|Publication number||US1138186 A|
|Publication date||May 4, 1915|
|Filing date||Dec 6, 1912|
|Priority date||Dec 6, 1912|
|Publication number||US 1138186 A, US 1138186A, US-A-1138186, US1138186 A, US1138186A|
|Inventors||Leon S Brach|
|Original Assignee||Leon S Brach|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
L. S. BEACH.
MPUCATION FILED nEc. 6. |912.
1,138,186. Patented May 4. 1915.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
LEON S. BEACH, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
Application filed December 6, 1912.
T0 all whom t may concern Be it known that I, LEON S. BRAci-I, residing at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Grounding Devices, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to grounding devices, and the particular objects sought to be attained is to provide a ground connection comprising parts of simple and inexpensive design, and wherein the degree of efficiency is relatively large in proportion to the size of the device.
A further object is to provide a grounding device adapted to be inserted bodily into the earth and comprising parts so formed as to intercept moisture passing through the earth and retain the saine as a liquid connector between the earth and the metallic parts of the device.
A further object is to provide a grounding device comprising one or more bowlshaped members of conducting material, the relatively large area formed by the bowl serving to provide an unusually large contacting surface with the earth in proportion with the diameter of the bowl, both the inner and outer surfaces of the bowl serving as contacting surfaces, and a still further object is to provide one or more of the bowls with a copper screening or wire mesh over the opening of the bowl, and preferably in contact with the bowl, and to provide a filling of absorbent material, within the bowl beneath the screening, and to provide a quantity of similar absorbent material entirely surrounding the device and filling the space between the bowls so that moisture from one bowl may be carried to the under surface of the bowl next above, or to other bowls, for improving the electrical contact of the other bowls with the earth.
Other objects and aims of the invention, more or less specific than those referred to above, will be in part obvious and in part pointed out in the course of the following description of the elements, combinations, arrangements of parts and applications of principles, constituting the invention; and the scope of protection contemplated will be indicated in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings which are Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented May 4, 1915.
Serial No. 735,260.
to be taken as a part of this specification, and in which I have shown a merely preferred form of embodiment of the invention: Figure 1 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view, partly in elevation, through a grounding device constructed in accordance with the provisions of this invention, the device being shown in operative position in the earth; Fig. 2 is a transverse, sectional view taken on the plane of line 2 2 of Fig. l, showing a top plan of the lowermost bowl the enveloping absorbent material being omitted; and Fig. 3 is a modification.
It is well understood in this art that a conductor, to be properly grounded within the earth, should embody two features, the degree of efficiency of which determines the degree of efficiency of the grounding, these two features being, firstv` the presence of a considerable contact making surface with the earth, and, second, a sufiicient quantity of moisture in the surrounding earth. Various attempts have been made to provide a device which will combine these features in a compact inexpensive structure, but such attempts, as far as I am aware, have met with questionable success, the great difficulty being to maintain the device reasonably small compared to a relatively great eX- tent of efficient contact making surface.
The device illustrated herewith, and forming the basis of this invention, comprises a stiff metallic rod, as 1, formed at its upper end with any suitable means, as 2, for the attachment of a ground wire 3. At
-the lower end of the rod is fixed a bowlshaped member, as 4, and intermediate the member 4 and the conductor attaching member 2 are other bowl-shaped members 4 being preferably of the same general contour as the member at the lower end of the rod. They are, however, of smaller size, the one at the top being smallest.
It will be understood, of course, that the purposes of this invention are served at least in a measure in the presence of one bowl member 4, though any number of bowls may be attached to the rod as desired for increasing the contacting efficiency of the device with the earth.y as will be pointed out.
Each of the bowls is of a conducting ma terial capable of resisting corrosion, such for instance, as copper which may be tinned,
A which the rod l extends.
if desired, to further enhance its resistance to corrosion. rihe rod l may preferably be of like material.
The bowls are arranged with their open ends uppermost, and, as clearly apparent from the drawings, any moisture seeping vertically downwardly through the earth will be intercepted by the bowls and retained therein. The uppermost bowl will intercept only the moisture from the earth directly above it. The second bowl will receive moisture from earth directly above it, but such as is not intercepted by the first bowl. rihe bottom bowl will receive moisture from the earth directly above it, but such as is not intercepted b y the bowls above. Here it may be noted that from the surface of the earth to the first bowl is a relatively shorter distance, and comprises considerably less earth than from the surface of the earth to the lowermost bowl. The upper bowl, though small, is thus fully capable of containing the moisture from the relatively small quantity of earth above it, and the lowermost bowl, having a greater quantity of earth above it, is proportionately large to receive the proportionately greater quantity of moisture from the increased amount of earth. The same holds with the intermediate bowl or bowls.
