US 1153492 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
U. S. HOITINGA.
APPLICATION FILED DEC.26. m2.
M 1 L D. a H 2 D. W & u M H NQDLT t 2 m: w v 1.1? w 03 X t M A a z 3 A o P 4 a w 0 W A I 0 X e .7 x v s 2 o u 2 w s 00 o o 3 E m 1 4 4 Q J 4 I W. K a
un MY aaw emto z US, HolTm 6A j VwJ -MJ Una mm COLUMBIA PLANDGRAPH c0.. WASHINGTON. D. c.
U. S. HOITINGA.
APPLICATION FILED DEC.26, I912.
1,153,492. I Patented Sept. 14, 1915.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
.J. (Z a 30 NOVEMBER DECEMBER. I JZRY' FE BRIIA RY,
- U.S.HO\TINGA 55% flw m7 Como mm;
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ULBE SAEKLES HOITINGA, OFWITMARSUM, NETHERLANDS, ASSIGNOR TO GEBROEDERS W ERKI-IOVEN, A FIRM F PARTNERSHIP, 0F WI'IMAR-SUM, NETHERLANDS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Sept. 14, 1915.
Application filed December 26, 1912. Serial No. 738,642.
To (ZZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ULBE SAEKLES horr- 'INGA, a subject of the Queen of the Nether lands, residing at Witmarsum, Province of F riesland, Netherlands, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Calendar-Clocks, of which the following is a specification.
The present invention relates to a calendar clock which shows the following:the seasons of the year, the month, the day of the month, the time of day, the rising and setting of the sun for every degree of latitude in the northern and southern hemi-' The principal dial consists of a rotating inner disk and a fixed ring that encircles the rotating disk. Off the rotary disk" one can read the seasons of the year, the month, the
day of the month, the time of the suns rising and setting for every degree of latitude, the phases of the moon and the rise of the moon for every day, also the highest and the lowest position of the moon for each degree of north latitude. Off the stationary ring one can read the days of the week and the time of the day in hours.
A subsidiary dial, consisting of a fixed ring and a disk rotating in it, shows the time 'of day for every place ('6. g. for every town) on earth. Finally, on a third dial, whichturns to and fro, a hand shows the fractions of the hour, corrected.
Oneform of the calendar clock is shown by way of example in the appended drawings, whereon Figure 1 is a front view of the calendar clock; Fig. 2 is a view from above, showing diagrammatically the clock when it is opened; and Fig. 3 is a view of a detail.
' Themechanism of the clock is fitted between three parallel plates, 1, 2, and 3, and it is actuated by a clock spring which spring drives first an ordinary correct-going clock (in Fig. 2 it is shown partly covered over). The tooth wheel 5 engages with the tooth wheel 6. The number of teeth on these wheels 5 and 6 is so selected that the spindle 7 of wheel 6 makes one revolution in hours. The spindle 7 carries a tooth wheel 8 with fifteen teeth, which gears with the thirty-six-tootl1ed wheel 10 on the spindle 9. The spindle 9 carries the hand or pointer 11 at its extremity and it makes one revolution in 24 hours, in the same direction as the hands of a watch. Each half of the fixed ring 12 on the principal dial (Fig. 1) is divided into twelve equal parts, so the hand 11 will show the hours, somewhat in the same way as the small hand of an ordinary clock. On the same spindle 9 there is fixed another tooth wheel 13 with eight teeth, which gears into the thirty-toothed wheel 15 on the spindle 14. The spindle 16 is driven at the same speed as the spindle 14, because the wheel 17 (on spindle 14) and 18 (on spindle 16), which engage with one another, have the same number of teeth. 'The spindle 16 carries a second wheel 19 with fifteen teeth, and that wheel engages with the wheel 20, which has twenty-eight teeth. The sleeve or collar 21. and the hand 22 that are connected to the wheel 20 will therefore make a revolution in 7 days or one week, and they turn in the direction contray to the hands of a watch. The hand 22 thus indicates the days of the week, as shown on the fixed ring (Fig. 1). The spindle 16 carries also a third tooth wheel 23 with seven teeth, which engages with the wheel 24 that has fifty-one teeth. The wheel 24 and the sleeve or collar 25 and the hand 26 will therefore make one single revolution in 27 days 7 hours, 4-3 minutes, turning in the same direction as the hand 22, that is to say, counter-clockwise.
lVhile the rotary part, or respectively the center dial 27 (Fig. 1) on which the hand 26 gives itsindications (as will be described later) revolves once in one year of 365 days 5 hours and 13 minutes in the direction opposite to that of the hands of a'watch, the hand 26 itself makes a revolution with respect to the disk 27 in 29 days 12 hours minutes, that is to say, in one month, and it shows the phases of the moon on the center dial. The times of transition of the moon (the moons southing) are also shown by the hand 26, on the hour divisions of the dial 27 that coincide with the graduated circle showing the moons phases. If the clock be set to be read, say at 9 oclock, then the time of transition will of course be shown at 9 oclock by the hand 26.
