US 1172712 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
M. R. HUTCHISON. DIAPHRAGM HORN.
APPLICATION HL'ED MAYHLIBH.
'Patented m. 22, m6.
1v1. R. HTcH1soN.
DIAPHRAGM HORN. APPLICATION FILED .1a/w11. 1911.
Patente d. .Feb.`2'2, 1916.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
iran srafrns Para onirica.;
MILLER nnnsn HU'roHIsoN, or weer ORANGE, NEW JERSEY, AssIGNonTofnovELL- MecoNNELL MANUFACTURING-COMPANY, a CORPORATION or DELAWARE,
i DIAPHRAGM-HORN. i
rotary member driven by an electric motor` and provided with an eccentric portion or cam faces adapted lto transform rotary into reciprocatory movement. in a highly successful embodiment of such a signaling device, suitable for use on vehicles, factories and elsewhere, the rapidly repeated blows have been delivered rigidly'to the diaphragm; best results being obtained when there is synchronism between the rigid blows and a natural frequency of the diaphragm or ot' the Adiaphragin and resonator acting as al resonant unit. in certain cases the blows have been delivered directly to the diaphragm or to jwear piece lined on the central portion thereof, as by a rotary cam, having a plurality of teeth or faces, ot such number andjof such altitude and pitch as to cause diaphragm vibrations of the desired' frequency and with minimum interference. Such an assemblage has the merit of sirnplicity of construction and is especiallyv adapted for the production of a powerful warning note of peculiarly imperative quality. In some cases, however, it is preferable to have a signal that will give forth a soundI of less harshness, or even ot' considerable softness or purity; and it is also desirable to save wear and tear on the diaphragm, attendant particularly on those arrangements in which the blows are applied rigidly to the diaphragm or the central wear piece thereon. I iind that these ends may be attained, without sacrificing too much of the warning value, by actuating the diaphragm by suitably softened or tempered blows.
ln my prior application, Serial No. 494,688, liled May 7, 1909, (now Patent 1,148,231, issued July 2T, 1915) for mechanical hornsandfdiaphragme therefor, l have shown a signal having :this characteristic 'and desirable property, by virtuemt lthe employment of a hollow oylinder'ot spring Specieaton of Letters Patent. Patented-Feb, v2
appiieauon flied May 11, 1911. serial No. 626,487. 1
steel as a thrust member betweenrthe diaphragm and the driver. Such hollow cylinder of spring steel is illustrated and claimed in my prior Patent 1,131,635, issued March 9th, 1915. This assemblage is illustrated .and described herein as an embodiment of the broader phases of the present invention, in accordance with which the softened blows are attained by the use of a suitable cushioning connection or couplingl between the driver and diaphragm, properly designed and arranged to receive the rigid thrust of the driver and to partially absorb and partially transmit directly to the diaphragm the energy thus supplied to it, in this way materially lessening the abruptness with which the diaphragm is set in m0- tion or the direction of its motion changed, so that the quality of the sound produced is tempered according'to the degree and nature ot' the yielding of which the connection is capable.'
vPreterablyy the cushioning connection is normally in contact with Vor coupled to the diaphragm, or is so constructed and ar:- ranged as to contact simultaneously with both the rotary cam and the diaphragm. nWhen 'such a connection is constructed and arranged so that itsv range of yielding is snall as compared with the effective altitude of the cam projections, and insufficient te destroy the positiveness of cam thrust or `.go\\"erni.ng action of the diaphragm on the cam, the power loss may be minimum and the sound produced may be of adequate loudness and carrying quality, with a marked softening and purification of the tone, due partly tothe less abrupt actuation of the diaphragm and partly to the suppression by the cushioning connection of the discordant vibrations produced by the scraping of metal on metal. The wear piece or anvil is preferably on the cushioning connection, or the cushioning connection constitutes the wear piece, so that the diaphragm isvrelieved of the direct pounding or wrenching occurring where the anvil lis directly or rigidly secured to the diaphragm. Moreover, it is possible to construct and arrange the cushioning connection so that the stress is distributed and is elastically applied to the diaphragm at a plurality of points preferably symmetrically disposed around the center ot the diaphragm, so that it is rendered easier to cause all parts of the-diaphragm to move simultaneously in the same. direction. A
further development in this regard is that neither the cushioning connection nor thev Wear piece need be anchored or permanently coupled to the diaphragm, either by brazing or by Welding,'or by riveting through a per-` foration in the diaphragm and certain vforms of -my invention contemplate the loose coupling or even a `mere surface engagement of the cushioning connection to the diaphragm.
