use more steel. Such a compound material carrying 10 per cent. steel has a very high scrap value; it being possible to recover the scrap by simply melting'up and burning out the iron.
In the accompanying illustration I have shown more or less diagrammatically cerwire; Fig.- 6 1s a similar view of a billet having several annular rows of .reinforcement; Fig. 7 is a similar View of a billet having the reinforcement in central clustered arrangement; Fig. 8 is a similar view of a billet having the reinforcement in star shaped arrangement; Fig. 9 is a similar -view of a secondary billet having a reinforcement derived from a primarv billet;
and Fig. 10 is a transverse vertical'section of a flat sheet bar containing reinforcements inIri ht angled arrangement.
n bass 2 and provided with pouring spout 3, gas inletA and gas outlet 5. In the mold is shown a mass of castcopper. 6 and reinforcing naked steel .rods 7. As shown in Fig. 2 these rods may be twisted or otherwise shaped to give good frictional engagement. This howeveris not necessary thoughsometimes-advantageous. In Fig. 3 is shown a rod 8 provided with a thin flash coating 9 of electrodeposited copper. In Figs. 4, 5 6, 7 and. 8, 10 represents the main body of cop} Bet d e reinforcing nake sea early cf. earner and .2 are p I In forcements- Figure 1 1s a vertical secig. 1, element 1- is a mold resting o n of copper,
, it is better to have reinforcing elements in 951854111 F 9', l e rea esents. the
acetates as then rolled bodies derived from 'a primary billetand' 'j composed of copper containing thread-like steel bodies 13.
Special -steels,- such as vanadium steel, chrome .steel, tungsten steel, nickel steel,
manganese steel etc.', can be used for reinforcement since in working they are pro tectecl against oxidation and change of composition by the protecting sheath of copper. The copper acts as a sort of lubricant and facilitates the drawing 'dow-riof thesehard and tenacious steels in a way which is hardly practicable with the naked steel. Andtheir high tensile strength can be relied upon in the present invention without fear of the concomitant stiffness, sincev the reinforcing; bod1es are reduced, as stated, to excessively.
fine threads. A composite copper which contains from 10 to 15 per cent. of such very strong'steel in threadlike linear bodies is still flexible and can be handled and hamfilaments yield readily to flexure, although .mered like pure copper. The included steel I displaying their high tensile strength on longitudinal pulling of thewire. Where a very soft metal is required, Wrought iron and mild steels may'also be used as rein-i While my invention is particularly useful; in making rods, wires, and the like, and particularly for, conductor purposes, it is also applicable forthe' manufacture of sheets,
tubes and other shapes. For many purposes for which copper is used in the arts, because 1'06 of its rion-corrodibility such as evaporating devices and the like, 1t 1s desirable to have it of a somewhat stronger character. The
size of a vacuum'pan, for example, is limited by the structural strength of copper in available sizes. A vacuum pan must withstand atmospherlc pressure and if the pan beiover ,a given size, copper sheets cannot be relied upon to furnish the strength unless of undue thickness andweight. Metal sheets for such purposes however must be like copper,
capable of being worked into shape under theand flow under the tool.
two directions. That is, instead of merely. clustering longitudinal rods in a mold and casting copper about-them,
rods arranged in two directions. .The rods may, and-very usefully formany purposesy be interlaced in a sort of open fabric. Pre suming that strengthening rods of material,
ham'mer; the metal'must be malleable I A By reinforcing] copper with steel in the" present invention purpose instead it is better to' use S udie described, be' wo n i w 'o of loose or open fabric, that is in right-angled arrangement, copper cast about them'to .down into sheets, an article will be secured which is substantially copper sofar as its hammering properties are concerned, but nevertheless has a greater degree of strength than copper alone can have. If the reinforcements be, as is preferable, each of relatively small diameter as regards the body of copper, on cutting the newreinforbed sheet to sizes such as are desired, there will be merely spots of steel exposed; and these spots may, and usually will, be tod small in diameter to allow corrosion to penetrate too far by capillarypenetration. lhey may, of course, be touched with a soldering iron. The reinforced sheet may also be punched and drilled to receive rivets and the like without any substantial exposure of the reinforcing metal.
Reinforced bars or sheets such as described, which may have reinforcements distributed through the bar or sheet in one or more planes, may of course be converted into structural elements, such as Ts, lls, channels, cross-sectioned elements, etc. For such material of course perforated plates of strong metal, expanded metal, or electrically welded woven screen as well as ordinary woven screen material may be employed. But the product, using such materials, does not have the reinforcements spaced and isolated from each other at all points. T v
In Fig. 10 l have shown a section of a reinforced bar adapted for making sheets and other flat shapes and containing strengthening rods in a sort of loose oropen angled arrangement. As shown, ithas reinforcing rods 7, crossing the width of the bar reinforcement 7 extending lengthwise of the bar, both being embodied and held in a mass ofcopper 6.
