|Publication number||US1169995 A|
|Publication date||Feb 1, 1916|
|Filing date||Feb 10, 1909|
|Priority date||Feb 10, 1909|
|Publication number||US 1169995 A, US 1169995A, US-A-1169995, US1169995 A, US1169995A|
|Inventors||Roscoe S Prindle|
|Original Assignee||Roscoe S Prindle|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (12), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
R. S. PRINDLE.
METHOD OF PRODUCING ARTIFIC IAL RESPIRATION. APPLICATION FILED FEB. 10, 1909.
1,169,995. Patented Feb. 1, 1911;.
I 3 SHEETS-SHEET l.
3:: we H1 07, Roscoeflfndudle By 7 I V 61m ncu R. S. PRINDLE. METHOD OF PRODUCING ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. I0, I909.
Patented Feb. 1, 1916.
3 SHEETSSHEET 2.
H. S. PRINDLE.
METHOD OF PRODUCING ARTlFlClAL RESPIRATION. APPLICATION FILED FEB 1Q, 1909.
1,19 9% Patented Feb.1,1916. I
. 5 a SHEETS-SHEET a.
UNlD STATES P =1 FFECE.
BOSCOE S. PRINDLE, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 1, 1916.
Application filed February 10, 1909. Serial No. 477,03.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that l, Roscoe S. PRINDLE, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of the city of New York, borough of Manhattan, and State of New -York, have invented a certain new, useful, and Improved Method of Producing Artificial Respiration, of which the following is a specification.
Primarily my, invention" has to do with the production of artificial respiration and the cure of tubercular disease, but in a broader sense it relates to the purification of the blood in the human circulatory system and the rehabilitation of the tissue of the human body.
My improvement in the art of healing such diseases and disorders consists in substitut-ing external forces for or superimposing external forces upon the habitual muscular movements of the patients thorax or chest and inso gaging or controlling these forces as to inflate and deflate the lungs, first in rhythmic conformity with, and then, in excess of, the patients normal breathing. The forces referred to are those of gaseous pressure and a vacuum; and the aerating medium which I use is atmospheric air or mixtures of air and oxygen or other medicaments as may best suit the condition and needs of the patient at times of treatment. In other words, 1 supply compressed medicated or non-medicated air to the lungs of the patient and then exhaust the lungs, using care at the beginning of the treatments to exactly reproduce the patients breathing and afterward varyingand increasing the forces to cleanse the lungs and readjust the factors of inspiration and expiration as rapidly as conditions safely permit.
My invention as more fully described hereinafter and as particularly set forth in the claims will be most readily understood by reference to the accompanying drawings in which I have illustrated an apparatus suited to the invention.
In these drawings, which form a part of this specification, Figure 1 is'a diagrammatic view of apparatus adapted to the purposes -of my novel method or process of artificially producing, varying and controlling respiration. Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of the mask which is applied to the patients face, together with the automatic controller or valve. Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the mask, on the line w, m of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is ing, or cooling flow of air may a sectional view of the mask, on the line 3 y of Fig. 3. Fig; 5 is an enlarged longitudinal section of the controller or valve, showing the parts in position to admit com-. pressed air to the lungs of the patient. Fig. 6 is another sectional view showing how both the compressed air and the vacuum may be cut off and the patient supplied with atmospheric air at normal pressure; and, Fig. 7 is a sectional view on the line 2, z of Fig. 5.
I shall first describe the construction of the apparatus and will then describe the manner in which it is used in carrying out my invention.
Referring now to Fig. 1 of the drawings, A represents a source of compressed a1r, here depicted as a rotary compression pump which .is supplied with purified air, medicated air oroxygenated air from the bottles A A and A A is the air inlet. The air is filtered in the bottle A and passes thence to the bottle A which contains a quantity of liquid for washing, and if desired, medicating, the air. When desired oxygen may be admixed with the air in the bottle A by admission through the valved connection between the bottles A and A the latter being an oxygen tank. Then desired further apparatus may the aeratiing medium. The air in either medicated or non-medicated condition passes from the bottle A to the pump A through the pipe A the regulating valve A The valve A constitutes the admission valve of the pressure pump, and by operating the same the second rotary pump B constitutes a source of vacuum, and B is the discharge pipe thereof. This pipe delivers the impure air from the lungs of the patient to the washer or purifier B wherein the air is cleansed before being discharged at the outlet B For driving the pumps A and B I employ a single electric or other motor C of approximately two horse power. C represents a controller b which the speed of the motor and hence of the pumps may be widely varied and accurately controlled.
