US 1162149 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. A. ECKHARDT.
PROCESS OF MAKING WEAR WITHSTANDING COAT.
APPLICATION FILED on. 22. 1914,
1 ,162,149, Patented Nov. 30, 1915.
. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ENGELHABDT A. ECKHAR'DT, OI PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.
PROCESS MAKING WEAB-WI'IHS'IAND IIING COAT.
To all whom it may concern.
Beit known that I, Enoannaao'r A. Eonnaan'r, a citizen of the United Statesfresidin in the city of Philadelphia, county of P iladelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have'invented a new and useful Process of Making Wear-withstanding Coat, of which the following is a specification.
My invention resides in a process of coating articles of iron, steel, or other metal, or combination of metals or alloy, with metal, combination of metals, or alloy combined or alloyed with the metal of the ar ticle, for the purpose of making the point, ed e, surface or the whole mass of such artic es hard, hard and abrasive, wear withs standing, or of other desirable property.
More particularly my invention relates to producing such a coating of tungsten, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, carbon, etc., or
an alloy or mixture of them, or an alloy of any of them with another metal or metals.
More p rticularly my invention resides in such -a ocess for treating the stylus or needle used in making phonog'raphic records or in reproducing sounds from sound rec-' ords.
For an illustration of a few of the many Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a method of producing a stylus or needle having a hard point. Fig. 2 is an illustration of a mode of carrying out my process in an atmosphere of neutral gas. Fig. 3 is an illustration of the application of my invention to pens. Fig. 4 is an illustration of the application of my invention to drills. Fig. 5 is an illustration of the application of my invention to chisels.
Referring to Fig. 1, 1 represents the ar ticle which is to receive the hardening or other alloying or coating material. The article 1 may be a phonograph stylus or needle of iron, steel, or any other suitable material.
For convenience it may be dumped by screw 2 in the socketed member 3 connected by conductor 4 to one terminal, preferably the negative terminal, of a source of preferably direct current 5, which may be a storage battery or dynamo-electric generator, whose other or positive terminal is connected by conductor 6, through the resistance 7 which Specification of Letter: rate'nt.
may be conveniently employed, to the sockdenum, cobalt, chromium etc., or analloyof any of these, or an alloy of any one of them with any other or others of them.
The operator touches'the point of the electric circuit, and upon withdrawing the point of the stylus slightly from the metal 10, an arcwill be formed between the metal 10 and the point of the needle or stylus 1. During the existence of this are metal of the mass 10 at. the point from which the arc springs will be vaporized and pass into the arc and be deposited from the are upon the point of the needle 1 where the tungsten or other metal unites with the steel or other metal of the needle 1, in intimate relation, forming a point on the needle,.or simply a coating upon the point which may be styled an alloy of the tungsten or the other deposited metal with the metal of the needle or stylus. During this manipulation, the needle 1 may be turned in suitable directions to cause the arc to strike all points of the surface at or approximate to the needle point.
Little, if any experience is required to direct the are on to any part of the surface of the member 1 so that the operator may at will cause the alloy or coat to form on any desired areas or points.
In case such metals are used as will readily oxidize in the practice of the rocess above described, the operation may carried out in an atmosphere of neutral gas, as of hydrogen, nitrogen, etc., which maybe delivered through the tube 11, Fig. 2, to the interior of the glass bell jar 12 which becomes filled with such neutral gas, and within the jar 12 the coating operation may be carried out.
The result of the above described treatment is a stylus or needle, or any other article, which will have a coating w ich gives to the article desirable qualities and characteristics. In the case of an iron or steel phonograph stylus there will be formed a tungsten or other alloy ofiron or steel at the point of the stylus, giving it great wear withstandin properties, such an alloy being very hard indeed. And with styli or phonograph nee- Patented Nov. 30, 1915.
Application filed October 82, 1914. Serial Io. 887,855.
. .eted member 8 in which there is held by the stylus 1 to the metal 10, thus closing the dles which I have so treated the hardness is such that it resists the action of any good file, though it will be understood that my m.-
vention is .not limited to such degree of grinding or otherwise forming it to desired shape. I
In Fig. 3 the negative conductor .4 isshownconnected to a pen 13 between which and the mass 10-of tungsten or any other suitable metal or alloy the arc is struck, the positive conductor 6 bei connected to the 'mass 10. And by operatlng inthe manner above described inconnection with the phonograph'needle or stylus, the pen point or-any desired area may be similarly coated and treated to produce a hardpoint having great wearing qualities. In Fig. 4 a twist drill 14, for drilling steel, ironor other metals is shown connected to the negative conductor 4, and it may be coat ed or alloyed with tungsten or any other suitable metal at or near its cutting edge by striking an are between it and the mass 10 as above described. A
In Fig. 5 a chisel 15 is shown as an article whose cutting edge is to be similarly treated. It will be understood, however, that my invention is not limited to the treatment of the articles herein specified, for it is obvious that other articles may be similarly treated. And it will be understood in the case of the phonograph stylus as well as of the other articles referred to, when'of steel, that they may be tempered'before the coating or alloying process; or they may be tempered after such coating or alloying process.
