|Publication number||US11654 A|
|Publication date||Sep 5, 1854|
|Publication number||US 11654 A, US 11654A, US-A-11654, US11654 A, US11654A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
a 0. WARNER, Jr.
- Patented Sept. 5, 1854.
UNITED STATES PATENT @FFICE.
DANIEL \VARNER, JR, OF SOUTH HADLEY, MASSACHUSETTS.
IMPROVEMENT IN MACHINERY FOR DRESSING FLAX.
Specification forming part of Letters PatentNo. I 1,654. dated September 5, 1854.
To all whom, it may concern:
Be it known that I, DANIEL WARNER, J r., of South Hadley, county of Hampshire, and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Dressing Flax; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the same, reference being made to the annexed drawings, making a part of this specification, in which Figure I is a view in isometrical perspective of my invention, a part of the top being removed. Fig. If. is a section in detail; and similar letters refer to similar parts throughout.
My invention is for certain improvements in flax-dressing machinery; and the object sought to be accomplished by my said improvements is the production of the greatest amount of clean unbroken fiber on one ma chine and at one operation; hence the processes known as breaking scutching, and hackling, which processes are generally separate and distinct performances, are by my improvements all accomplished at once.
' My machine consists of asubstantial frame, upon which is arranged a series of revolving tools, and which act upon the straw submitted to them in such way as in the first place to break out the wood or boon to a greater or less degree, and next to clean and fully subdivide the fiber, and, further, separate the tow, leaving the pure flax completely dressed. The handling is performed so gently and yet so thoroughly that the quantity of tow obtained is very small, while the yield of pure flax fiber is proportionately increased.
At A is represented the frame of the machine,between the parallel sides of which, and near the top, are arranged the tools for dressing the flax. These consist of two sets or rows of drum-heads, to which the heaters, hacklers, and soutching-knives are secured. These revolve upon shafts, one set of shafts being so placed over the other as to form a diagonal arrangement of the tool. The first tool which acts upon the flax is the beater or breaking cylinder. In this (seen in Figs. I and II) a a are the drum-heads upon its shaft, and these are connected together by a set of cross-bars, a, arranged equidistant around the edges of the drums, as shown. The center line of the shaft is on a level, or nearly so, with the edge I of the feedboard or place of sending in the flax, so that the circumferences of the drums will be near to said edge, (shown at 0,) by which means the breakin g-bars will first strike the flax horizontally. Following this are the hackling and scutching tools, and as these are all alike a description of the construction of one will serve also for the others. Upon the shaft there are two drum-heads, as in the case of the breaker. These are connected together by two kinds of bars, said bars also being set at different angles to the circumferences, and the two kinds arranged alternately around the drum. One kind performs the hackling and the other the scutching. The hackling-bar is a narrow plate, the outer edge of which is serrated, as shown at b, Fig. I. These hackling-plates, instead of being set in the drums upon a radial line, are set at an angle to such line, as seen in Figs. I and II, and this angle, as will be perceived, is the reverse of that usually given to the teeth of carding-machines. This is in order that the teeth may clear themselves from the flax fiber by being, as it were, withdrawn from that after acting upon it, which would not be the case were the teeth on a radius of the drum-head. The angle on leaving the flax would cause some to follow, and thus the cylinder would soon become filled or choked up and the operation come to an end. The other bar is for scutching or dressing. This beats out and strips ofi the remaining particles of straw, spreads and separates the fiber, and prepares it to receive the more complete action of the hackling-bars.
These bars are seen at (1 arranged alternately with those having teeth, but are set in the drum-heads on the line of a radius. Two rows of such cylinders are arranged horizontally upon the frame. The shafts of the upper are on a line with the first cylinder or beater, a, and at such distance apart as to bring the circumferences of the drums quite near to each other. The shafts of the lower row are placed in a like horizontal direction, but diagonally from the upper ones, as shown in Fig. II. The shafts on which the drums revolve pass through one side of the frame sufficiently to receive the drivingpulley. These, however, are not all of one size, but diminish by regular gradation from the first at the front of the frame, which is the largest, to the last at the back end. By this means ing the interior construction.
each drum has an increased speed over the preceding one, and this serves an important purpose, which'will be-stated in describing its action on the flax. From each pull'ey there is a driving-belt connected with the main power, as representedin Fig. I. The cover B is shown as cut off for the purpose of expos- It is intended to cover the whole tightly, except at the feeding-mouth, whereby all dust and flying particles of the flax, &c., so injurious to those employed in working by the old modes, are prevented from escaping into the apartment, and the health of the operators is thus unimpaired.
The operation is as follows: The drums are put in motion and the proper velocity, which should be quite rapid, maintained. The attendant, now grasping a handful of flax-straw, feeds it in rapidly endwise upon the board 0, keeping a firm hold of the opposite end of the bundle. The woody part is instantly broken out by the bars a of the beater striking upon it against the edge of the feed-board, as seen in Fig. II. The fiber and such particles of the boon as still adhere are carried under and pass between the scutching and hackling drums. As the speed of each of these drums increases, the flax is drawn between them,and is brought to bear against the'bars with a certain force, caused by the tendency to be straightened due to the driving of the more rapidly-revolving drums, while the flax follows the sinuous course formed by the circumferences of the one set of tools lying between those of the other, as seen in Fig. II. By this means a very effective, although gentle, mechanical action is obtained, and the clean fiber thereby very rapidly set free. The attendant now draws out the bundle, and, seizing the dressed end, reverses and sends in that which was be fore held in the hand, and'consequently as yet I maining particles of the boon are effectually cleaned out, as described.
The method of setting the hackling-bars so that the teeth shall pass through the flax inclining forward is an important feature to prevent them from taking off the fiber and carrying it around, for were these teeth vertical the whole would soon become foul and the operation cease.
WVhat I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is'
The construction and arrangement of the hackling and scutching drun1sthat is to say, drums having a series of hackling-bars, or bars armed with teeth, set at an angle with the radiusin combination with the bluntedged or scutching bars, and the drums so made arranged in two rows one above the other, with the centers of their shafts diagonally placed, so as to cause the flax in passing between to be acted upon by both sets of drums, as herein described, the whole being constructed and operating substantially as set forth herein.
DANL. WARNER, JR.
S. H. 1VIAYNARD, 'JAs. L. ROBERTS.
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