The spindle 14 carries another tooth wheel 28 with seven teeth, which engages with the tooth wheel 30, with fifty-one teeth, that is fixed on the sleeve 29. The sleeve 29 is arranged to rotate on the spindle 31 and it carries another wheel 32 that engages with the wheel 33. The wheels 32 and 33 have the same number of teeth on them. They are not, however, round wheels. Each of them is of a perfectly well determined form, the reasons for which will be explained later on, but notwithstanding that, the two tooth wheels can work together. A sleeve or col,- lar 34 carrying the hand 35, is connected with the wheel 33. The hand 35 therefore makes a complete revolution in the same period of time as the hand 26, but with variable speed. The hand 35 serves to show the times at which the moon rises. Within the limits of a month, the moon rises at different times from day to day, either earlier or later and consequently the hand 35 must be able to rotate, with respect to the disk 27 sometimes at an accelerated rate and sometimes at a reduced rate, in such a way that at a fixed time every day, say about 9 a. m. it will show the time of rising of the moon on the day in question. The acceleration and retardation of the movement of the hand 35 are produced by the non-circular wheels 32 and 33. The necessary form of those wheels can be ascertained by calculation and by graphic methods. The hand 35, which is firmly attached to the wheel 33, now shows the times of the moons rising. The times of the moons rising must of course be read ofl at the same time every day, because the hand 35 is in continual movement and therefore it can show the rising of the moon only at a fixed moment of time. For example, if the hand is set for 9 a. m. then of course the reading must be taken at 9 a. m.
In order to read off the calendar clock the times of the suns rising and setting in the northern and southern hemispheres, the following arrangement is adopted :-On the center dial 27 which rotates once in a year, lines 46 are drawn in such manner that the center dial with the sunrise lines 46 marked thereon rotates once a year and every day the time the sun rises at any degree of latitude can be read off for that day by means of the graduated rods 45 and 47. For example, if at any day, in a specified north latitude a line 46 is marked 8, under the division 50 on the rod 45 that indicates the latitude of the place in question, then on that day the sun rises at 8 oclock. In a similar way the times of sunset are read off the'rod 47 which oints downward from the center. 44. For that reading the same lines 46 are used. It will easily be seen that sunset in the southern hemisphere can be found by means of the rod 45 and sunset for the northern hemisphere by means of the rod 47. The lines 46 are drawn in such a way that the readings on the rod 45 and the underlying lines 46 are correct. If the rod 47 were always to point vertically, the times read off by means of that rod would not be correct. During a revolution of the dial 27 that rod or pointer must be deviated to the left and must return again to'its original position. The deviation of the rod must commence on 30th December. It reaches its highest value on 21st June. The rod then returns and on 25th July or thereabout it again assumes a vertical position. The movement of the rod 47 is effected by attaching its bent end at the point 48, in such a way as to allow it to turn, to the end of the fixed rod or pointer 45, and it is deviated by means of a suitably shaped disk 49 which is fitted to the central dial 27. The requisite form of that disk can be found empirically. The rod leans against the disk 49 by its own weight. In case the hand 35 (to indicate the rise of the moon) should occupy the same position as the fixed bar 45, that is to say, if it points vertically downward, then the indication of that pointer, read off the center dial 27 shows the time at which the moon has reached its highest position. The lowest position of the moon is reached when the hand 35 coincides with the rod 47.
In order that the center dial 27 may make a revolution in one year, as already mentioned, the wheel 20, which rotates once in a week and has twenty-eight teeth, is caused to engage with a wheel 50, which likewise has twenty-eight teeth. That wheel 50 is firmly fixed on the spindle 51, which carries a second fixed wheel 52 with twenty-three teeth. The wheel 52 now gears with the wheel 54, with thirty teeth, that is loose on the spindle 53. Wheel 55, which is firmly connected with wheel 54, in its turn engages with the forty-toothed wheel 56 that is loose on the spindle 51. The rotary speed of the wheel 56 is then transmitted to the spindle 31 by means of the wheel 57, which is firmly connected with the wheel 56, and the wheel 58, with an identical number of teeth, that is firmly connected with the spindle 31. The spindle 31 carries a second wheel 59, with nine teeth, and that whee] engages with the fifty-four toothed wheel 61 that is connected with the sleeve or collar 60. The result is that the center dial 27, which is connected with the sleeve 60, turns through 360 in one year.
