US 1128451 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. D. JEFFERSON.
APPARATUS FOR TREATING FIBROU$ MATERIALS. APPLICATION FILED JAN.15,1912.
1,128,451. Patented Feb. 16, 1915.
r if e 11111111 E 4/2 40 EUGENE D. JEFFEHSGN, F BQSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.
AEPARATUS FOR TREATING FIBBDUS MATERLALQ.
1' ,EZSASBL Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb; 16; 1915.
Application filed January 15. 1912. SeriaLNo. 671,228.
12;: ca whom it may concern Be it. known that I, Enonmi D. Jnr'rnw soy a. citizen of the United States, residing nl Bosh-in. in the county of Sull'olk and rilnle of lvlassz-zchusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for 'lrcating l ihrous Materials; and I ilo'hereby declare the following to he a full clear and exact description of the invention, such as 'Wlll enable others skilled in the art to which itappertains to make and use the some. i
The. present invention relates to an apparatus or treating fibrous materials and more particularly to an apparatus for boiling, iiileaching or dyeing textiles. paper pulp and the lo. treating textiles or paper pulp it is usual to boil the material in an alkali prc i'lOlL; to iihc bleaching operation in order to aim-harm as much of the coloring material us l)f"-lljl\". helm-e bleaching. to remove the QIVQHSPH and to soften the fiber. To secure the most, eilicient and rapid chemical action l llll; allmli on the materials, the materials should he alternau-ily exposed to a boiling hot alkaline solution and to live steam] The Cl'llfl'l'llfidl il(ftl(lll due to altcrnatclv and rrpeatedly exposing the materiz-ils to the hot alkaline solution and to the steam is not perfectly understood, but l have found that such treatnwnt removes the color and grease from the. materials much more rapidly than boiling the materials in the alkaline solution without withdrawing the materials from the liquor and exposing them to the steam during the boiling operation. Simi larly, to promote. the most advantageous and rapid artmn oi bleaching with a solution of chlorid of lime, commonly known in the hlcaohingz industrv as chcmic, the materials should he :rllernately and repeatedly saturat d in the chemic and exposed to the air to aerate them. liquor itself acts to bleach more rapidly if air is'hlown through the liquor to aerate it.
In the use oi certain dyes, particularly the. indunthrin (lye, the n'iaterials must be impregnated with the dye and the color must he set in a vacuum as the presence of oxygen prohibits the proper chemical action.
The object of the present invention is to produce an apparatus for treating" fibrous substances such as textiles, paperpulp andthe like.
w h m a cove obgect re view one feature Moreover, the bleaching" of the present invention relate: to an apparatus in which the materials are alternately anu repeateuly immersed in and withdrawn from a boilin alkaline solution so as to alternately an repeatedly expose the materials to the action of the solution and tothe action of live steam..
Another feature of'the present inyention relates to an a paratus in which the materials may be aliernately and repeatedly iin merscd in and withdrawn from the bleaching liquor to alternately and repeatedly ex pose the materials to the action of the bleaching liquor and to the action of the air.
Another feature of the present invention relates to an apparatus in which the materials may be thoroughly Saturated in a dye in a. vacuum.
Still another feature of the present invention relates to the production of an apparatus in which the operation of boiling in alkali,' of bleaching, and of dyeing may be carried on sequentially in the same apparatus.
Other features of the present invention relate to certain constructions, arrange ments' and combinations of partshereinafter described, the advantages of which will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description.
Referring to the drawings in which is illustrated the preferred embodiment of the present invention; Figure 1 is a side View taken partly in vertical section of the apparatus; and Fig. 2 is a vertical'section along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
As'illustrated in the drawings the apparatus comprises a tank which is adapted to be" partially filled with liquor, a drum for holding llie materials rotatably mounted in the tank, retainers for keeping the mass of materials from turning in the drum .as the drum is rotated and various auxiliary (1rvices such as a heater for boiling an alkaline solution in the tank ports for blowing air under nrcssure into the tank when bleaching is being carried on, and a connection to a vacuum pump for creating a vacuum for dyeing.
The illustrated apparatus is described as follows: The tank 4 is a. gas-tight horizontally disposed cylindrical receptacle haying crowned ends. \Vithin the tank is a cylin drical drum 6 which is rotatably mounted by means of shafts 8 which are jou'rnaled in brackets '10. The hearings of the shafts 8 are provided with stuffing boxes 12 to pro vide a steamand air-tight bearing. A pulley 14 is mounted on one of the shafts 8 for rotating the drum 6. A largenumber of perforations 16 are formed in the drum 6 so that the liquor has free access to the fibrous material which is packed in the drum. The tank 4 has a manhole provided with a steamand air-tight cover 18 and the drum 6 has a similar manhole which is closed by a cover 20 so that access may be had to the interior of the drum 6 to pack and remove the materials to be treated. After the drum is packed with the material to be treated, the tank is filled about half full of liquor. Retainers are provided inside the drum to hold the mass of materials from turning about inside the drum under the action of gravity as the drum is rotated so. that as the drum rotates the mass of materials is rotated with the drum and the different parts of the. mass are alternately immersed in and withdrawn from the liquor in the lower half of the tank.