lVith suchv an assemblage I am enabled to employ what 'I may term aplain diaphragm,
without perforation or permanent attachment inside the peripheral clamps.
tends to improveits sounding qualitiespand to. increase its durability.
In the preferred' form I employ a spring tongue of comparatively light Weight loosely or permanently coupledto the diaphragm andV carrying a wearpiece for contact with the driver. i
Having thus briefly described the general characteristics of my invention, I shall proceedto a description of certain particular forms thereof, reference being had to the ac- .companying drawings, in which:
vFigure 1 is a side elevation, partially 1n section, of a diaphragm horn embodying one form of thezpresent invention; Fig. 2 is a horizontal section through the case, .dia-
phragm and resonator, showing the same form asin the preceding view; Fig. 8 is a detail view of the loosely, coupledV spring tongue used in this form ofi the-signal; Fig.
35 4 is'a partial section corresponding to Fig.
2, showing another form of loosely coupled cushioning tongue; Figs. 6 and 7 are similar views showing Iother forms of tongues;
.Fig. 8 is a corresponding view, illustrating a 40 cushioning connection consisting of a guidi ed member of fiber or the like;d and Fig. 9y vis a `corresponding view, illustrating the spring cylinder form of connection. Fig. 10
' is a detail view, partly in section. f The resonator or projector 1 isl carried by the front section 2 of the diaphragm case. The diaphragm 3 is held between cord Washers or the like 4, 5, by the marginal clamping portions 6, 7, of the front section 2 and the rear section 8 of the-diaphragm case. The clamping is effected by screws 9, which pass through openingsin the clamping portions of .the case sections and in the gaskets and the marginal region ofthe diaphragm.
The rear section 8 of the case is formed to receive the rotary driver 10, which is shown as a disk provided with a plurality of pen ripheral cam projections. Preferably the axis of this rotary driver is parallel to the.'
diaphragm, as shown. Suitable means for rotating the driver at high speed` is illustrated in the form of an incased electric motor 11', the armature shaft l2 of Which is prolonged into the rear section of the diay phragm case, there carrying the rotary This driver. The driver is `preferably solidly mounted so as to deliver rigid thrusts to the cushioning` connection 13: and to this end the bearing` 1i of the rigid shaft 12 rigidly holdsthe Vshaft a yid is rigidly `se-` cured to the rearsection of the diaphragmv with openings 15 and 1, through Whichv pass tivo of the clamping screws 9 to secure the 4tongue 1n position against the diaphragm.: At `its central portion this tongue is, suitably formed for contact With the rotary driver. To lthis endthe tongue, Which for thermost `part'lies flat against the dia phragm, is slightly raised away from it, and at the crest of the louv broad ridge so formed the tongue may be thickened or otherwise. equipped with a Wear piece or portion 18 may be slotted, so` as to permit of the slight endwise movement of` the cushioning mem-` ber in this form of signal.` The tongue is normally in Contact With both the diaphragm and the driver; its range of vielding is small, and by reason of its lightness and its close confinement .retween the driving and driven members it is urlikely to interfere With the harmonious coperation thereof. By virtue of the loose coupling of the tongue Ato the diaphragm I am enabled to make the latter perfectly plain and imperforate vin its Working portion. that is,
