US 1130045 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. N. WALKER.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 8.1918
1 1 39 M556 Patented Mar. 2, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
Patented Mar. 2, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
W. N. WALKER. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED MAYB, l913 UNITED s'ra'rns ra rnn'r caries.
WILLIAM N. WALKER, OF ROME, NEW.YORK.
Specification of Letters Patent. 7,
Patented Mar. 2, 1915.
Application filed May 8, 1913. Serial No. 766,396.
' four-cycle type and refers more particu- :larly to the construction of the rotary valves and associated ports for controlling the inlet of the explosive mixtures and exhaust prodnets of combustion.
The main object is to control the inlet and exhaust through a single port in the cylinder by means of a rotary valve synchronized with the movement of the piston and provided with peripheral inlet and exhaust ports alternately registering with the port in the cylinder at the proper time.
Another object is to control such ports of a multiplicity of cylinders through the medium ofa single valve having peripheral inlet and exhaust ports registeringwith their respective cylinder ports. in synchronism with the movement of the corresponding pistons. In other words, I have sought to obviate the noise and unreliability incidental to theuse of puppet valves and at the same time to increase the ciliciency of the engine by making a single port for each cylinder serve for the inlet of the explosive mixture and exhaust for the spent gases.
Another object is to provide simple means for balancing the rotary valve under the varying pressures to which it is subjected.
Other objects and uses will be brought out in the following description.
In the drawingsFigure 1 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of a six cylinder internal combustion engine embodying the various features of my invention. Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view through the same engine in the plane of the rotary valve. Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical sectional view through the first cylinder at one end of the engine. Figs. 4 and 5 are face views of the detached valves for eachset of three cylinders. Fig. 6 is a horizontal sectional view of athree-cylinder internal combustion engine showing -a slightly modified form of rotary valve. Fig. 7 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view through the valve case and also portions of the cylinders shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a transverse sectional view through the left hand end cylinder and valve case shown in Figs. (3 and 7. Fig. 9 is a face view of the detached valve shown in 6, 7 and 8. Fig. 10 is an enlarged transverse sectional view through the center of one of the valve drums and adjacent portion of the cylinder showing the position of the valve when the piston is at the limit of its inward movement ready to take in a fresh charge of the explosivc mixture, the recess in the cylinder to assist in balancing the pressure on the valve being omitted, the section being taken through the center of one of the valve drums. I I
The engine shown in Figs. 1 to l inclusive comprise a series of, in this instance six,
cylinders -1 which are preferably cast in sets of three cylinders each and securely fastened in an upright position side by side to an underlying supportingframe or bed 2 having a crank case 3- common to all of the cylinders and in which is journaled a crank shaft 4", the latter being connected in the usual manner by pitmen 5- to their respective pistons -6.
Each cylinder is provided in one side near its upper end or head with a port -7- which serves both as an inlet for the explosive mixture and an exhaust for the spent gases or products of combustion, these ports being located at the same side of all of the cylinders and communicate directly with longitudinally extending cylindrical valve casings -8 running along the same side of the cylinder in close proximity thereto and arranged end to end in axial alinement with their adjacent ends open and communicating with an inlet passage 9- common to both valves as shown more clearly in Figs. 1 and 2. This inlet passage -9- may be conncctedb'y a conduit 10- to a carbureter or other mixing device through which the explosive mixture is passed from the source of supply (not shown) to the.
secured respectively to the craiiii shaft 4 and an upright shaft -l3-- and additional angle gears -14 secured,
respectively to the upper end of the upright shaft l3-- and adjacent end of the corresponding tubular valve 11.
Each of the valves -115- is provided with a series of, in this instance three, cy-
lindrical drums 15, -land one for each cylinder, and intervening annular exhaust channels 16- registering with corresponding exhaust ports .17 which communicate with an exhaust chamber 18 having a'relatively large outlet 19 adapted to be connected to any suitable manifold (not shown) or open to the atmosphere as may be desired.
' The outerends of the valves 11 carrying the corresponding angle" gears 14- are closed but their inner adjacent ends are open and communicate with the fuel inlet '9 so that the explosive mixture which may be drawn into the inlet by the suction stroke, of any one of the pistons in a manner hereinafter described Will also pass into the valves.