Before placing the device in the earth, each of the bowls lis preferably filled to near the top with broken coke, as 5, or other absorbent material. Over this is fitted a screen 6 preferably of copper wire, the outer edges of the screen contacting with the inner annular surface of the bowl, and the screen having a central aperture 7 through The screen may also form electrical contact directly with the rod l.
The several bowls being thus prepared, the device is inserted into a hole made in the earth, the hole having been previously supplied with a quantity of coke spread over its bottom surface. rihe under-surface of the lowermost bowl is lowered into position upon the coke in the hole and more coke as 8 is thrown in to ll the Vhole up to the vicinity of the upper end of the rod l. The coke thus placed in position, fills all openings between the bowls, and contacts intimately with the bowls, with the screens, with the rod l, and with the surface of the surrounding earth. Above the coke thus placed, the hole may be filled with earth or other material, as desired.
Liquid filtering through the earth will percolate into the bowls and saturate the coke contained beneath the screens. Any moisture or liquid reaching the bowls will be positively retained therein and held against further descent. The saturated coke, especially within the bowls will form an excellent retainer for the liquid and maintain the screens 6, as well as the coke contacting therewith, always moist, so that it is safe to assume that, except under unusual drafts, the bowls will be substantially continually filled with liquid and capable of rendering efficient service` as connectors between the earth and the rod l.
The moisture within the bowls, maintaining the colte therein always moist, and maintaining the coke directly above the screen also moist, this moisture is transmitted, by absorption, and capillary attraction, upwardly to the next bowl above, so that the under-surface of at least the intermediate bowls are maintained in a satisfactorily moistened condition. rlhus it is seen that not only the inner surface of the bowls, but also the outer surface thereof, serves to make electrical connection with the earth. ln this respect, a feature of this invention resides in the relative positioning of liquid containers in proximity one to another, in such manner that the liquid of one container will provide not only a conductor medium between the earth and itself, but will provide a conductor medium between the earth and another container. l prefer, for this purpose, to arrange the ground plates or containers relatively a less ,distance apart than the width of the containers, substantially as shown in the drawings, though of course this proportion may be varied, if desired.
The modication shown in Fig. 3 illustrates the use of a substantially single piece, or strip, of metal, as 9, wound about the central rod, as l0, in spiral formation. The liquid retaining pockets in this instance may be formed by the provision of transverse partitions, as l1, extending between the strip of metal and the rod or by forming depressions in the metal, or in any other appropriate manner, such as will intercept and retain liquid flowing downwardly along the spiral. The width of the strip of metal, forming the spiral may be Gradually increased toward the lower end of the rod, if desired. The screens may or may not be employed, as desired. In this modification, as well as in the structure of Fig. 1, it will be noted that the bottom walls of the containers incline toward the supporting rod of the structure so that even a small quantity of moisture within the containers will contact with both the rod and the container and increase the electrical efficiency of the connection between these parts.
As many changes could be made in the above described construction, and various embodiments of the invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description, or shown in the accompanying drawing, shall be `interpreted as illustrative? only, and not in a limiting sense, and that the following claims are intended to cover all the generic and specific features of the invention which may be said to fall within the language of said claims.
Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
l. In a ground connection, a container for moisture formed of conducting material adapted to be embedded in the ground, a second container for moisture formed of conducting material adapted t0 be embedded in the ground beneath said first named container, and means for electrically connecting said containers, the lowermost of said containers projecting beyond the vertical plane defined by the edge of the first named container to intercept moisture seeping downwardly through the ground, and also to intercept moisture overflowing from said first named container.
2. In a grounding device, a receptacle formed of conducting material adapted to be inserted in the ground and to receive and retain a quantity of liquid, a second receptacle formed of conducting material adapted to be inserted in the ground beneath said first named receptacle and to receive and retain a quantity of liquid, said second named receptacle having an edge portion extending beyond the vertical plane defined by the edge portion of the first named receptacle, and an electrical connection extended between said receptacles having means adapted for connection with the member to be grounded.