within the area inclosed by the r.; :ginal regions clamped between the gaskets. The thrust yof the cam projections is distributed over comparatively remote points on the diaphragm,andmay'be regardefil as applied particularly at the points at diametrically opposite sides of and materially spaced from the center, Where the inclined central pori tions of the tongue merge with t i., port-ions thereof which lie 1n parellelism` garnet the face of the diaphragm.Y Obviously. the region over which the thrustis applied vfill vary during thecontinuance of the thrust, as the central portion of the tongue is forced more into parallelism with the dia` phragm. From this distribution of the Awstress at points around the center and comparatively remote from each other it follows that the bodily vibration of the dia-` phragm is promoted, sincethere is no tend` i ency.` for one portion ofthe diaphragm,
cam projections.. The'less yielding the con-- nection the more does it directly transmit .j the thrust ofthe cam member and the less should it engage between the' cam projections, or the less should bel the elastic stress with which it is held between them. thrust of each projection begins and continues, the power is in part transmitted by the connection to the diaphragm and in part spent in fiexing'- the connection. For this reason the degree .of interception of the path of travel ofthe projections by the wear portionv of the connection should be greater. than the interception in the caseof a wear piece fixed directly on the diaphragm. In other words. the yielding connection has the effect of prolonging the time and reducing the intensity of each thrust. From this it naturally results that the diaphragm is displaced less abruptly and violently and that the sound is much smoother and softer than in the case of a lrigidly actuated signal. Where the rotor has projections of double inclination as shown'in Fig. 1 the gradual back slope. of s uch cam projections may, in certain cases. have the eifectof enabling the spring tongue 13 to give up some of the energy stored therein to the diaphragm afterthe crest has passed the wear portion 18, so that the outward force ofv the diaph'ragm,v may commence somewhat up the slope of the projection andI continue slightly beyond the crest.
In my kpreviously liled application Serial No. 494,120, filed May 5, 1909 and a division thereof (now Patents 1.160.900 and 1.160,- 899, issued Nov. 16. 1915) for mechanically actuated diaphragm` horns, I have explained how any tendency of therotary driver to speed ,up causes the projections thereon to intercept the diaphragm projection on the' backward swing of the diaphragm, with the result that the power required' to rotate the driver at such a speed is greater than the motor is capable of delivering and thek driver is held substantially to synchronous speed. Substantially the same results are obtained in -the present instance. The stiffer the spring tongue. the more the conditions will reproduce those in the rigidly actuated signals. v
In Fig. 4, the spring tongue 13' is of about half the length of the tongue 13a of the preceding views, being secured at one end after the manner of the tongue 13, but
`without. the provision for endwise movement. The inner end portion of the tongue As the l is reversely bent and provided over the center of the diaphragm with a wea-r piece 18a, which may be riveted to the tongue, as shown, or otherwise secured thereto or formed thereon. lThe rotary driver 10a in this instance has cam teeth with abrupt rear sides, so that the spring tongue, or rather the wear piece thereon. is free to snap back after the passage of the tooth. The narrow reverse bend gives the projecting portion of the tongue considerable stiifness, so that-the transmission of thrust from the driver to the diaphragm may approach that of a rigid connection; but by making the spring tongue more flexible the actuationk of the diaphragm may be lessened, and at very Y high speed the tongue 'may not have opportunity to get back fully between the teeth, the wear piece skipping, as 'itwere, upon the tops of the cam projections. i Here, also, the diaphragm is -plain and imperforate in its workingy portion.