The gears 124- and 14: are proportioned to rotate the valves 11 at onefourth the speed of that of the crank shaft 4 so thatthe valve makes one-eighth revolution for each stroke of the piston. These valves are rotated in the direction indicated by arrow -X, and each valve drum is provided with separate sets of inlet ports 20, balancing ports -2l and exhaust ports 22--, like ports being arranged diametrically opposite each other so length as the port -.-7 for closing the same when the inlet and exhaust-ports. are positioned at opposite sides thereof. I
Each inlet port -20- extends 'radlally through the wall of the valve drum and communicates with the interior chamber as --2 -l-- thereof so that as soon as the exhaust port 23- is cut oil from communication with the port '7, the inlet port-20 will just begin to open communication with said port -7'-- and will maintain such communioation While the piston is traveling from the limit of its inward movement to theend of its extremeoutward or suction 7 stroke; thereby drawing the explosive mixture from the inlet passage 9- through the interior of the valve and'thence through the ports -20 and, 7 into the comadapted to register therewith as the valve 80 bastion chamber of the cylinder. These inlet ports 20 and also the balancing ports 21- terminate short of the ends of their respective valve drums so as to cut '01? communication with the annular channels but are of substantially the same Width as the corresponding cylinder ports 7- with which'they are adapted to register as the valve is rotated, the balancing ports 2lextending only part way through their respective valve drums from the periphery thereof so as to form pockets in said peripheries which pockets are connected by diametrically extending tubes --2.5- as shown more clearly in Fig. 10 for the purpose of equalizing the pressure at opposite sides of the valve especially during the compression and firing strokes of the piston. The exhaust ports 22 are also formed in the peripheries of their respective valve drums and extend-part Way or through the valve thereof, thereby forming axially extending ports in said peripheries communieating with the annular exhaust channels l6 so that when any one of these exhaust ports is registered with the corresponding cylinder port or ports -7-. duringthe inward exhaust stroke of thepiston, it will allow the spent gases to be expelled from the cylinder through that port and thence through theannular passage -16 to the exhaust chamber -l8- and thence to themufiier or to the atmosphere as may be desired. The ports -22 in the end drums of each yalve terminate short of the ends of the valve to cut oli' communication with the inlet -9 at one end and prevent escapeof the gases at the opposite end.
It is now clear that the opposite halves of the periphery of each valve drum is provided with an inlet port, a balancing port and an exhaust port arranged in sequence in the direction of rotation of the valve and are successively registered with the cylinder ports 7-- in a manner hereinafter described. the balancing ports -2l being somewhat longer circumferentially than the inlet-port or exhaust port and preferably extend approximately equidistant from the adjacent ends of the tube -25- so as to establish communicationbetween the interior of the tube and cylinder port .7' during the greater part of the compression and firing strokes when the pressure upon the side of the valve nearest the cylinder is greatest, thereby equalizing the pressure atthe opposite side of the valve through the tube. In order that this balancing 'of the valve may be more effective, the valve case may be provided with recesses 26 Fig. 3 diametrically opposite the cylinder port 7- and of'substantiallythe same axial length as the balancing ports .Which are rotates.
forming peripheral pockets. ally through one end only of molar reccsses or channels -16. modification, as shown more clearly in Figs.
3 income In Figs; 6' to 9 inclusive, I have shown a three-cylinder engine as provided with a slightly sponding drums to communicate with an nular' recesses or channels ;-l)'-.- in the periphery oi the valve while the exhaust pockets 22' communicate with similar an- In this 6 and 7, the annular recesses or. channels --9- alternate with the exhaust channels -l6- and are in constant communication with the inlet ports 10"- while the exoutward or suction stroke,
haust channels --'16 are in constant communication with the exhaust ports -17. The ports -l0' and --17--'are'preferably located in one side of the valve case opposite the cylinder ports 7-, the like ports being connected by suitable manifolds (not shown).