These retainers include a hollow inwardly projecting fin 22 and a number of pipes 21 extending across the interior of the drum. The fin 22 consists of a substantially V- shaped sheet of meta l, the edges of which are flanged and secured to the drum 6 by means of rivets 26. The fin 22 is provided with a large number of perforations 28, and, as the base of the fin spans one horizontal row of the perforations 1.6. a free passage is provided for the liquor through the interior of the fin 22 into the material surrounding the fin. The fin 22 therefore not only acts to prevent the materials from turning in the drum as the drum is rotated. but also assists in-a more thorough penetration of the mass ofmaterials by the liquor. The pipes Q-l perform a similar function in preveuti ng the materials from turning about in the drum and assisting in a more thorough impregnation of the materials with the liquor. The pipes 24 have open ends extending outside of the drum and are provided with a large number of perforations 30. In packing the drum, the drum is turned to the position shown in Fig. 2 an the manholes are open and the material is packed in until th drum is half full and then the pipes 21- are put in place. In putting a pipe in place one end of the pipe is pushed out through the pipe receiving hole and the other end' of the pipe is brought opposite the pipe receiving hole 34 in which it is placed. A collar 36 prevents the pipe from being, pushed too far out through the hole 34. A fter the. pipe is thus pushed in the hole 34, a cotter pin 38 is placed through a hole in the pipe to hold it in place. A heating chamber 10 is provided beneath the tank 4 to heat the liquor in the tank when the materials are to be boiled. The heating chamber40 is a closed c vlindrical receptacle containing a steam coil 42.
the liquor in the tank 4 is boiled by means of steam coil 12. A pipe 50 is provided through which the difi'erent treating liquors A pipe 52 is pro-.
may be run into the tank. vided for the admission of wash water and a pipe 51 is provided for draining off the wash water.
The bottoln of the tank 1 is provided with a number of ports (50 for the introduction of compressed all which is supplied through a pipe 62 for use in aerating the liquor and the materials in bleaching. The safetyvalve 48 furnishes a convenient device for maintaining the pressure in the tank while the compressed air is being blown through it. At the top of the tank l a pipe leads to a vacuum pump to create a vacuum in the tank when it is used for dyeing.
The apparatus having been specifically described. the operation will now be set forth as a series of steps including boiling with alkali, bleaching with chemic and dyeing. The manholes 18 and 20am opened and the drum 6 is packed with the material to be treated such as textiles. rags. paper pulp or the like. The alkaline solution is run through the pipe 5'.) until the tank 4 is about half full, after which the manholes are closed and the drum 6 is rotated. Live steam is admitted into the coil 10 to boil the alkaline solution in the tank. The alkali in the tank is kept boiling and the drum is slowly rotated until the color has been discharged and the grease has been removed from the materia During this boiling operation the materials are alternately exposed to the boiling alkaline solution and to the live steam which is boiled oil from the solution and fills the. upper half of the tank 4. The alternate and repeated action of liquor and steam on the materials gives the proper chemical reactions to quickly start and remove the color and grease from materials.
After the alkaline boiling is completed, the alkali is drawn oil and wash water is run through the tank 4- by means of pipes 52 and 54 and the drum 6 is rotated to wash alkali from materials. Then the water is shut off and chemic is run into the tank 4 through the pipe 50 until the tank is a out half full. After the chemic is run into the tank the compressed air is admitted through the pipe 62 and ports 60 into the bottom of bleaching operation.
.the tank 4- and *bubbles up through the ch'emic and"around the drum 6, escaping through the safety valve 48. The drum 6 is, of course, slowly rotated during the Since the materials are alternately immersed and withdrawn fromthe chemic, as the drum is rotated, a
thorough and repeated saturation and aeration of materials takes place. Moreover, since the aeration takes place under pressure, the chemical reaction due to the presence of air is accentuated since compressed air has a greater chemical reaction on the saturated material than air at atmospheric pressure. The compressed air, as it bubbles througl'i the chemic bath also acts to thou oughly aerate the chemic itself which also assists its action in bleaching. After the materials are bleached, they are washed by water circulating through the tank 4 from the pipe 50 to the pipe 54 until the chemic is thoroughly washed from materials. With. the ordinary sorts of materials such as White cloth, rags or paper pulp, the materials will 'be removed from-the. drum after the bleach;
However, if the material. is to be dyed and of dyeing, it will be evident that by omitting or not using some'of the accessory parts particularly is to be dyed with the indenthrin dye, it is left in the drum 6. The Water is drained from the tankand the valves closed so that the tank 4 is air-tight. Then the valve in the pipe-7O leading to the vacuum pump is opened and the tank 4 is exhausted to a high vacuum, after which the inrlauthrin dye is run in through the pipe 50 and the materials are. thoroughly saturated with the dye by the rotation of the drum 6 which acts to alternately immerse and withdraw the'materials from the dye. Since the tank is air-tight, this dyeing operation can be carried on in a high vacuum and the dye. be set under the most advan tageous conditions.
