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Publication numberUS1127230 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1915
Filing dateJun 5, 1913
Priority dateJun 5, 1913
Publication numberUS 1127230 A, US 1127230A, US-A-1127230, US1127230 A, US1127230A
InventorsOskar Grauheding
Original AssigneeRheinische Metallw & Maschf
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Telescope gun-sight.
US 1127230 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

32E-*246. OR 191279230 5R 0. GRAUHBDING.



1,127,230. Patent-ea Feb.2,1915.


MTM/55 ES INJENT n R MQW 6 Patented Feb.2, 1915.






Application filed June 5, 1913.

To all whom t may concern:

Be it known that I, OSKAR GRAUHEDING, engineer, a subject of the German Emperor, residing at 26 Fischerstrasse, Dusseldorf, Germany, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Telescope Gun- Sights; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and eXact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.

.Various sighting devices have been proposed for guns in which the correct elevation is shown for any given quadrant angle by means of curves or curved guides.

As is well known, the angle of elevation must decrease as the quadrant angle increases and must vanish for all ranges ata quadrant angle of 90.

According to the present invention, which is designed for use with guns for shooting at targets lying in any height above the gun, as for instance, air ships and the like, the correct sighting point for any range and quadrant angle is shown in the field of view .of the telescope by a very simple construction.

Referring to the drawings, Figure 1 shows a side view of the construction of a telescope acording to the invention, parts being in section. Fig. 2 is a rear view of the telescope. Fig. 3 shows the movable range plate on which are the curves connecting the range and angle of elevation with quadrant angles for both elevated and depressed targets. Fig. 4L shows a plate with similar curves either for elevated or depressed targets, but not for both. Fig. 5 shows the disposition of the curves adapted for a straight line movement of the curve plate. Fig. 6 is a view in side elevation oi' a modified form, parts being in section. Fig. 7 is a face view. Fig. 8 is a side view opposite to that shown in Fig. 6, with parts broken away. Figs. 9 and l0 are face views of the range plates showing modified forms of markings.

In the telescope 1 (Fig. l) there is a movable glass plate 2 which is held in a support 3 having teeth on its outer edge with which engage the teeth of a pinion Ll, the support and the plate 2 being rotatable relatively to a fixed glass plate 6 by means of a screw head 5. On the fixed glass plate 6 there is a vertical line (F ig. 3).

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Feb. 2, 1915.

Serial No. 772,018.

A plurality of range curves are plotted on the rotatable glass plate 2 and on the periphery of the plate are the quadrant angle graduations indicating the severala'igles of site for elevated and depressedtargets. It will be seen that when the quadrant angle is zero there is the greatest distance between the range divisions which are marked 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20, corresponding to ranges of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 meters. The marking is repeated every 10o. If the target lies in such a height that the angle of site is 400 then the plate 2 is turned so that the mark 10 will be covered by the vertical line on the plate 6. If, for instance, the distance of the target is 1G00 meters, the target must be covered by the point of intersection between the vertical line of the plate G and between the range curve 16 drawn on the glass plate 2. It will be seen that this point of intersection lies somewhat higher than if the plate 2 were not turned, or only moved for an angle of 10. As the quadrant angle increases the distance between the range divisions continually decreases, until at 90o it vanishes, that is, all thc iange curves meet in a point as the angle between the line of sight and the axis of the barrel is zero for all ranges if the target lies in a vertical direction above the gun. The quadrant angle can be given by order in degrees, and set by the gun layer by observation of the target.

Fig. 4l shows the construction of the curves relating to either elevated or depressed targets. As shown in this ligure, there is but one group of curves which extend only in one direction from the vertical line of the plate 0 in the position of the plate 2 corresponding to an angle of site of zero. In this arrangement it is assumed that the angle between the line of sight and the axis of the barrel is for the same range of the same size notwithstanding the target is lying above or below the gun. If great exactness is required, for instance when iring from air ships on targets lying below or on targets lying above the firing air ship, it will be preferable to have two groups of range curves as shown in Fig. 3, one of said groups serving for targets lying above the gun and the other for targets lying below the gun. IVith this arrangement, if the angle of site is positive the plate 2 is turned to the left, while if it is negative the plate is turned to the right. If the quadrant angle is notfgiven by order, it can be known from the spirit level 7 which is rotated by the worm 8 together with the range plate 2, until it is leveled. rlhe quadrant angle can `ralso be shown by a pendulum 9, by the movement of the barrel or by the elevating gear. Iii' a straight line movement of the range plate is desired, the range curves must be plotted in rectilinear cordinates, as shown in Fig. 5, in which the quadrant angles are set out as abscissze and the ranges as ordinates.