In order that it may not be necessary to alter the rolls or pointers for a leap year. the 29th of February is not marked on the dial 27. On that day no readings can therefore be got from the calendar clock.
' must be taken from the clock will alter, for
the following reasons: The hands 11 and 70, which SllOW the time, always indicate correctly, because the hand 11 makes a revolution exactly in 24 hours. Now, in four years the dial 27 goes too fast by one day (29th February) and so the time for taking the readings oh the clock must gradually alter, in such a way that in a year after the clock has been set (for 9 oclock morning) the clock will have shifted from 9 a. m. to about 3 oclock morning, that is to say, it will be about 6 hours slow. In two years it will be at 9 p. m.; in three years it will be at 3 p. m. and in the fourth year the time I for the reading will again be 9 a. m. The
times for the readings are therefore different every day. They can easily be set down in a table for every day.
In order to show the times for the various points, towns, etc., in the northern hemisphere, a subsidiary dial in the form of a disk 62 is fitted on the front of the calendar through 360 in 24 hours.
clock. It makes a revolution in 24: hours. The movement of that dial, on which there is'represen'ted a hemisphere 63, is best derived from the spindle 9, which also turns The transmission can be arranged by inserting the wheel 13 with eight teeth, the wheel 15 with thirty teeth, the wheel 65, fixed on spindle 64, with eight teeth, and the wheels 66 and 67, each with the same number of teeth, fixed on the spindles 64- and 68. The spindle 68, which carries the disk 62 with the hemisphere 68, makes a revolution in 24 hours. Now, as can be seen from Fig. 1, the fixed ring 69 is divided into twenty-four parts,
representing hours, so the meridians of any point or of any town on the hemisphere will show the time at the respective town. The indication is read off the disk 69.
The equation of time is effected automatically by the calendar clock, in the following I The minute hand 70 (Fig. 2) is caused to rotate through 180 in one hour, by the clockwork 4. It makes its rotation over a second subsidiary dial 71, the circumference of which is divided into 60 parts, representing minutes. To permit of the equation of time being effected, the dial 71 must make a certain definite to and fro turning movement, in such a way that the hand will have communicated to it a movement that is accelerated and retarded respectively with relation to the dial.
The values of the time equation recur after a year, and consequently the movement of the dial 71 must be completed in a year. That movement is therefore taken from some part of the calendar clock that revolves in a year. The sleeve or collar 60 will serve the purpose very well. On that collar 60 a suitably shaped disk 72 is fixed. The form of that disk will be indicated later on. The pin 73 of the double lever 7576, which turns about the pivot 7 lies against the disk 72. T he lever arm 76 is made as a toothed sector and it engages with the toothed sector 78 (Fig. 8) that is fitted on the spindle 77. The disk 71 is driven by transmission through the wheels 79, 80, 81 and 82.
To determine the form of the non-round disk, the equations of time for every day are transferred, on any scale desired, from the center 83 of a circle to radii which mark the divisions of the day (Fig. 3). The transmission of movement of the disk 72 to the dial 71 must be arranged in such a way that the dial will be put forward or put back exactly to the extent corresponding to the equation of time.
In Fig. l the calendar clock is shown with the hands or pointers and rods in position as at 9 a. in. on 1st July 1911. The indications of the pointers are as follows :Hand 11 shows the hour of the day, read off the outside edge of the fixed ring 122'. 6. 9 oclock. Hand 70 points to Zero on the moving disk 71, and that corresponds to an equation of time of about 3 minutes seconds (plus), which is indicated by the angular difference between the hand 70 and an imaginary vertical line passing through the center 83. Hand 22 points to Saturday on the second circle of the fixed ring 12. Hand 26 on the center dial 27 points between the phases new moon and first quarter. Hand 35 on dial 27 points to 9.45 a. m. (read off at 9 oclock) on the circle showing divisions of the daythe same circle as shows the phases of the moon. That hour is the time of the moons rise. Rod 15, on the outmost devision of the dial, points to 1st of July. In addition to that, if we take by way of example the latitude of Amsterdam, which is about 52 N. latitude, we find that the division for 52 degrees coincides with hour-line as, indicating 3.43 oclock. On 1st July therefore the sun rises at that time. Rod 17 points, for the same latitude, 52 N. to the hour-lines 16 of the center dial 27, indicating 8.2 1 as the time of sunset on 1st July.
