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Publication numberUS1134882 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 6, 1915
Filing dateAug 18, 1914
Priority dateAug 18, 1914
Publication numberUS 1134882 A, US 1134882A, US-A-1134882, US1134882 A, US1134882A
InventorsWilliam C Lowe
Original AssigneeWilliam C Lowe
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic low-temperature cut-off for water-pipes.
US 1134882 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


5 1 9 1 6 L p A d e t n .w a P 2 SHEETSSHBET l.

Zlnhruinr Emimrsms Aihmmgs 'w. c. LOWE.



1,134,882. Patented Apr. 6, 1915.




Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Apr. 6, 1915.

Application a a August 18,1914. Serial no. 857,398.

To all 'uhom 1' t may concern Be it knownt at I, IVILLIAM 0. Low, citizen of the United States, residin at Atlanta, in the county of Fulton and tate of Georgia, have invented certain'new and useful Improvements in Automatic Low-Temperature Cut-Ofi's for Water-Pipes; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, file r, and exact description of the invention, suc as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.

This invention relates to water distribution, and more especially to mains and pipes; and the object of the same is to produce an improved cut off in the service pipe of a house system which operates when the temperature outside falls to a point below freez- It further object is to provide the house system with a drain at a low point and with vents at the highest points so that when the supply is cut ofi the water in the house system runs out and no freezing can occur within the house in case it should be unoccupied or in case the freeze should happen at night.

These objects are carried out by the construction hereinafter more fully described and claimed, and as shown in the drawings wherein:

vFigure 1 is a diagrammatic elevation of this system complete, giving a side view of the cut off. Fig. 2 is an enlarged elevation of the cut-off at right angles to the view seen in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is an enlarged section of the drain, and Fig. 4 is an enlarged section of the vent.

In the diagrammatic view, Fig. 1,'the letter M designates the main under the street, or the pipe leading from said main, C is my improved cut-off which is inserted between the main and the service pipe S, the letter H designates the house system,D is an automatic drain at the lowest point within said system, and V is an automatic vent at the highest point or points within said system, as for instance in the cocks or faucets in the attic or in the upper floor.

It is the purpose of the vpresent invention to provide a cut-off which will act automatically when the temperature outside the house falls below freezing point, whereby the pressure in the main may be cut. off from the house system, and itis a supplemental purpose of the present invention to drain the pipes within the house system zsothat -no freezing could occur there-in. These objects are carried out in the following manner:

Referring now to Figs. 1 and 2, the cut-off is a piece of pipe bent into inverted U-shape so that it forms legs 1 and 2. The lower end of the leg 1 is connected as by an elbow 3 with the main M, and the lower end of the leg 2 is either integral with the service pipe S as shown at Fig. 1 or could be connected. therewith by an elbow like the other leg. Both legs are flattened in one direction" and widened in the other from their oints of connection with the pipes M and to their integral juncture with each other at the top at the point 4, and here the cut-01f is quite wide in one direction and uite contracted in the other, so that by pre erence the water flowing throughthis part of the cut-off will only be about t inch thick. However, the fact that the pipe is wide in the other direction at this arch prevents a reduction in the volume of the water passing through it. This cut-off is inserted between the main and the service pipe just outside the wall of the building as diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. l, and its arch 4 preferably projects slightly above the ground as shown. The service pipe leads then inward through the house wall and connects with the house system H, usually at a low point at the very lowest point within the system and prefer ably just above a trap to the sewer as indi cated at T in Fig. 1, I insert an automatic drain valve D which is opened by a spring under tension less than the water pressure. If the latter be 90 lb. '1 would set the spring to act at 40 lb. or thereabouts At the highest point'or points within the house system H I insert in it vents V having valves which are automatically closed when the pressure is on,

but which fall open when the pressure is re-' duced as by the opening of the drain valve. The action of this cut-off is as follows: The parts being set up as above described when a freeze occurs outside a thin film 0 ice forms in the arch 4 of the cut-ofl 1, 2 and closes the pressure from the city main and to the house system H. I have found by experiment that very shortly thereafter the drain valve D opens automatically, and then the vent V opens to admit air, with the result that all water in the house system runs out as explained, and no freeze can occur in the house at night or at any time in case it should be an unoccupied dwelling. I have found also that byio'rming the cut-off of a flattened pipe made wider over its arch, as described, the freezing of the thinvfilm of water therein will not burst it; and, later when a thaw occurs this will melt and the water will be automatically turned on from, the main in a manner which will be clear. Pressure being now admitted to the house system, the drain valve D closes, the water rises in the house pipes H, and the vent closes so that all parts of the system resume their former conditions automatically.