Figs. 6 to 10 show a construction in which the curves are arranged so as to always intersect with the fixed vertical straight line. The sighting point is determined by the intersection of' the curves drawn as described in Letters Patent No. 1,004,416, dated September 26, 1911, connecting the angles of elevation and the quadrant angles.

In Figs. 9 and 10 the numbers on the edge of the disk or plate 11 do not mark the angles of' site, but the ranges, and for each of such ranges there are small curves for correcting the angle between the line of sight and the axis of the barrel according to the angle of site. In Fig. 9 there is only one curve for each range, while in Fig. 10 are shown two groups for each range, this arrangement insuring exactness for positive and negative angles of site.

In the form shown in Figs. 9 and 10, a glass disk 11, on which are indicated range divisions from 400 to 2000 meters, is fixed to a member 12 supported in the telescope housing 10, the member 12 being designed to be rotated by a hand wheel 13 to adjust the plate or disk 11 according to the range scale on the edge thereof. The setting of the range is effected against the resistance of a locking device 141, comprising a springpressed pin having a rounded head for taking in one of' a series of depressions 15 arranged in the support, 12, the depressions corresponding to the range divisions on the disk 11. The spindle of the support 12 and also the locking device are journaled in a toothed ring 16, which can be rotated by a worm 17 (Figs. 7 and 8), the turning of the ring also effecting movement of the disk 11 relatively toa fixed plate 18 having a vertical line thereon.

In the use of the device shown in Figs. 6 to 10, the disk 11 is rotated by means of the hand wheel 13 to eiiect adjustment according to the range scale on the edge of' the disk. Then the toothed ring 16 is turned by the worm 17 according to the angle of site, the necessary movement of' the ring 16 1f the quadrant angle is not given by order, it can be obtained by a spirit level 19 rotated by the worm 20 together with the toothed ring 1G and range disk 11 until it is leveled. The curves connecting the quadrant angles with the angles of elevation can also be adapted to show the sighting points, if the glass plate is moved in a straight line.

On the same general principle the lateral deviation can be allowed for according to the angle' of elevation when aiming at elevating targets, if corresponding curves are caused to intersect with a horizontal line. Also if a range finder for balloons is used the decrease in the angle of elevation as the quadrant angle increases can be shown in the field of view of the telescope. The telescope. can also be employed in a suitable manner for determining the quadrant angle.

I claim as my invention:

1. In combination with a telescope gun sight for aiming at elevated or depressed targets, a plate having a fixed mark, and a transparent plate designed to be moved in the focal plane of said telescope relatively to such iixed mark, said plate having a plurality of curves thereon, the points of intersection of said curves with the fixed mark varying as said plate is set to the quadrant angle.

In combination with a telescope gun sight for aiming at elevated or depressed targets, a plate having a fixed mark, and a rotary transparent plate designed to be moved in the focal plane of said telescope relatively to such fixed mark, said plate having a plurality of separate curves plotted for different ranges, the intersection of said curves with the fixed mark varying as said plate is rotated to the quadrant angle.

ln testimony whereof, I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.




Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2526677 *Apr 11, 1945Oct 24, 1950Leo MacktaSight for moving targets
US2734273 *Jun 1, 1954Feb 14, 1956 Measurement indicating means for
US7325353Dec 22, 2005Feb 5, 2008Cole Brand DMultiple nomograph system for solving ranging and ballistic problems in firearms
US7748155Aug 14, 2007Jul 6, 2010Brand D ColeSystems and methods applying density altitude to ballistic trajectory compensation for small arms
US8270104Jun 22, 2009Sep 18, 2012Windauer Bernard TOperator-selectable-stop turret knob
US8353454May 14, 2010Jan 15, 2013Horus Vision, LlcApparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8656630Jun 9, 2011Feb 25, 2014Horus Vision LlcApparatus and method for aiming point calculation
US8701330Jan 2, 2012Apr 22, 2014G. David TubbBallistic effect compensating reticle and aim compensation method
US8707608Jul 30, 2012Apr 29, 2014Horus Vision LlcApparatus and method for calculating aiming point information
US8713843Jan 17, 2012May 6, 2014Bernard T. WindauerOperator-programmable-trajectory turret knob
U.S. Classification42/122
Cooperative ClassificationF41G1/38