What I claim is i 1. A reinforced metal article compris ng i an integral bodyof copper and aplurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in 1 substantially parallel alinement contained within said body of copper, said elements being spaced awayfrom each other and comprising linear bodies of steel having the characteristics of preworked metal and having worked surfaces in contact with Worked surfaces of copper.
2. A reinforced metal article comprising an integral body of copper and a plurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinement contained within said body of copper, said elements being spaced away from each other and comprising frictionally held linear elements of steel having the characteristics of preworked metal and having worked surfaces in contact with worked surfaces of copper, each'of said steel bodies being of a threadlikerelatively minute cross-sect on.
3. A reinforced metal article comprising I of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinement contained within said body of copper, said elements being spaced away from each other and comprising copper shells and threadlike steel cores and having the characteristics of preworked metals and the core being held to the shell by engagement between co-worked surfaces. a
4. A reinforced metal article comprising an integralgbody of copper and a plurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinement incorporated in and distributed through said body of copper, said elements comprising copper shells and contained threadlike steel cores and having the characteristics of preworked metals, each of said cores-being-of a threadlike relatively minute cross-section and the cores beingheld to the shells by engagement between co-worked surfaces.
5. A reinforced metal article comprising an integral body of cupriferous metal and a plurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinementincorporated with and distributed through said body of cupriferous metal, said elements comprising linear bodiesof steel having the characteristics of preworked metal,
said steel being held to the cupriferous.
metal by engagement between co-worked surfaces.
6. A reinforced metal article comprising an integral body of cupriferous metal and a plurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinement incorporated with and distributed through said body of cupriferous metal, said elements comprising linear elements of steel having the characteristics of preworked metal, each of said steel elements being of a threadlike relatively minute cross-section and held by engagement with a co-worked surface of cupriferous metal.
.7. A reinforced metal article'comprising an integral body of cupriferous metal and a plurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinement incorporated with and distributed through said body of cupriferous metal, said elements comprising cupriferous shells and threadlike steel cores and having the characteristics of preworked metals, said cores being held in said shells by engagement between co-worked surfaces.
8. reinforced metal article comprising an integral body of cupriferous metal and a plurality of isolated linear reinforcing elements in substantially parallel alinement incorporated with and distributed through said body of cupriferous metal, said elements comprising cupriferous shells and threadlike steel cores and having the characteristics of preworked metalaeach of said memes elements being of a threadlike relatively rangement as regards each other and as regards the mold walls, casting a body of low temperature cu riferous metal thereamong and therearoun to form a body of such cupriferous metal inclosing such rods and then working down the cupriferous metal in such way as to. give uniform extension-of such Wody and of such included rods. v
10.- In the manufacture of reinforced 'cupriferous articles, the process which comprises assembling a plurality of relatively small steel rods in a mold in an isolated arrangement as regards each other and as regards the mold walls, casting a body of low temperature copper thereamong and therearound to form a body of such copper inclosing such rods and then working down the copper in such way as to give uniform extension of such body and of such included rods.
11. The process of producing a reinforced oupriferous metal whlch comprises spacing a lurality of rodsof steel-in a mold in iso ated arrangement and casting low temperature copper thereabout and thereamong 1n contact with: said steel and working down the composite casting to a final shape in a plurality of hot 'rolling operations, the material being superficially cooled prior to each hot rolling operationa I 12. The process of producing a reinforced cupriferous metal which comprises spacing a plurality of rods of steel 1n a mold in isolated arrangement, casting low temperature copper thereabout" and thereamong in contact with; said steel, working down the composite casting to rod form in a plurality of hot rolling operations, the materlal being superficially cooled prior to each hot rollingoperation, placing the rods obtained in a moldand casting copper about them to form a secondary billet.
13. The process of producing a reinforced cupriferous metal which comprises spacing a plurality of rods of steel in a mold 1n 1solated arrangement, casting low temperature copper thereabout and thereamong in con- .tact with said steel, working down the composite casting to rod form in a plurality of hot rolling operations, the material being superficially cooled prior to each hot rolling operation, placing the rods obtained in a mold, casting copper about-them to form asecondary billet and'working down said secondary billet. I
In testimony whereof, I afiix my signature in the presence of two subscribing witnes'ses. a
WILLIAM MARSHALL PAGE. Witnesses: I Y y K; P. MoEL'noY, I FRANK R. CHAMBERS, Jr,