3. A grounding device comprising a concaved plate disposed with its concaved surface opening upwardly, a substantially flat disk of perforate conducting material fitted between the side walls of said concaved plate having its annular peripheral portion engaging said side walls adjacent the upper edge thereof, and a body of absorbent material within said concaved plate beneath said disk of perforate conducting material.
4. In a grounding device, the combination comprising a plurality of ground plates, means for retaining said ground plates in superposed relation spaced apart, said ground plates being of relatively decreasing size from the lowermost to the uppermost plate, each of said ground plates being concaved on its upper surface so as to receive and contain moisture, and a quantity of absorbent material within the concaved portion of each of said ground plates.
5. In a grounding device, the combination comprising a plurality of ground plates, means for retaining said ground plates in superposed relation spaced apart, said ground plates being of relatively decreasing size from the lowermost to the uppermost plate, each of said ground plates being concaved on its upper surface, a screen of conducting material above each of said ground plates electrically connected therewith, a quantity of absorbent material within the concaved portion of said ground plates beneath said screens, and a body of absorbent material enveloping all of said ground plates.
6. A grounding device comprising a rod of conducting material, and means carried by said rod forming a plurality of upwardly opening pockets formed of conducting material spaced apart along the length of said rod, each of said pockets having an imperforate bottom wall so as to retain moisture in said pockets and a perforated cover for each of said pockets so that moisture may over-How therefrom.
7. A ground plate comprising an imperferate bowl-shaped member formed of conducting material, a connecting member extending at right angles to the plane defined. by the edge of said bowl-shaped member and said bowl-shaped member having its upper and lower surfaces in contact with the earth.
S. A ground plate comprising, in combination, an imperforate bowl-shaped member formed of conducting material having an upwardly extendingI edge, a connecting member extending at right angles to the plane defined by said edge of said bowl-shaped member, and a perforated member extending across said bowl-shaped member and interposed between the interior thereof and the earth.
9. A ground plate comprising a hollow imperforate container formed of conducting material adapted to be inserted in the ground, said container being open at its upper portion so that water seeping downwardly through the ground within the radius of its outer edge will be collected therein, and means for connecting said container with a device to be grounded.
10. A ground plate comprising a hollow imperforate container of conducting material adapted to be inserted in the ground, said container being open at its upper portion, the entire expanse of the container within its peripheral edge being exposed upwardly, and means for connecting the same with a device to be grounded.
l1. A ground plate comprising a hollow imperforate container of conducting material adapted to be inserted in the ground, said container being open at its upper portion, the entire expanse of the container within its peripheral edge being exposed to the eartl, and a perforated member extending across said container and interposed between the interior thereof and the earth.
12. A ground connection comprising a central rod adapted to have a wire connected with its upper end, and a plurality of receptacles secured upon the rod in electrical contact therewith, said receptacles increasing in diameter from the top downward so that water may overflow from each into the neXt lower one.
13. A ground connection comprising a central rod adapted to have a wire connected to its end, and a plurality of receptacles secured upon the rod in electrical contact Y therewith, each receptacle having a cover,
said covers having a plurality of perforations, each of said receptacles being adapted to contain a body of absorbent material beneath said cover.
14. A ground connection comprising a central rod adapted to have a wire connected to its upper end, and a plurality of receptacles secured upon the rod in electrical contact therewith, said receptacles lincreasing in diameter from the top downward, and
each receptacle having a perforated top ory 16. A grounding device comprising a receptacle of conducting material, a substantially flat member of perforated conducting material forming a cover for said receptacle, and a body of absorbing material within said receptacle, all of said elements being in electrical connection.
17 A grounding device comprising a receptacle of'conducting material having an upwardly facing opening adapted to be inserted in the ground, a substantially i-at disk of perforated conducting material forming a cover for said receptacle, a second receptacle of conducting material adapted to be inserted in the ground spaced above said irst namedreceptacle, and having an upwardly facing opening, an electrical connection extending between said receptacles, and said second named receptacle being of less lateral extent than said first named recep tacle, so that moisture overflowing therefrom will be caught in said first named re ceptacle.
In testimony whereof, I aiiiX my signature in the presence of two witnesses.
LEON S. BRACH.
fitnesses L. Gnssronn Hanno, NATHALIE THOMPSON.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for ive cents each, by addressing the Commissioner lof Patents,
Washington, D. C.
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