As before explained, in carrying out my rocess I successively inflate and deflate the lungs of the patient, and as the best means of connection with the sources of pressure and vacuum, I employ a mask D so constructed that it may be tightly bound upon which contains be added for drying, heator packed against theface of the patient.
This mask is provided with inlet and outlet connections DA and DB respectively ioined to the pressure pipe A of the pump A and the vacuum pipe B of thevacuum pump B. For convenience the parts B and A of these pipes are made flexible. lhe rigid part of the pressure pipe A 'contains a manual regulating valve A and an automatic relief valve A The corresponding part of the vacuum 'pipe- B contains a manual regulating valve 13 and an automatic relief valve 13 The valve A is adapted to open outwardly, while the valve B opens inwardly. Both valves are adjustable. By the use thereof constant pressure and vacuum in the respective pipes is insured. In this connection it should be understood that the pumps are of somewhat greater capacity than actually required and through the-.medium of the controller C,
the manual valves A, B and the automatic valves A B the pressure and the vacuum at the mask may be regulated to any degree desired. The regulating valves are entirely independent and the conditions of vacuum or pressure existing in one pipe may be altered without changing the conditions in the other. It follows that the operator has direct and positive control and may vary both the'pressure and the vacuum at any time notwithstanding the fact that the two pumps are coupled to a single motor.
For the purpose of alternating the appli vacuum I interpose the controller E between the pipes A, B and the mask D, and to avoid an air cushion between the two sources A and B and the lungs 'of the patient I place the controller- 'irectly upon the mask, making it a part thereof. The pipes A and B in a measure constitute reservoirs between the pumps and the controller, and if desired actual enlargements or reservoirs maybe provided in the respective pipes, though in practice I secure the best results by limiting the capacities of the pipes to approximately the maximum requirements of a healthy person. A sputum cup EE is interposed between the controller E" and the vacuum pipe 13 for the purpose hereinafter described.
The controller E as herein shown is of a rotary type and for actuating the same and for adjusting its rate of action to correspond with the natural respiration of the patient I employ a small'electric or other motor F. The connection between the rotary member of the controller and the motor is established through the speed reducer F and the flexible driving shaft F F represents the controller of the motor F by which the speed of the fiexible'shaft F may be varied within the range of from five to fifty revolutions per minute. An indicator I and a counter F 5 enable the operator to exactly adjust the speed of the respiratory controller E.
For securing pressure and vacuum readings; I employ a U-shaped mercury tube G, ofwell known construction, coupled to the pipes A and B .by small pipes G and G and having selective valves G and Gr.v Slight variations of pressure take place be tween the regulating valves A l3 and the mask, and in order that the actual conditions within the mask may be known I preferably'employ a second mercury column H, and a spirometer or volume meter I, temporarily connecting them, when required, to the mask by the flexible tube It, and the valve or cockH, whichlatter is a perma-' nentpart of the mask..- As hereinafter explained I also employ both' the pressure meter '11 and the volume meter I, in determining the condition of the patient prior to and after treatment.
The details of the mask and the controller. are best shown in Figs. 2 to 7. As there shown the mask is approximately conformed to the face of a person and is of sufiicient size to cover the forehead, cheeks and chin. This mask is secured to the head by straps D, and as a convenient means of closing the joint between the mask and the face, I employ in the former a pneumatic tube or packing D This tube extends around the rim of the mask and when the latter has been strapped upon the patients head the packing tube is inflated, through the valve D to the extent necessary tocause it to conform to the bony structure of the face and tightly'close or seal the mask; to prevent the escape of compressed air therefrom or the entrance of air at the rim of the mask when a partial vacuum is established therein. An advantage attaching to this particular formation and construction of the mask is that the chin, lips, nose and, eyes of the patient are left free and circula tion in the facial skin and muscles is not m terfered with. Aside from the mechanical features, my primary object in the use -of the mask is to distribute the pressures and equalize the same upon the face of the patient and the several ducts and organs which terminate in the mouth, nasal passages and eyes. In some instances I employ pneumatic ear stops on the mask and in communication therewith, the same flexibly ]O1I11I1g the mask to the ears of the patient and having the effect of balancing the pressures in the eustachian tubes. D*, D are eye glasses in the front of the mask through which the patient can see what is going on around him. That part of the mask which is opposite the lips contains a cavity or pocket B to receive the sputum. The vacuum passage D leads from the bottom of this cavity. The compressed air passage D is arranged in, and opens through the inner 'troller E is shown below wall of the mask; at a point considerably above the pocket D to prevent sputum from entering it.
