|Publication number||US1143650 A|
|Publication date||Jun 22, 1915|
|Filing date||Mar 13, 1915|
|Priority date||Mar 13, 1915|
|Publication number||US 1143650 A, US 1143650A, US-A-1143650, US1143650 A, US1143650A|
|Inventors||John Franklin Scribner|
|Original Assignee||John Franklin Scribner|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. F. SCRIBNER.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 13, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
Patented June 22, 1915.
.I. F. SCRIBNER.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 13, 1915.
Patented June 22, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET Z- Iva/627% fmw Non-Glare Reflectors,
fipeclfication of Letters iatent.
Patented June 22, W15.
, Application n ce March '13, 1915. set-m1 n01 14,076.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that 1, JAMES SCRIBNER, a citizen of siding in the city of Chicago, county of Cook, and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in of which the following is a specification. I
My invention relates to reflectors and has more particular reference to reflectors for lalrinps such as automobile headlights and the The glare from the high power lamps Fnannmn with which automobiles are equipped at the present time has proven exceedingly objectionable in city streets and has given rise to legislation in many cities requiring the use of dimming devices to prevent the blinding effect of such intense lights upon pedestrians and the drivers of other cars. Such dimming devices have in many instances proven eflective to deaden and obstruct the light, but not without such material loss of driving light as results in notable disadvantage to the driver of the ear.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a lamp and specifically a reflector for a lamp which does not produce the objectionable glare complained of andwhich will at the same time be eflective to provide strong driving light when in use with lamps of the ordinary power.
Another object is to provide a. reflector be secured to lamps-now in use whereby the desired advantages maybe had without the expense of a new lamp or any alteration in the lighting system other than to apply the reflector.
Another object is to provide a reflector of simple construction, small cost, light weight, and also one ofa metal having peculiarly advantageous properties for the uses pointed out, and which properties and advantages for this purpose I claim to have discovered by experiment and study.
Other objects and advantages will appear hereinafter.
In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this specification ll-have illus trated preferred and modifledlemho'diments of these improvements in their application to lamps of well known types respectively.
In these drawings Figure 1 is a. medial vertical section through a conventional form of electric lamp with the preferred form of the United States, .re- .jthrough of the well my improved reflector, as an attachment, thereon; Fig. 2 is a medial vertical section a gas lamp having form of these improvements thereon, some of the par full lines; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to that of Fig. 1 in which the silvered reflector of the lamp is modified, and showing an attachment to overcome glare; Fig. 4 is a medial vertical section of the reflector attachment, as in Fig. 1, on a reduced scale, showing also a method of modifying its reflecting surface; Fig. 5 is a similar view to that of Fig. 4: showing a method of providing a modified form of surfacing for the reflector; Fig. 6 is a front or face view of the reflector of Fig. 4; in its completed state; and Figs. 7 and 8 are fragmentary front views showing other modifications of the surfacing or finish of reflectfor such use ing surfaces.
My improved reflector 10, 10 is preferably concavo-convex and may be of any kno'wn general forms now in use. For gas lamps, as in Fig. 2, it is preferably more shallow than in the electric lamps, owing to general features of construction of gas lamps. For electric lamps it may well be of the general parabolic shape, and when employed as an attachment for such lamps, as in Fig. 1, it preferably conformsto the general interior surface of the fixed reflector 11 in thelamp. The central portion 12, however, is preferably flattened, that is, formed angles to the axis of the reflector, substantially as illustrated. This central portion 12' has preferably a high reflecting power, which means that it is highly polished if of metal, or silvered if of glass, or given such high power of reflection by ways well understood in the art according to the material employed. An opening 13 surrounded by the annular flange 14 is adapted to accommodate the socket element 15 16, which socket element known in the art.
A principal point of departure from the heretofore known is with respect to the annular area or surface about the central portion 12. This annular surface 17 is preferably first given a relatively high finish or reflecting power similar to that of the portion 12. That is to say, the entire interior or reflecting surface of the reflector is first given such polish or.fin ish. After such poland lamp are well the preferred ts being shown in substantially at right i of the lamp ishing or finishin ace with the ex tion 12 is cut, so as to break a multitude of faces defined b In Fig. 4 I h or cutting thi means comprisi g the entire interior surception of that etched, chased 0 up this polished'su relatively small y the scratchlik ow one means of s s reflecting surfa mg a rotary steel wire brush y approved means, of the reflector bein he brush say from hereof inward to the ector with su s of abrasion an ts, say about one-half or This operapaths of lines of e made side by of the porpolished surished surface 17 in contact wlth t parallel cuts or line a path of such cu five-eights of an peated until such raded or cut surface a1 side, over the entire reflecti In Fig. 5 I a steel brush 19 wires thereof i surface 17, the
circular scratches. or is passed in contact wi in the manner described, woven spiral cuts or scratc by repeating the operat ace is scratched in paths ge to the portion prefer to pass th ss the'brush that ,manifold there ar ces between ng surface 17 ially rotating of the steel the polished oducing sub- When the reth this brush a path of inhes is formed, ion the entire leading from 12. In both e reflector so although the e intervening them, that is, surare, however, relation is not limited utting or scratching and I conceive that adobtained by allel to each about the axis of'the or by crossing them as g up the poly small surfaces important adcutting resides ve shown an ax with the ends n contact with brush thus pr he outer ed instances I rapidly acro scratches are bright surfa faces unscratch tlvely small. to the exact manner of c the polished surface, vantageous results forming these scratc other and circularl reflector, as in ig. 8, or otherwi ished surface into re by such cuts;
scratching or t the irregula h lines par vantage of the in thefact tha at any distance and out the slightest in- Viewed, directly of the person e light he sees th the eyes lane with th the reflector appears relatively dark. Surrounding this portion 12 there isan illuminated field which is of a silvery white cast in my present devices, which field glows with brightness. N o glare comes from this portion whatsoever, and I have not found that any glare emanates fromany portion of the lamp with my reflector in place. The glowing film a pears merely as a spot of g light and can e gazed upon freely without 1nconvenience. From the drivers seat the illumination is ample or even more than suflicient for ordinary purposes. In the partment of the city of Chicago, an auxiliary and-operated search light has been dis-.