While tungsten steel is well known, and is known to have great hardness, it is a material whiclr is very diificult to operate upon or work and it would be a relatively expensive stylus, chisel, pen, drill, or other article which would be made in its entirety of tungsten steel. By my process, however, the article may 4 be made of ordinary steel commonly used for such articles and then locally treated with the tungsten or other'material or alloy to give the article its desired hardness, wearing qualities, or other qualities.
It will'be understood that the arc may be struck between the article to becoated and,
for example, a carbon electrode, and the tungsten or other material introduced into the arc, as by placing the end of a rod or A mass of tungsten or other'metal in the arc.
The hereinbefore described process is available also for the treatment of the teethor the whole of pinions or gear wheels,
when suchlpinions or gear wheels are rewithstanding capacity, And similarly, the
bearing spindles or shafts of watch or clock pinions or gears, or the bearing spindles or shafts of rotatable elements of electric and other meters, or any pivot moving in a jeweled or otherwise hardened bearing, may
likewise be hardened by my process. My 'rocess may also be applied to the hardenmg of the tube and stylus of stylographic pens so as to render them wear withstanding and non-corroding. My process is also available for coating, as with platinum, the
endof a composite'metal pin" or plug, such as used in supporting or securing artificial teeth,- comprising generally a nickel or alloy core coated on the cylindrical surface with platinum. In cutting such a wire or plug 'into suitable lengths the core is exposed, and
by'my process I may deposit platinum or other suitable material upon such exposed core end by making it the'negative terminal of an arc whose positive electrode is a mass of platinum or other suitable material, or
whose positive electrode may be of carbon and'a platinum or other mass thrust into the arc to be there vaporized and carried to the core end.
What I. claim is:
'1. The method of producing a hard wear withstanding coating on a conductor, which consists in striking an electric are between said conductor and another conductor, and transmitting through said arc to said first named conductor refractory metal combining or alloying with said first named conductor.
2. The method of producing a hard wear withstanding coating on ,a'conductor, which consists in striking an arc between said conductor and a refractory metal whose vapor is transmitted through said are to said first named conductor and combined or alloyed with said first named conductor.
3. The method of producing a hard Wear withstanding coating on a metal article, which consists in striking an are between said article and a refractory metal electrode whose vapor is transmitted through said are which consists in strikingan are between t the iron or steel and an electrode, and transmitting through the arc tungsten vapor to the hiron or. steel to combine or alloy therewit 5. The method of hardening a phonograph stylus, which consists in striking an are between the stylus and an'electrode, and passing through the arc to said stylus vapor of a material combining or alloying with the stylus to form therewith a hard wear-withstanding material.
6. The method of producing a hard steel article, which consists in striking an are between the steel and an electrode, and delivering to said steel through said are vapor of refractory metal combining with the steel to form a hard alloy, and thereafter tempering the steel.
7 The method of hardening a phonograph stylus, which consists in striking an are between the stylus and an electrode, and passing through the arc to said stylus vapor of refractory metal combining or alloying with the stylus material to form a wear withstanding material.
8. The method of hardening an iron or steel phonograph stylus, which consists in striking an are between the stylus point and an electrode of tungsten or tungsten alloy.
9. The method of hardening an iron or steel phonograph stylus, which consists in locally electrically heating the stylus to high temperature: and alloying with the locally hialated stylus material tungsten or. tungsten a 0y.
10. The method of hardening the point of an iron or steel phonograph stylus, which consists in transmitting through an arc to the stylus point a refractory metal alloying with the stylus material to form a hard wear withstanding point.
11. The method of hardeninga phonograph stylus, which consists in striking an hard wear-withstanding material.
12. The method of hardening the point of a phonograph stylus, which consists in heating the point by an electric arc, and alloying with the heated material of the point tungsten or tungsten alloy.
13. The method of hardening an iron or steel phonograph stylus, which conslsts in striking an are between the stylus point and a positive electrode of tungsten or tungsten alloy.
14. The method of hardening the point of an iron or steel phonograph stylus, which consists in transmitting through an arc to the stylus point refractory metal alloying with the stylus material to form 'a hard wear-withstanding point.
15. The method of hardening a phonograph stylus of iron, which consists in striking an are between a carbon electrode and said iron, and transmitting to the iron through the arc Vapor of a refractory metal alloying with the stylus to form a hard wear-withstanding material.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto affixed my signature in the presence of the two subscribing witnesses.
ENGELHARDT A. ECKHARDT.
NELLIE FIELD, A. S. MARSH.