Fig. 5 shows a spring tongue 13", which is anchored to the diaphragm, as by the rivet 20, preferably to the center thereof. In this instance the tongueis supported entirely by the diaphraglmand maybe formed as a closed loop, having the wear piece 1Sa riveted to the middle of the outer side thereof.. The rotor 10 is here shown as of the same form as in Figs. 1. to 3, so that the diaphragm may be vibrated by rotation in either direction. v
Fig. 6 Shows an assemblage in which the thrust is applied to the diaphragm at a plurality of points around the center by a cushiomng connection permanently coupled to' the diaphragm and entirely supported thereby. In this case the connection 13Cv may be in the form of an arched spider, the ends of the legs of which are riveted or otherwise suitably secured to the diaphragm. as 'shown at Q1. and which is apertured at the junction of the legs for the reception of the wear piece 18a, which is shown riveted thereto.
Or there may be a. pluralitv of separatelyformed tongues unitedat their inner ends over the diaphragm by the riveted wear piece. causing lthe diaphragm -to vibrate ina unitary manner, by reason of the distribution ofthe thrust over a considerable portion of the diaphragm.
In Fig. T I 'have shown anchored at one point to the diaphragm and at another point toa stationary part, with intermediate point. In the particular constructionillustrated, thev tongue 13d is in the nature of a -iiat strip. secured at one endv This form ofconnection is useful for a spring `tongue .the driver coacting with the tongue at an jacent'its anchorage thereto, and its main portion may lie substantially parallel to but.. spaced from the diaphragm. The wear piece 18a is riveted to the tongue intermediate its ends, and the driver is placed in a corresponding eccentric lposition with reference to the diaphragm. In this construction the spring tongue operates to some extent as a lever in 'transmitting the thrust in a cush` ioned manner to the diaphragm.
In Fig. 8 I have shown a 'cushioning -connection other than a spring tongue. A slid` able plug or the\like 13e of fiber or other semi-yielding material is mounted in a stationary guide 30, in which it reciprocates under the alternating impulses of the driver and the diaphragm.
Fig. 9 also shows a guided thrust connection, in this instance a hollow cylinder 13t of spring metal, mounted in a stationary guide 31, the assemblage being that nshown in my prior application Serial No. 494,688, previously referred to. This view illustrates the fact that, if desired, the dia` phragm may be provided with a wear piece 4-0 riveted or otherwise directly anchored thereto, for receiving the thrust of the cushioning connection, in this instance the spring cylinder.
I claimt 1. In an alarm or signaling device, a dia phragm, rotary mechanical means for producing bodily vibration thereof, and a cushioning member normally in contact with ,5. the face of the diaphragm and having a portion adjacent to the center of thefdiaphragm` but spaced therefrom to' receive the impulses from' said mechanical means, the .cushioning movement of said member beingpredetermined so as not to interfere with harmonized bodily swings of the diaphragm in response to each forcing impulse.
2. A mechanically actuated diaphragm horn or signal, comprising a diaphragm, a rotary driver with projecting actuating portions', and a spring tongue' coupled to said diaphragm and provided with a wear piece ply it at comparatively remote points over the diaphragm to impart vibrations tosaid diaphragm harmonized with the forcing movements of said` actuator.
4. A mechanically actuated diaphragm horn `or signal, comprisinga diaphragm, high speed means for vibrating the' same in' cluding a mechanical driver, and cushioning means for distributing and applying` each impulse at regions at opposite sides of the center of the diaphragm,` the extent ofy yielding movement of said cushioning means being so predetermined as not1 to interfere with harmonized bodily swings` of thediaphragm in responseto each forcing impulse of ysaid driver.
5. A mechanically actuated diaphragm horn; or signal, comprising-a diaphragm, a motor, a rotary driver, and cushioning means normally applied'to said diaphragm at spaced points about` the center thereof and 5 adapted to receive the impulses from said; driver and impart lthem to said `diaphragm to effect vibrations of the latter harmonized with the forcing impulses of said driver.
' Signed at New York city, in the countyofv New York and State of New York, this 9th day of May, A. D. 1911. y
MILLER REESE HUTCHISON; Witnesses:
IRvING `M. OBRIEGHT,
JAMES D. BROWN.