When the inlet pockets and exhaust pockets are constructed in the manner shown in Figs. 6 to 9 inclusive, the opening through the center of the tubular valve may be used for the circulation of a cooling fluid, such as air or water, while the valve casing and cylinder may be provided with a water jacket -2'T as shown, each cylinder being also provided with a spark plug 28 located in the upper end thereof, preferably opposite the ports --7-. I
Operation: In the operation of the construction of valve shown in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive and Fig. 10, assuming X-, Fig. 10, and that the piston is at the limit of its'inward stroke ready to begin its during which time the cylinder -port --7 will be closed by the part 23- of the valve, while the exhaust port -22 will have just passed the cylinder port -7 and the inlet port -2O-1.of \the valve' will be at the opposite side of said cylinder port ready to open communication therewith, then duringthe out-' ward or suction stroke of the piston, the
valve will have been rotated an eighth of a revolution causing the inlet-port -2(lto register therewith and moye across and to the opposite side of the cylinder port -7-,
thus allowing the explosive mixture to be --2 l and into drawn through the chamber the combustion chamber of the cylinder. Now, as the iston moves inwardly through its compression stroke, the valve will be rotated another one-eighth of a turn, thereby moving the succeeding balancing port -21 into registration with and across the cylinder port -7', allowing a part of the mix- H ture under compression to be forced through that the valve v is rotated in the direction indicated by arrow the tube-+25- to the opposite side of the valve for balancing the pressure upon said valve, the tube being relatively small so as not to perceptibly reduce the compression of the mixture in the combustion chamber;-
Now, as the piston reaches the limit of its inward compression stroke, the compressed during which the active balancing port will still maintain communication with the cylinder port to allow a part of the exploded .gases to pass through the tube -Q5- to the opposite side of the valve for equalizing the gases are ignited bythe spark plug 28','-
excess pressure due to the expanded gases.
Then, as the piston returns through its fourth or exhaust stroke, the valve will be caused to rotate another one-eighth turn to register the succeeding exhaust port -').2-
with the cylinder port 7 and allow the gases in the cylinder to be expelled by the inwardly moving piston through the exhaust port 22- and into the communicating channel or channels -'16- and. thence outwardly through the exhaust channel 18-.
The piston is now in its starting position at the limit of its inward stroke while the valve, which has just been turned a half revolution, will be in a position to repeat the operations just described through the reinai ing half of its revolution as the piston moves through its suction stroke, the,
compression stroke, firing stroke, and exhaust stroke. l
The operation of the valve shown in Figs. 6 to 9 inclusive is substantially the same as that described for the valves shown in Figs.
1 to 5 inclusive and Fig. 10 and it is, there to further fore, believed to be unnecessary modified describe this operation for the structure.
What I claim .is: y 1. In an internal combustion engine, acylinder having a single port serving both for the fuel-inlet and exhaust, a rotary valve having in its periphery an inlet port, a baiancing port and an exhaust port, said ports being arranged in sequence in the direction of rotation and successively registering with the cylinder port.
'2. In a four-cycle internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a ort serving for the fuel inlet and exhaust oi the spent gases, a rotary valve having in its periphery separate sets of ports arranged in sequence and movable successively intoregistration with the cylinder port, each set comprising an inlet port, a balancing port and an exhaust port, and means for rotating the valve one- I l I eighth of a revolution for each stroke of the piston.
3.f fln a foiir cycle internal combustion en glue, acylmder havinga single port serving as an inlet for the fuel and as an exhaust for the spent gases, a rotary valve having in its periphery an inlet port, a balancing port and. an exhaust port arranged in sequence,
said balancing port being in one side. of the valve ancl having communication with the opposite side of the valve, and means for} actuating said valve at such speecijhat its I inlet'port will be moved across the byl nrler 10.
port while the piston is moving th on its suction stroke and the exhaust port moved across the cylinder port duringthe exhaust.
stroke of the piston, said balancing port being of sutlieientlength to register with the cylinder port while the piston is moving 3 through its compression stroke and firing stroke.
a 4. A rotary valve, comprisinge tubular shell having peripheral annular grooves and recesses connecting with the grooves for the Y inlet, and peripheral annular grooves and re cesses connecting with the grooves for the exhaust, a recess opposite each port in the valve chamber exposing an amount of valve my hand this surface equivalent to the area 01? the port, and ports'leading directly through theva'lve antl' suitably one another serving to permit the cylincler pressure to be equalized on both sides of the valve whenever the inlet and exhaust ports Elisposed in angular relation to are closed, thus balancing that member and relieving it of the frictional load due to side pressure. p
' 5. A rotary valve,
shell having peripheral annular grooves and comprising a tubular