US 1148360 A
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APPLICATION man JUNE 6. 1902.
Patented July 27, 1915.
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APPLICATION FILED JUNE 6.1902.
Patented July 27, 1915.
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turn sraras arrnn orrrbn WARREN COLLINS, OF COLLEGE POINT, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR T0 STAMFORD GAS STOVE COMPANY, OF STAMFORD, CONNECTICUT, A CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented July 27, 1915..
Application filed June 6,1902. Serial No. 110,440.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, WARREN COLLINS, a citizen of the United States, and resident of College Point, in the county of Kings, in the State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in GasHeaters, of which the following, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, is a full, clear, and eXact description.
My invention relates to a gas stove or heater in which a high degree of combustion is obtained and a high degree of heat generated, heating quickly a large amount of air without vitiating the air and without the escape of poisonous gases or unconsumed hydrocarbon gases.
As is well known, the products of perfect combustion are carbon dioXid and water, but in imperfect combustion the dangerous and poisonous carbon monoXid is generated. The generation of this poisonous gas and the escape of the unconsumed fuel gas are common with gas stoves and render their use unpleasant, ,unwholesome and dangerous, and endeavors have been made to overcome this by many devices. I have discovered that by arranging over the flame a plate of clay, earthenware, fire-brick, or any similar refractory material which is practically a nonconductor of heat, of any suitable form, it does not conduct the heat away like metal, but becomes super-heated itself and maintains at a high degree the heat of the whole heater or chamber insuring practically perfect combustion and the consuming of all the gas so that only the necessary carbon dioXid is generated and not the poisonous carbon monoXid.
In the preferred construction, my heater consists of a gas burner inclosed in a confined combustion chamber to which suflicient air is admitted for perfect combustion, but little surplus, so that there is no unnecessary cooling of the chamber or the flame and a large amount of air is quickly heated in proportion to the gas consumed by being rapidly drawn through a vertical flue arranged in the combustion chamber or on one side thereof, so that comparatively little of the heated air comes into direct contact with the flame.
My invention will be understood by reference to the drawings herewith, in which the reference numerals of the specification indicate the same parts in all the figures.
Figure I is a vertical section of my preferred form of stove or heater. Fig. II is a modification, showing a different form to the top of the flue. Figs. III, IV and V are respectively a front elevation, longitudinal section and cross section of a different form of the same heater, made to resemble a fire-place, and adapted to consume a large amount of gas.
Referring particularly to Fig. I, l indicates the standard, 2 the shell or casing of cylindrical, or other suitable shape, supported thereon, and making a tight joint \vlth the metallic cone 3, from which eX- tends upwardly the pipe 4, through the plate 5, of fire brick or other suitable refractory, nonconducting material, sustained in hangers 6, and thus forming a tight top to the combustion chamber. 7 is the gas inlet p pe with key 8 conducting the gas to the circular burner 9, having any desirable number of jets l0 10 arranged within the closed combustion chamber 12. This circular burner may be a separate ring or formed, as here shown, integral with the cone, by which the heat imparted to the metallic jets is di rectly conducted to the cone, tending to heat it and increase the heat of the combust on chamber, particularly its lower portion. 13 are a limited number of perforations formed where desirable in the shell, admltting sufficient air to the combustion chamber to supply air to the flame, and permitting the outflow therefrom of the products of combustion, but cutting off surplus of air from the chamber which would tend to cool itand the flame. Above the clay plate is formed in the drum the upper heating chamber 15. 17 is the cover, having openings 18 through which the heated air passes out.
In Fig. II the pipe 4 and plate 5 are omitted, and the upper portion of the cen tral flue formed of an inverted cone 24: made of the suitable, nonconducting, refractory material.
In Figs. III, IV and V is shown my invention embodied in the fire-place form, which may be arranged in any part of the room where desired, like the heater of the preceding figures, but by which a greater amount of gas is consumed. Here the combustion chamber 12 is formed in the front of the heater, having the backing 25 of metal or, any suitable material and a curved or vaulted top plate 26 of fire-clay or other nonconducting material. A limited amount of air is admitted through long, narrow slits 27, in the front plate 28, and the enlarged gas burner 29, with a greater number of tips 10 10, is straight and not annular. Instead of a flue arranged centrally in the combustion chamber, the flue 30 is arranged behind it, receiving the air to be heated through enlarged openings 34 in the base, which strikes against the bottom and the back of the metallic back-piece, and follows around the top plate passing out through the openings 31 in front. In this form 32 is a suitable base and 33 a suitable top. In the construction shown in Fig. I the flue wall is formed of lower cone 3, tube or pipe 4 and plate 5; in Fig. II of cone 3 and inverted cone 24; in Fig. V of backing 25 and top plate 26. Lower cone 3 of Fig. II, and backing 25 of Fig. V, are preferably of metal but may be of earthen ware.
Where a white flame is used the clay top plate should be arranged immediately above it but out of contact therewith.
I do not limit myself to any particular form or construction of heater as the construction may be varied.