pensed with as unnecessary since my reflectors have been installed in the head lights thereof. The light emanating from the lamps is diffused and distributed equally in a wide path in front of the machine.
he reflectors which I am employing as attachments for lamps already installed, as
1n Figs. 1 and 2, are preferably made of aluminum, this metal being at once light and susceptible of high polish. I conceive at I have made a valuable discovery or invention in theemployment of aluminum for this purpose, the color of this metal and its property of retaining a high polishfor a long period peculiarly adapted itto this use.
I have treated silvered reflectors by my serted, as in Fig. 3.
In the device of Fig. 1 my reflector may be attached by merely detaching the bulb 6, inserting the reflector and reattaching s thebulb, the glass 22 holding the reflector in lfiolace. Ordinarily, however, the reflector ts tightly enough upon the lamp socket 15 to be held thereby. In the gas lamp of Fig. 2 the reflector 10 may be secured by merely removing-the nuts 25, removing the old reflector, and inserting the one illustrated.
The highly polished portion 12 is imporfreedom from scratch-like marks are considered by me the most advantageous ways for practising the invention in these regards.
with the source The reflectors, when of aluminum or other ductile metal may be shape or otherwise formed according to practices well understood in the mechanic arts.
While I have illustrated and described preferred and modified embodiments of these improvements, the invention is not limited to the exact construction or manner of roughening or scratching the reflecting surface, and all departures therefrom as fall within the scope of the appended claims are considered by me to be within the spirit of the invention set forth.
1. A reflector adapted to be positioned adjacent to a source of light to reflect rays thereof and having a reflecting area comprising a substantially flat central portion adapted to belpositioned directly adjacent to the source of light and of relatively high reflecting power, said reflector having about said substantially central portion an annular portion of relatively low reflecting power.
2. A reflector adapted to be positioned adjacent to a source 0 light to reflect rays thereof and having a reflecting surface concave in form, the substantially central area of said reflector being substantially flat and having relatively high reflecting power, sai reflector having about said central area an annular area having a surface of relatively low reflecting power.
3. A reflector adapted to be positioned adjacent. to a source of light to reflect rays thereof and having a reflecting area concave in form, the substantially central portion of said reflector having a flattenedreflecting surface of relatively high reflecting power, said reflector having about said central portion an annular portion having a surface containing scratch-like cuts close to eachother and thereby roughening said annular surface to decrease its reflecting power.
4:. A reflector adapted to be positioned adjacent to a source of light to reflect rays thereof and having a reflecting surface comprising a substantially central area thereof adapted to be positioned directly in line of light and of relatively high reflecting power, said reflector having about said substantially central area an annular area having a substantially smooth surface containing scratch-like cuts 4 other and breaking up ,the general surface of said annular area into relatively small reflecting surfaces defined by said scratch-like cuts.
5. A concave reflector having a reflecting surface of aluminum and adapted to be positioned adjacent to a source of light to reflect rays spun into the desired lit-l.
thereof, the substantially central portion of said reflecting surface being polished, the annular portion of said reflecting surface about said central portion being provided with fine scratch-like cuts shallow and close to each other whereby such annular surface is provlded with small reflecting surfaces constituting the'walls of such cuts. I
6. A concave reflector having a reflecting surface of aluminum and adapted to be positioned adjacent to a sourceof light to reflect rays thereof, the substantially central portion of said reflecting surface being substantially flat and polished, the annular portion of said reflecting surface about said central portion being "abraded or roughened.
7. In combination, a lamp casing, a source of light within said casing and a reflector behind said source vof light when viewed from the front, said reflector having a substantially power immediately back of said, source of light and an annular reflecting surface about said central surface provided with scratchlike cuts close to each other and providing relatively small areas of high reflecting power defined by, such scratch-like cuts.
8. A reflector of concavo-convex shape having an opening in the central portion thereof, said reflector having a surface of high reflecting power about said opening and having a surface about said central surface broken by scratch-like cuts relatively close together.
flat surface of high reflecting 9. A reflector of concavo-convex shape having an' opening in the central portion thereof, said reflector having a substantially flat surface of high reflecting power about said opening and having a surface about said central surface broken by scratch-like cuts relatively close together.
10. As an attachment for a lamp which has a substantially parabolic reflector and a source of light substantially at the focus JAMES FRANKLIN SORIBNER.
T. D. Burma, M. M. KRIESAND.
light being substanbe positioned immediately Correction in Letters Patent No. 1,143,650Q p It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 1,143,650, granted June 22,
1915, for an improvement in Non- Glare Reflectors, in the grant and in the heading to the printed specification the name of the patentee is erroneously written and printed John Franklin Scribner, Whereas said name should have been written and printed as James Franklin Scribner; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Ofiice.
Signed and sealed this 6 th day of June, A. D., 1916. [SEAL] J. T. NEWTON,
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4229160 *||Nov 20, 1978||Oct 21, 1980||Butler William E||Bunsen burner guard|
|US5014174 *||Feb 6, 1989||May 7, 1991||Joung H. Won||Reflection sheet for lighting or color-lighting|
|DE1005462B *||Nov 11, 1953||Apr 4, 1957||Siemens Ag||Spiegelreflektor aus Aluminium fuer elektrische Leuchten|
|U.S. Classification||362/310, 362/348, 362/518, 362/266, 362/344|