For convenience of illustration the conthe maslnbut I prefer to more closely assemble these parts, and in practice find it desirable to place the valve casing either directly in or against the lower part of the mask. As herein shownthe ofiset portion D of the mask, which contains the ducts D and D is provided with nipples and union joints D for connecting them to the casing of the valve or controller.
The automatic admission and exhaust valve or controller E, best shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 7, comprises a cylindrical casing E and a cylindrical valve member or plug E The top of the casing contains ports a and b which communicate with the ducts l) and D respectively throughtheconnecticns D and D respectively. The lower part of the casing contains ports a and b to which the pressure and vacuum pipes are respectively connected by the nipples A and B The port a is preferably an annular groove in the inner wall of the casing, and parallel with this is another groove E which communicates with the atmosphere through the hole E The grooves or ports a and E are separated by a narrow annular partition E It will be noted that the ports a and a are relatively staggered; this is true also of the ports 6 and b. The valve proper or plug is divided into two chambers (1. and b by the middle partition E and the end plugs E and E At the air entrance end, the part E is provided with a small port a and also an elongate port a which ports are relatively staggered, so that the port (2. co-acts only with the port a. The port a" is adaptedto co-act with the port a and also with the port E as hereinafter explained. At the vacuum end of the valve, the member E contains'the staggered ports Z) and b which co-act respectively with the ports 7) and I). As shown, the flexible shaft F is joined to the outer end of the valve member E and by means thereof the plug is regularly rotated, to alternately open and close the air and vacuum passages. /Vhen the passage through a, a, a, a and a is open, the passage through 1;, b bib and b is closed, and vice versa. Both passages are never open at once, though the interval between the opening of one and the closing of the other is comparatively short, the intervals conforming to the ratio of lapse and recovery in a persons breathing. The plugs E and E are longitudinally or revolubly adjustable in the valve member E and by means thereof 1 am able to so change the shapes and dimensions of the ports a) and b as to accomplish a definite and exact imitation of the cadences of a patients breathing. It will be noted that these adjustments are wholly independent; this being necessitated by the fact that the cadences of inspiration and expiration are rarely the same.
The valve member E is longitudinally movable in the casing. Stops E and E limit its movement. The latter is adjustable on the end of the member E and is preferably in the form of a hand wheel by which the valve may be manually turned, for purposes of experiment. I A spring E between the end of the casing and the stpp E serves to hold the valve in the position shown in Fig- 5, but by pressing on the end of the valve either the operator or the patient may instantly shift the valve and OPBIhdlI'QCt communication with the atmosphere through the ports E a and a, as shown in Fig. 6, at the same time closing both the air and vacuum passages. A latch E serves to hold the valve when thus shifted until it is desired to resume treatment.
The construction of the apparatus, which is a desirable aid to the proper use of my invention, being now understood, I will now describe my novel method or process in detail.
When a patient presents himself for treatment 1 first ascertain his general condition, particularly the state ofthe lungs, and carefully mark and determine the periodicity, cadences, volumes andsp ressures of the inspirations and expirations. The periodicity and the cadence may be mechanically determined by the use of suitable apparatus, but as the sounds of respiration are clearly perceptible, and as the respiratory apparatus herein shown emits like' sounds, it is an easy matter to adjust the latter to correspond.
This adjustment is secured, as to periodicity,
by regulating the speed of the motor F; and, as to cadences of inspiration and expiration, by adjusting the valveports a. and I) through the medium of the i'po'rtage regulators or plugs E and E I employ the pressure meter H and the volume meter 1, in determining the pressure and the volume of the patients breath, and then exactly reproduce these factors by regulating the speed of the pump motor C, the inlet and outlet valves of the pump, and the relief valves A and 3 Having then quite accurately "adjusted the pumps and the several valves and the controller-valve operating motor, I preferably subject the apparatus to a final test by closing the back of the mask and taking readings therefrom by connecting the meters 1 and H thereto. Having now adapted the apparatus to the exact or substantially exact reproduction of the patients natural or normal respiration, I apply the mask. This may be done without stopping the apparatus if the valve E is moved to the open atmosphere shown in Fig. 6 of the drawings.
