US 1168713 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. D. CUMMINS.
APPLICATION FILED OCT. 3, 1914.
Patented Jan. 18, 1916.
TANORED DISRAELI CUMMINS, 0'5 SHIRLEY, ENGLAND.
Specification of Letters Patent.
, Patented Jan. file, 191%.
Application filed October 3, 1914. Serial No. 864,909.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, TANonno DISRAELI CUMMrNs, a subject of the King of Great Britain and Ireland, residing at The Homestead, Shirley, in the county of Surrey, England, have invented a new and'useful Improvement in Connection with Turf- Brushes, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to improvements in turf aerators, and has more particular reference to that type in which the operation of the brush upon the turf treated precedes in its action, the action of the roller, which' latter forms an integral part of the machine. The operation of a turf aerating machine is to break up and scatter worm casts and the like, which when moist adhere. in their broken state to the surface of the succeeding roller from which they are removed by a scraper. In known types of such machines the brushes, which are usually individually mounted are so hung as to engage the ground by their own weight, and by reason of their mounting are allowed to tilt to a limited eX- tent in all directions. Such brush mounting device has a drawback inasmuch that. the aerator when drawn by a man of small stature, or over grass that ofiers some resistance, causes the brushes to engage the turf too severely and once having assumed a backward tilt have a tendency to keep, there and exert a too severe action upon the turf.
Owing however to the application of these aerating machines ,to golf greens and the like places where undulatory surfaces occur, it is necessary to mount these brushes in a manner that enables their action to follow the surface of the ground.
The present invention deals with a novel and more satisfactory method of mounting the said brushes so that while the universality of movement is preserved, the motion of the brush from back to front is checked.
In the known device, if unskilfully handled, there was a tendency for the brushes to dig into the grass, and require too great an effort on the part of the operator, while its action upon the sward was too severe. The aim of the brushing operation is to permit the brush to merely engage the ground with a force equal to the weight of the brush, and so exert a gentle and yet' firm combing effect. This desired action is defeated if the tilt on the brushes becomes excessive.
Now according to the present inventioma shallow frame is arranged to embrace the brushes which latter are secured within same by means of pins.' The said pins are headed and pass through elongated slots in the forward frame members, preferably two pins to each brush. The pins are detachably secured to the brush back in such manner that the brush is free to move vertically to a limited extent, a plate being arranged upon the brush with eyes to receive the pins which latter are kept from disengagement by split pins. The said plate also carries a hook extending rearwardly and adapted to receive the end of a contractile spring. In operation the brush therefore is normally free to move slightly in all the directions above indicated, but if the forward movement of the combined machine. tends to tilt the brushes, so that their bite upon the turf becomes excessive, the springs come into play, and tend to lift the brushes into an upright position. Hence the drag upon the brush permissible by draft can ,be adjusted to a nicety by providing a spring of the required strength. Alternatively a compression spring may be employed to effect the same operation. In such case the spring surrounds a pillar upon the brush back and a fork attached to the frame member engages this spring, a split pin or similar device passing through the pillar preventing the fork disengaging itself from the pillar. In this case the spring is compressed if the brush tilts but the action 1 of the spring in preventing excessive tilting is identical.
To further assist the operator in adjusting the brushing effect, the draft handle is secured as near the frame as possible, so that no whip takesplace between the handle and frame and the pull is exerted nearer the plane of movement of the frame.
The invention however will be more readily understood by reference to the accom-' panying drawings in which;
Figure 1 is a side elevation of the complete machine. Fig. 2 is a plan, Fig. 3 shows detail of front brush mounting, Fig. 4: is a side view of a modification with front roller.
In the drawings, a are the rollers, b the frame, a the handle of the machine and (Z the brush frame. This brush frame is situ ate in advance of the rollers in the direction of draft.
The brushes 1 are disposed within the mud boX frame.
frame as shown, and are arranged to move vertically in the following manner. The brush backs are preferably fitted with a metal plate 2, which plate is provided with eyes 3. Headed pins A pass through slots 5 in the frame member d, and then through the brush back .eyes 3, the said pins being secured by means of split pins 6, passed through the terminals of the shanks of the headed pins 4:. V
In the devices shown in Figs. 1 and 2, forks or slotted plates 7 are secured to the frame through whose slots headed guide pins 8 secured to the brush back are arranged to pass. An expansive spring 9 is disposed between said plate 7 and brush back plate 2. A handle a is hinged to the forward member of the frame Z) for the purposes of draft.
The operation of this form of the invention is as follows :-Assuming the machine to be in operation but no force for the moment being applied to the handle, the frame is lifted and the brushes engage the ground under their own weight, the pins 4 occupying a position in about the middle of the slots 5 as shown in Fig. 3. If the machine be now moved the brushes will follow curves and undulations, any undue tendency to tilt being corrected by the spring 9, either the slots 5, or the eyes 3, being wide enough to allow slight lateral inclination to be given to each brush, so that a reasonably universal motion is obtained, which .motion corresponds to the undulations of the surface treated, and the pressure of the brush upon said surface is independent of the operation.
In Fig.4 a modified manner of mounting the spring device is shown. In this con struction the slotted plate 7 is dispensed with, and in lieu thereof a vertical rod 10 is disposed upon the brush back whose terminal end remote from said brush back carries the end of a contractile spring 9 the other end of said spring being secured to the In this alternative construction the operation of the machine is identical with that described above, the spring 9 resisting the tendency of the brushto tilt about its transverse axis when the machine is being drawn along.
The handle 0 is pivotally hinged in a cen tral position in the front of the chassis or frame 6 so that the draft of the machine operates in the most convenient position If the machine is intended for rather more 7 coarse character of turf," such as is found on golf courses between the greens and the tees, the handle may be placed slightly higher as shown in dotted lines, in which case the usual stay bars 11 are taken well back so as to keep the frame even and prevent any whipping action taking place.
If desired a small front wheel may be employed to still further assist in keeping the brushes at a normal level on the ground, but in such case the wheel is very broad in relation to its diameter, and the edges of it uncurved, see Fig. l.
In the horse drawn vehicle, the front wheel of course is an absolute necessity, but in the hand type of machine as described above, the front wheel is purely an additional advantage, and its use or otherwise depends largely upon the type of turf to be treated and the nature and surface of the ground.
I claim 1. A turf brushing and aerating machine, comprising rollers, brushes positioned forward of said rollers, said brushes being capable of horizontal and vertical movements, and means, acting in a vertical plane, adapted to press said brushes downward.
2. A turf brushing and aerating machine,
comprising rollers, brushes positioned forward ofsaid rollers, said brushes being ca pable of horizontal and vertical movements,
and means whereby to limit such move ments.
1 3 A turf brushing and aerating machine,
'com risin rollers brushes Jositioned forb 7 ward of said rollers, a frame for connecting the brushes and roller, said brushes being capable ofv a horizontal and vertical movement, means, for limiting the movement thereof, comprising a plurality ofpins securedto the brush backs, slots disposed in the frame, said pins being passed through the slots in said frame, and spring for .con- 7 trolling movement of the brushes and pins within the confines of said slots."
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
mutant DISRAELI GUMMINS.
Witnesses: H. D. JAMEsoN, O. J. WORTH;
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of'Patents,
Washington, D. G.