US 1168583 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. 1., VOLZ. HOLLOW TILE AND TILE STRUCTURE.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 8,1914.
Patented Jan. 18, 1916.
unrann sear-Es PATENT oniuou.
WILLIAM J. VOLZ, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.
HGLLOW TILE AND TILE STRUCTURE.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 18. 1916.
Application filed May 8, 1914. Serial No. 837,289.
This invention relates to tubular-shaped structures, such, for example, as sewers-tunnels and chimneys which are built of hollow tile. The hollow tile that are now generally used for building structures of the type referred to are oblong and rectangularshaped in outline, and are arranged in parallel courses that extend at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the structure. In
other words, each course of the structure is a separate and distinct section composed of a certain number of tile, and all of these separate sections lie parallel to each other. In tunnels, sewers and other horizontally disposed structures the separate sections lie in vertical planes, and in chimneys and other vertically disposed structures the separate sections lie in horizontal planes, one above the other. Owing to the fact that each course or section of the structure has a certain diameter, it. is generally necessary to chip or cut the last tile that is inserted in each course, so as to fit properly between the tiles. on each side of same, because the tiles often vary slightly in size after they have been fired or burned, even when they are made in the same mold, some of the tile often being over-sized and others undersized. In tapered structures, such, for ex, ample, as chimneys, the last tiles that are inserted in the courses have to be cut and chipped more than in a straight tubular structure, because the courses diminish gradually in diameter from the base to the top of the structure.
The main object of my invention is to provide a hollow tile structure of tubular form,
V which is built in a novel manner from tiles which are so designed that it is not necessary to chip or cut the tile in order to make them fit together properly during the operation of building the structure.
Another object is to provide a hollow building tile that is of substantially rhomboidal shape in outline, thereby enabling the tile to helaid up in the form of a continuous;
ject is to provide a hollow tile which comprises internal strengthening webs which are so vdisposed that they form a truss or trusses that preferably extend longitudinally of the tile. Other objects and desirable features of my invention will be hereinafter pointed out.
Figure 1 is an end view of a cylindrical shaped sewer or tunnel formed from tile constructed in accordance with my invention. Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of same partly broken away. Fig. 3 is a perspective view of one of the tile; and Fig. 4 is an edge view of the tile illustrating a slight modification of the invention.
Briefly stated, my invention consists in a tubular-shaped structure formed from hollow tile which are so shaped or designed that when they are laid up they form a continuous course that winds helically around the structure from one end of same to the other end, each tile being substantially rhomboidal shaped in outline; or, in other words, provided with parallel side edges and ends that are inclined with relation to the Referring to the drawings, which illustrate the preferred form of my invention, A designates a hollow tile which is provided with parallel side edges 1 and inclined ends 2 that are parallel to each other and disposed at a greater or less angle than a right angle with relation to the side edges 1, thus forming a rhomboidal-shaped tile which 1s preferably oblong-shaped, although, 1f desired, the length and width of the tile can be equal. The tile herein shown is adapted to .be used for building a cylindricahshaped structure, and therefore is curved or approximately segmental-shaped "in cross section, but I wish it to be understood that my invention is not limited to a, tile of seg mental shape in cross section, for thetiles &
can be flat instead ofi'our'ved iircross section,
a cylindrical-shaped tubular structure from "t1les of the'cha-racter illustrated in ,Figs; 14
to 3, the tiles'are rranged, side 'by'side in the usual manner, ut in a; helical line, instead of a line at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the structure. "lAl; the point where the structure is started-special tile A of the form shown in Fig. 2 are used,'the
' first tile that is laid being substantially' wedge-shaped in outlineythe next tile also 'j wedge-shaped but a trifle longer at one side," A
until one helix has been formed.
15 and so on,
Thereafter tiles A of the'forrn" shownin Fig. 3 are used for the balance of the struc ture, until the opposite end 'of-the structure is reached, the structurebeing completed in outline similar to the tile-A',sho wn 1n Figl2. a
In view of the fact that the tiles-are-laid up in the form of a continuous course that extends helically from one endof'the structuretothe other end, it is not necessary to chip or out certain tiles in order to make the tiles fit together properly, and consequen ly, the structure can be built quickly and'w th no-breaka'ge of materialdue .to imperfect chipping or cutting-of the tile, Further} "more, such a structure is stronger than a structure-in which the tile are arranged in separate and distinct courses that are disaxisof the structure, o'w'in to the'factfthat one helix of the structure braces the adjacent helix between which it is arranged, and
angles to the longitudinal-axis of the structure. or, stated 1n another Way, a pressure or stram exerted on one section of the structure at vapproximately right angles-to the longitudinal-axis of the structure will be takenup andresisted by the adjacent sections, because the dividing lines betweenthe helical-shaped sections of the structure are disposed at an angle to the direction in which ,the thrust or strain is applied.