In the various forms of my heater, the refractory, nonconducting material acts as a regenerator, and absorbs and transforms the heat of convection into the more agreeable heat of radiation or radiant energy. The unconsumed gas drawn up against this superheated plate of fire-clay cannot escape, but is consumed so that there is a quicker and more perfect combustion, more gas is more quickly burned and more heat is generated in the shortest time. There is an action and reaction; the clay is heated gradually, absorbing the heat, until it is heated to the highest possible degree; it then reacts to promote and insure practically perfect combustion.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent,-is:
.1. In a gas heater the combination with a thin metal shell forming the outer wall of thehea'ter and at least one curved wall arranged within said shell to form in combination with the shell wall a combustion. chamber,'said curved wall extending from said outer Wall adjacent to its lower end laterally and upwardly and then outwardly to said outer wall near its upper end and said chamber being arranged to leave a space below it and a space above it within the outer shell, said upper and outwardly extending part of the curved wall being formed of a refractory, nonconducting material, and a gas burner arranged in the combustion chamber directly below the refractory material and V at such a distance therefrom that the gas flame will not come in contact therewith but that the heat and unconsumed gases will impinge on said material to superheat the same and consume the gases and transform the heat of con vection into radiant heat, said chamber being provided with side openings through the outer wall of the shell for the inlet of air and the outlet of products of combustion and said lower and upper spaces being provided with openings.
2. In a gas heater, the combination with a sheet-iron shell forming the main or outer wall of a heater, of at least one wall arranged within the shell and extending from the lower portion of the main wall laterally and upwardly and then outwardly again to meet the main wall near its upper end, said wall forming in combination with a portion of the main wall a combustion chamber arranged within the shell, said wall being arranged to leave a space below it and another space above it within the outer shell, and a gas burner arranged within the combustion chamber, said upper and outwardly extending portion of the wall being formed of a plate of refractory, nonconducting material, closing the top of the combustion chamber snugly, and said plate being arranged at such a distance above the burner as to be out of contact with the gas flame, but that the heat and unconsumed gases will impinge on said plate, superheating the same practically completely to consume the gases and transforming the heat of convection into the heat of radiation, said combustion chamber being provided with openings through the outer wall for the inlet of the air and the outlet of the products of combustion, and said shell being provided with openings into said lower space and also into said upper space to permit radiation of the heat from the non-conducting material.
3. A gas heater comprising a thin-metal shell forming the outer wall of the heater, at least one inner wall within the shell forming within the same a combustion chamber, said inner wall extending inwardly from the lower portion of the outer wall then out wardly and upwardly to the upper portion of the outer wall and leaving a space below it within the outer shell and a space above it within the outer shell, at least the upper portion of said inner wall being formed of non-conductive material, a gas burner arranged in the combustion chamber and means to supply inflammable gas to the burner, said burner being arranged at such a distance below said upper portion of nonconductive material that the gas flame will not come in contact therewith but the heat and unconsumed gases will impinge thereon to superheat the same, to consume the gases and transform the heat of convection into the heat of radiation, said outer wall being provided with openings into the combustion chamber and with openings into the spaces below and above said inner wall.
4. A gas heater comprising a metal shell forming the outer wall of the heater, and an inner wall extending from the lower portion of said outer wall on one side inwardly and upwardly and then outwardly to the upper portion of said outer wall, forming between said inner wall and said side portion of the outer wall a combustion chamber, said chamber being arranged to leave spaces above it and below it within the outer shell, said spaces being provided with openings through the outer shell, the upper part of said inner wall being formed of refractory non-conducting material, and a gas burner arranged in the combustion chamber immediately below said non-conducting portion of the wall, but far enough therefrom so that the flame will not come in contact therewith, nor float thereon nor be smothered thereby.
5. A gas-heater comprising an outer, thinmetal shell, at least one curved inner wall arranged within the shell, said inner wall eX- tending inwardly from the lower portion of the outer wall then outwardly and upwardly to the upper portion of the outer wall, and forming, in combination with a portion of the main wall, an inner combustion chamber with spaces outside of the combustion chamber and within the shell, the upper outwardly extending portion of said wall being of refractory, non-conducting material, said outer shell being provided with a single set of openings direct into the combustion chamber for the inlet of air to the gas flame and for the eXit of the products of combustion, a gas burner arranged in the combustion chamber and means to supply gas to the burner, said burner being arranged below the non-conducting portion of the wall so that the heat and unconsumed gases will impinge thereon to superheat the same and consume the gases, but far enough .therefrom so that the flame will not come in contact therewith to float thereon or be smothered thereby, and said outer shell being provided with openings into said spaces.
6. A gas-heater comprising an outer shell, composed of a single thickness of metal, at least one curved inner wall within the shell, said inner wall extending inwardly from the lower portion of the outer wall then outwardly and upwardly to the upper portion of the outer wall, and arranged to form a combustion chamber entirely within and of smaller size than the heating chamber and so leaving spaces outside of the combustion chamber and above and below it and within the outer shell, said spaces being in communication with the outer atmosphere, at least the upper portion of said inner wall being of refractory, non-conducting, earthenware material, a gas burner within the combustion chamber and means to supply gas to the burner, said burner being below the upper, earthenware portion of the wall so that the heat and unconsumed gases will impinge thereon to superheat the same and consume the gases, but far enough therefrom so that the flame will not come in contact therewith to float thereon, and be smothered thereby, a portion of the outer shell forming also a portion of the wall of the inner combustion chamber and openings through said portion of the outer shell into the combustion chamber for the inflow of air for combustion to the gas-burner and for the outlet of products of combustion.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto signed my name.
WARREN COLLINS. [1,. s.] Witnesses:
C. C. SoHonNnoK, M. B. SMITH.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. 0.