While the apparatus illustrated in the drawing is capable of use for the three operations of alkaline boiling, of bleaching, and
such as the vacuum pump, the heating chamber or the compressed air supply, the apparatus maybe used to perform a single hue of the above operations or two of them 4 lvithout the third.
WVhile the preferred embodiment of the invention has been -specifically illustrated,
and described, the present invention is not, however, limited to the illustrated construction but may be embodied in other structures within the scopeof the invention as defined in the following claims:
I claim' l 1-. An apparatus for treating fibrous ma terials, having, in combination, a closed gastight tank adapted to be partially filled with a treating liquor, and means for alternately immersing the materials in the treating extending liquor and withdrawing them from the liquor comprisin a drum for holdi the materials rotatalb y mounted in the tan and adapted to be partially immersed in the liquor, and means for prevmting the mass of material from turning ,in the drum as it rotates and for assisting the-penetration of the materials by the liquor comprising perforated pipes extending across the drum and having open ends for leading the liquor into '15 the mass of the materials, and mechanism for rotating the drum 2. An apparatus for treating fibrous ma-' terinls, having, in combination, a its-tight tank adapted to be partially til ed with so treating liquor, and means for alternately. immersing the materials in the treating liquor and withdrawing them from the liquor comprising a drum'for holdin the materials rotatably mounted in the ta and adapted to be partially immersed in the liquor, and means for preventing the mass of materials from turning in the drum as it rotates and for securing the penetra ion of the liquor into the materials comprising aeo perforated member extending into the mass of the materialeand open to allow the passage of the liquor into the member and throu h the perforations into the materials.
3. n apparatus for treating fibrous ma- 9b terials having, in combination,'a closed tank adapted to be partiallyfilled with a treating liquor, means for alternately immersing.-
the materials in the treating liquor an withdrawing them from the liquor comprising a drum for holding the materials rota- ,tably mounted in the tank and adapted to be partially immersed in the liquor, and means for assisting the penetration of the materials by the liquor including a perforated pipe 10&
into the mass of materials in the drum. j
4. An apparatus for treating fibrous materials havin in'combination, a closed gas tight tank a 'apted to be partially filled with at treatin liquor, means for boiling the liquor in t e tank to drive outthe air so that the tank is filled .with ,boiling liquor and with 've steam, a valve for preventing the I free the steam in the tank is maintained under pressure, and means for alternately subjecting the materials to the repeated and successive action of the boiling liquor at the bottom of the tank and of the.live steam at 4 the top of the tank comprisin a drum for holding the materials, rota'ta iy [mounted in thetank and adapted to be partially immersed in the boiling liquor and mechanism for rotatingihadrum.
- An apparatus for treating fibrous materials having, in combination, a closed gastight tank adapted to be partially filled with a treating liquor, means for boiling the liquor in the tank to pc of steam from the tank so that drive out the air o that the-tank i's'fiued with boiling liquor and. with live steam; and means 'lonsulqectmg the materials to" the repeated and successive action of the oiling liquor at the bottom of the tank andof the live st-eam at the top of thetank comprising a drum for holding the materials, rotatably mounted in the; tank and adapted to'be partially immersed in the boiling liquor and mechanism for rotating the drum;
' 6. An appa-ratus forbleaching fibrous materials haying, incombination, a closed gastight'tank adaptecl to he partially fillei'l with a bleaching liquor, means for maintaining a circulation of aimunder pressure through the tank during a part of the bleaching op 7. An a p iaratus for bleaching fibrous materials having, in combination, a close gas tight tank adapted tobe partially filled with a. bleaching liquor; means for maintaining a circulation of air" under pressure through the tank (luring apartof the bleaching op eration including an air port beneath thv liquor level so that the blcac ii liquor tight tank adapted to be partially filled with I a l'ileaching liquor, means the tank during a part of the bleachinglopelation including an inlet for renting the free escape of air from the tank so that the air in the tank is maintained under pressure, anEl means forsubjecting the materials to the repeated and successive action of the bleaching liquor and compressed air comprising a. drum for holding the materials rotatably mounted in the tank and adapted tobe partially immersed in the liquor, and mechanism for drum.
EUGENE l JEFFERSON. \Vitnesses l-lonacn V EVEN/1N, Gunner-1 E. S'rnnnrxs.
compressed air and an anoutlet having'a. valvcvt'or pre-- rotatin the.
for maintaining I a circulation of air an ler pressure th h