Having now fully described my invention what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. A calendar clock comprising, in combination, a fixed dial; a rotatable dial concentric with the fixed dial and having curved lines thereon for indicating the time of the rising and setting of'the sun; means for rotating the rotatable dial in anticlockwise direction at the rate of once a year; and a graduated rod disposed over said lines.
2. A calendar clock comprising, in combination, a fixed dial; a rotatable dial concentric with the fixed dial and having curved lines thereon for indicating the time of the rising and setting of the sun; means for rotating the rotatable dial in anticlockwise direction at the rate of once a year; a graduated rod disposed over said lines; and means for deviating said rod slightly from side to side.
3. A calendar clock comprising, in combination, a fixed dial; a rotatable dial concentric with the fixed dial and having there on divisions and subdivisions; means for rotating the rotatable dial in anticlockwise direction at the rate of once a year; a hand revolving over said rotatable dial in anticlockwise direction and making a revolution a month at a variable speed; and means comprising inter-meshing non-circular wheels for revolving said hand.
4. A calendar clock comprising, in combination, a fixed dial; a rotatable dial concentric with the fixed dial and having curved lines thereon for indicating the time of the rising and setting of the sun; means for rotating the rotatable dial in anticlockwise direction at the rate of once a year; a graduated rod disposed over said lines; and means for deviating said rod slightly from side to side, said rod extending radially from ap proximately opposite sides of the center of rotation of the disk.
5. A clock comprising, in combination, a main clock and adapted to indicate mean solar time; a subsidiary dial movable on its own axis; a hand movable over said subsidiary dial. for indicating time thereon; and means for shifting said subsidiary dial back or forth according as to whether solar time is fast or slow.
6. A clock comprising, in combination, a main clock and adapted to indicate mean solar time; a subsidiary dial movable on its own axis; a hand movable over said subsidiary dial for indicating time thereon; and means operatively connected with the main clock for shifting said subsidiary dial back or forth according as to whether solar time is fast or slow.
7. A clock comprising, in combination, a main clock and adapted to indicate mean solar time; a subsidiary dial movable on its own axis; hands movable over said subsidiary dial for indicating time thereon; and means comprising a rotatable cam and operatively connected to the main clock for shifting said subsidiary dial back or forth according as to whether solar time is fast or slow.
8. A calendar clock comprising, in combination, a dial having a central disk rotatable relative to the dial, having divisions representing the months, sub-divisions representing the number of days in each month, divisions and diagrams showing the phases of the moon, a rotatable hand, means for rotating the hand, means for increasing and decreasing the speed of rotation of the hand, and clock work mechanism for rotating the central rotatable disk.
9. A calendar clock such as described, having a dial having a central disk rotatable relative to the dial, having divisions representing the months, sub-divisions representing the number of days in each month, divisions and diagrams showing the phases of the moon, clock work mechanism for rotate ing the central rotatable disk, a rotatable hand, irregular shaped wheels actuating the rotatable hand from the clock work mechanism, and a fixed ring surrounding the cen tral rotatable disk.
10. A calendar clock such as described, having a dial with a. central rotatable disk having thereon, divisions representing the months, sub-divisions representing the number of days in each month, divisions and diagrams showing the phases of the moon, and lines of latitude, said dial comprising a fixed ring surrounding the disk, a fixed graduated rod and a movable graduated rod fitted in connection with the disk and the ring, indicator means working in conjunction with said disk and ring and clock work mechanism for rotating the central rotatable disk and indicator means.
11. A calendar clock such as described, having a dial with a central rotatable disk having thereon divisions representing the months. sub-divisions representing thenumber of days in each month, divisions and diagrams showing the phases of the moon, and lines of latitude, said dial comprising a fixed ring surrounding the disk, a fixed graduated rod and a movable graduated rod fitted in connection with the disk and the ring, means on the central rotatable disk for actuating the movable graduated rod, indicator means working in conjunction with said disk and ring and clock work mechanism for rotating the central rotatable disk and indicator means.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ULBE SAEKLES HOITINGA.
THOMAS H. VERHAVE, D. KLEYN.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. G.