Each tile is provided on its side edges with devices that coiiperate with devices on the side edges of adjacent tile, so as to securelv.-lock the side edge portions-of'the tile together, and in the formof my invention hereinshown. said devices consist of a rib 3 on one sideedge of the tile and a groove 4 on the other side of the tile, said rib and groove being cross section. ing devices on improved tile preferably dove-tail shape in the side edges of the tile,
and a slot or recess 6 in the v strengthening Webs of the tile rthich 'e with special tile-of substantially wedge-shape h gularly disposed webs 8 posed at right angles to the longitudinal said deep truss and intermediate Web '2' thus resists lateral strainsorthru'sts at right In addition to the interlock- 'jis provided at its ends with devices for interlocking the end portions of" abutting tiles, said interlocking devices pref: 'erably consisting of a flange or rib 5 EOILOneai end of the tile mes es opposite and of the tile: that is adapted to ceive the rib 5 of an abutting tile aware of the fact that it is old. to provide one end of a. hollow tilewith a flange fits in a cut out portion or laps over a fla on the end portion of an abutting tile, 1 such a construction does not interlock end portions of the tiles together a so eilicient. as thegrneans herein ilin. forjconnecting the end portions of abuttin tile which consist ofa rib on the endoi" r a a tile thatissnugly embraced by therrails I a slot or recess in the end of anadjacent nother feature of myimprotad; which, I believe is novel, is th inte nal so a disposed that they form one or more trusses which preferably extend longitudinally of the tile. Int-he embodiment of my invention erein illustrated a horizontally disposed web 7 extends longitudinally of the-tile interinediate the top and bottom walls at the tile, as shown in Fig. 2, and a number of a are arrangetihe tween said intermediate web 7 and the top" ea: Wall of the tile and betweensaid intermedi are web and bottom wall. r the tile m as form trusses that extendllongitudinally the tile, as shown in Fig.3, said angulariy disposed webstl being preferablvso ar -e5 ranged that they form a deep inverted e shaped truss' of approximately the same height as the depth of the tile, anda shallow inverted V-shaped tru'ss arranged inside of positioned between the and the bottom face of. the tile. a While I prefer to reinforce and strengthen the tile in the manner above described. I do not wish it to be understood that iny invention is limited to such a construction, farm broad idea consists in a hollow tile which substantially of. a rhomboidal' shape in outline so that the tile can'be laid up'to form'a continuous course thatextends helicallyq or in the form of a cylindrical spiral from one end! of the structure to the other end. if desired; the edge portions of the tile whichengage or: bear upon the edge portionsofadjacent til. can be corrugated so asto'bbtain a stron 5 bond with the cement and mortar used to up the tile, 'andin Fig. l I have shown ante constructed in this'manner, wherein corrn-- gations are formed on the outer surface the rib 5," on the walls of the pockets 3 and on the side edges of the tile.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. A new article of manufacture consist, ing of a hollow tile of substantially rho'mboidalshape in outline and segmental shape in crosssection, a doye-tail'ed rio that extends longitudinally along one edge of the tile,-aldove-t-ail shaped recess formed in the other longitudinal edge of the a dense 1,1oa,saa
ing one 0 its ends terminating flush with the -top face of said rib, a slot formed in the other end of the tile and intersecting the opposite end of said rib, and webs arranged inside of the tile intermediate the top and bottom walls of same to reinforce and strengthen the tile.
2. A new article of manufacture consisting of a hollow tile of substantially rhomboidal shape in outline and approximately segmental shape in cross section, a dove-- tailed rib that extends longitudinally along one edge of the tile, 2. dove-tail shaped recess formed in the other longitudinal edge of the tile, a flange projecting from one end of the tile and having one of its ends terminating flush with the top face of said rib, a slot formed in the other end of the tile and intersecting the opposite end of said rib, and 20 angularly-disposed webs arranged inside of the tile between the top and bottom walls ofsame so as to form two inverted V-shaped trusses that extend longitudinally of the tile, 1 one within the other.
In testimony whereof I hereunto afiix my signature in the presence of two witnesses, this sixth day of May, 1914.
WILLIAM J. VOLZ.
WELLS L. CHURCH, GEORGE BAKEWELL.