The drain valve which I preferably employ is illustrated indetail in Fig. 3. At a low point in the system H is inserted an elbow 10, into whose horizontal arm is screwed a valve casing 11 preferably having a shoulder 12 which comes up against the extremity of the elbow. Against the inner end of this casing rests a valve head 13, its stem 14 'extending throughout the length of the casing and projecting through a hole 15 in a cap 16 which is screwed onto the other end of the casing as shown. The stem 14 has grooves 17 near its outer end, but the inner ends of these grooves are closed by the cap when the valve is seated as shown in this view. Surrounding the stem between the head 13 and the cap 16 is a coiled expansive spring 18 tending normally to unseat the valve by moving the head 13 from the seat 19, and as above explained I would give this spring a tension which is less than the pressure in the main. By preference I form an extension 20 on the other side of the valve head which may be mounted loosely in a suitable guide 21 in the back of the elbow, the function of this detail being to hold the valve head in position to close squarely against the seat 19. It is quite obvious that instead of having the face of the head and the edge of the seat flat as shown, they could be made conical, or suitable packing of washers or otherwise might be interposed. With the pressure of ninety pounds in the house system acting behind the head 13, the spring 18 is compressed and the valve is closed so that no water passes out of the system. When now the pressure is reduced to less than forty pounds, the spring 18 acts to open the valve, and the water passes between the head 13 and the seat 19 and throughout the length of the casing 11, finding its exit through the grooves 17 whose inner ends are then within the cap 16 as will be understood.

The vent is best shown in detail in Fig. 4. Here an ordinary spigot 25 is connected with the house system at the highest point in the latter, and asshown it is provided with a,

handle 26 mounted on a stem 27 which carries a head 28 screwing into the casing as usual, the lower end of the head being provided with a washer 29 which rests upon the seat 30 as well understood. When the head 28 is screwed down the washer makes a msaeea water-tight connection with the seat 30 and no water can pass through the faucet; but when the handle is turned in the proper direction to unscrew the head and lift the Washer 011 the seat, water flows through the faucet as usual. My invention consists in securing the washer to the head by a tubular screw 31 whose bore 32 communicates at its lower end with the inlet side of the faucet. Also in forming a chamber 33 within the stem 27, the upper end of the chamber having a seat 34 and above that one or more ports 35 which communicate with the open air. Within this chamber is mounted a piston or float valve 36 adapted to be lifted by the pressure so that it closes against the seat 34, but when the pressure is removed as by the opening of the drain valve described above, the float valve drops within the chamber 33 and air is admitted through the port or ports 35, and flows throughout the length of the chamber and through the port 32 in the screw 31, to replace the water which falls and runs out of the house system H. It will be seen that no springs are necessary in this construction, and that the air vent needs no attention whatever from the user. Under ordinary circumstances the pressure within the house system H is ample to raise the piston or float valve 36 and close the air vents or ports 35, so that when the faucet is closed no water will escape.

What is claimed as new is:

1. The herein described means for automatically cutting ofl the flow of water from one pipe to another in freezing weather, which comprises said pipes, both protected from the freezing of the water within them, and a coupling member constituting the sole connection between said pipes and having part of its length so shaped and exposed that the water therein may freeze solid at one point.

2. The herein described means for automatically cutting off the flow of water in freezing weather from a main to a service pipe, which comprises said main and pipe, both disposed underground beneath the freezing point, and a coupling member between them comprising upstanding legs respectively connected with the main and the service pipe and a portion intervening between said legs and exposed above ground.

3. The herein described low temperature automatic cut-off for the purpose described, the same consisting of an inverted U-shaped member having one leg integrally connected with a pipe adapted to form a section of service pipe and the other leg adapted for connection with a main, said legs growing wider in one direction and more contracted in the other direction from said points of c%nnection upward to the arch of the cut- 0 v 4. The herein described." anti-freezing device comprising the main, the service pipe, the house water system, and an automatic vent at a high point and a drain valve at a low point in said system; combined with an automatic low temperature cut-01f consisting of a pipe of inverted U-shape having its legs communicating respectively with said main and service pipe, said legs growing wider in one direction and more contracted in the other direction from their lower ends upward to the arch of the cut-ofi', the arch peing of the same internal capacity as the egs.

5. The herein described anti-freezing device comprising the main, the service pipe,

the house Water system, and an automatic vent at a high point and a drain valve at a low point in said system; combined with a coupling member constituting the sole connection between the main and service pipe and having a part of its length exposed to the weather so that the water therein may freeze and shut ofi' communication therethrough.

In testnnony whereof I afiix my signature in presence of two witnesses.




Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4205698 *Dec 7, 1978Jun 3, 1980Hucks Lemuel CDetachable water pipe freeze preventing device
US4716937 *Mar 25, 1987Jan 5, 1988Hendrickson Donald WFlow limiting assembly having breakaway features
US4932429 *Feb 16, 1989Jun 12, 1990Masatoshi WatanabeScrew stopper including anti-freeze device used for water pipe valve
US6966332 *Sep 24, 2004Nov 22, 2005Michael David WigzellAir valve assembly for a fire hydrant
US20050067016 *Sep 24, 2004Mar 31, 2005Michael David WigzellAir valve assembly for a fire hydrant
U.S. Classification137/60, 137/517, 137/62, 138/32, 137/202
Cooperative ClassificationE03B7/12