' pocket D When the mask has been properly adjusted the treatment proceeds, being instituted by the restoration of the valve E to working position; after which, each revolution of the valve causes the'lungs of the patient to be successively inflated and deflated. It will be obvious that by thus alternately forcing aerating medium into the'lungs of the patient and exhausting the lungs, he is relieved from both voluntary and involuntary muscular effort and ,is at once placed in a condition of rest. As the treatment proceeds the patient receives the benefits of a fuller and more regular oxygenation of the blood and the 'efi ective and regular exhaust and ejection of both accumulated and accumulating carbonic acid gas. The removal of the latter is final, reentrance thereof to the lungs being absolutely prevented; which is rarely the case, even when breathing in an open atmosphere. The regular tides and impulses, which I-am thus able to "set up in the lungs of the patient, displace the'obstructions therein and cause the sputum and virus namely, the pressure and vacuum, also the volume of air administered, and vary the periodicity and cadence, with view to establishing greater lung capacity and better breathing conditions; to inculcate also, the habit of deep breathing and the desire for purer air. At different times, when the accumulation of exudate in the lungs requires such treatment, to dislodge and eject it, I
reduce the portage of the vacuum passage by means of the plug E and increase the vacuum by adjustment -of the valves B and B thereby increasing the force of expiraor time, i which are in the nature of coughing; by
tion or deflation, but shortening its period and thus produce repeated actions which the patient is effectually relieved of deleterious fluids as well as gases.
As various modifications of my invention will readily suggest themselves to those who are skilled in the art and its practice, I do not limit or confine my invention tcthe specific steps herein defined, nor in the uses stated, or the apparatus herein disclosed.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. The method of producing artificial res piration which consists in periodically inflating the lungs of the patientwith suitable aerating medium and alternately deflating the lungs, both in substantial conformity with the periodicity, cadences, volumes and pressures of the patients normal breathing, and from time to time varying the several factors, to expedite the ejection of deleterious gases and substances.
2. The method of producing artificial respiration which consists in alternately inflate ing the lungs of the patient with aerating medium under pressure and in'shorter alternate periods forcibly withdrawing said medium from the lungs and thereby withdrawing fluids therefrom. p
3. The method of producing artificial respiration which consists in periodically inflating the lungs of the patient with a suitable aerating medium and alternately defiating the lungs, first in substantial conformity with the periodicity, cadences, volumes and pressures of the patients normal breathing, and gradually increasing the intensity of the several factors to expedite the ejection of deleterious gases and substances. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this 9th day of February, 1909, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
I ROSCOE S. PRINDLE.
CHARLES GILBERT HAWLEY, N. CURTIS LAMMOND.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US2453475 *||Sep 14, 1945||Nov 9, 1948||Tobias Cornelius A||Resuscitation apparatus|
|US3357428 *||Dec 23, 1963||Dec 12, 1967||Carlson David L||Respiratory augmentor with electronic monitor and control|
|US3370585 *||Feb 25, 1965||Feb 27, 1968||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Breathing apparatus with breathing bag-operated valves|
|US3378005 *||Jan 14, 1965||Apr 16, 1968||Raymond M. Smith Jr.||Anesthetic apparatus|
|US3481333 *||Mar 31, 1966||Dec 2, 1969||Automatic Sprinkler Corp||Inhalation-exhalation regulator system with suction control|
|US3827433 *||Mar 7, 1972||Aug 6, 1974||Massachusetts Inst Technology||Respiratory device and procedure|
|US6237596 *||Nov 8, 1996||May 29, 2001||George L. Bohmfalk||Disposable mask and suction catheter|
|US6860265 *||Sep 8, 2003||Mar 1, 2005||J.H. Emerson Company||Insufflation-exsufflation system for removal of broncho-pulmonary secretions with automatic triggering of inhalation phase|
|US6929007||Sep 8, 2003||Aug 16, 2005||J.H. Emerson Company||Insufflation-exsufflation system with percussive assist for removal of broncho-pulmonary secretions|
|US20050039749 *||Sep 8, 2003||Feb 24, 2005||Emerson George P.||Insufflation-exsufflation system for removal of broncho-pulmonary secretions with automatic triggering of inhalation phase|
|US20050051174 *||Sep 8, 2003||Mar 10, 2005||Emerson George P.||Insufflation-exsufflation system with percussive assist for removal of broncho-pulmonary secretions|
|U.S. Classification||128/205.19, 128/205.24|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M16/00, A61M2016/0009|