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Publication numberUS1176994 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 28, 1916
Filing dateMar 11, 1915
Priority dateMar 11, 1915
Publication numberUS 1176994 A, US 1176994A, US-A-1176994, US1176994 A, US1176994A
InventorsThomas C Spelling
Original AssigneeThomas C Spelling
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Mechanically-formed roadway.
US 1176994 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

T. C. SPELLING.

MECHANICALLY FORMED ROADWAY.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 11. I915.

Patented Mar. 28, 1916.

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N amoembo'c: Zmmfl/d aw witmaooeo T. C. SPELLING.

MECHANKCALLY FORMED ROADWAY.

APPLICATION men MAR. 11, 1915.

1,176,994.. Patented Mar. 23, 1916.

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11 ['I I I l I; a 00 r' m y i i I I U E X ;g i Q 10 i i .5: a i @1 N 1 i": 2% R2 w S) i N a) a 3 f a x X ii; b 5 I m v I l N l l {1 \E b N 00 N I I N C kg R IGIXJMMMMO; Q P avwamfozr a York, in the county of New York and State THOMAS C. SPELLING, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.

MECHANICALLY-FORMED ROADWAY.

To all whom it may concern: i

Be it known that I, THOMAS C. SPELLING, citizen of the United States, residing at New of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Mechanically Formed Roadways, of whichthe following is a'specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing.

This invention relates to a structure adapted to primarily constitute a continuous, integral and rigid roadway andtraction way, capable of being used on the surface, on bridges, overhead, under water and under ground, in keeping with the topographical conditions and requirements surrounding any particular service for which the same is needed or useful, said service at times possibly requiring all of the foregoing uses in combination and at other times separately.

The invention comprehends as features ancillary to the main object above stated,

the formation of the road or traction ways of suitable frames coupled together and strongly reinforced by means of braces associated to render the completed structure as crmpact as possible, and said braces subdividing the frames into relatively small spaces adjacent to the relatively large road or traction ways, adaptedto be utiliized for many and various purposes, as will herei n after more fully appear.

The invention further has for its object the provision of a structure which will be simple, and relatively inexpensive, so that its field of service is practically unlimited, the same being capable of use not only after the fashion of ordinary elevated systems, bridges, subways and tunnels, but may-also beemployed as roadways through farming and country districts without seriously impairing the property above which the same may be constructed, it simply being required that suitable supports attached to the structure and forming parts thereof or provided and erected separately, relatively widely associated, be used to sustain the weight of the structure at a suitable distance above the ground, and these supports being relatively widely assoclated, the same may cross farms and the like without serious inconvenience,

which would overcome to a large extent, the usual difficulties in securing rights of way. Smularly, the" structure may be installed Specification of Letters Patent.

Application filed March 11, 1915. Serial No. 13,564.

either in lieu of or supplemental to a natural or existing country road, on the one hand by laying the structureon the road surface or on the other hand supporting the structure thereabove without seriously obstructing the normal road.

It is another purpose of the present invention to provide a structure, the parts of which shall be of standard metal or other formations fashioned to be expeditiously assembled, and correspondingly maintained in serviceable condition at comparatively cheap cost.

In that embodiment of the invention employed to cross over streams, topographical depressions, and other elevated situations, the same may be of a single span over narrow Waterways or hazardous land depressions, in which connection it is of a type capable of being self-sustaining when resting and anchored at opposite ends upon suitable embankments, or the same may be formed in duplicate spans of continuous arrangement to overhang wide waters or valleys when partially supported intermediate of the terminals, after the accepted manner of bridge engineering; and intermediate the piers or bank supports, towers may be provided and between the towers the vertical parts of the structure may be continued downward until they reach and rest upon suitable fixed surface supports.

The preferred embodiment of my invention, when availed of for any of the various purposes to which I have alluded, comprises the formation of the structure of a plurality of open metal or other frames, reinforced and partly formed of transversely disposed triangular portions to impart to the frame the undeniable strength flowing from such special shape, and the frames being strongly braced and tied together through the medium of side brace rods arranged for example, in cries-cross fashion, or similar brace rods, where desired, also uniting the upper portions of the frames together across the top thereof and the bottrmportion of the frames together by longitudinal sills or bars rigidly, secured to the various frames, and in the case of an elevated or bridge structure, the bottom portions of the same being additionally braced by rods or beams constitut ng tension members therebelow, associated with suitable interposed struts therefor, "bearing in line with'th base mem bers of the triangular portions previously mentioned, to the end that the supporting strains are distributed from the bottom brace rcds or tension members upwardly through the struts over the triangular frames alined with the struts, and around the framework, as will later on clearly appear.

I-Ieretofore I have referred to the subdivision of the interior of the main frames into small ways or spaces bordering the main road or traction ways, and reverting to that matter, it may be here observed that such spaces are conveniently formed intermediate of the upwardly converging triangular frame members, and the side members of the main (preferably rectangular) frames. and within the crowns or apex portions of the triangular frame members. These spaces may be devoted to roadways for slowmoving, and rapidly-moving velrcles, respectively; and suitable foot paths or ways for pedestrians. They, or similar spaces (provided with floors and inclosing walls or partitions if desired) may be utilized as ways or conduits to receive conductors for electric lighting, telegraph, telephone, water, gas or power transnnssion; pneumatic or other despatch tubes, or miniature automatically controlled eonveyers,traction or otherwise prcpelled,-for transporting merchandise and mail and express packages from place to place without the necessity of attendants or manual control. Other uses may be resorted to, but those here mentioned will sutlice in imparting the under standing of the wide sphere of usefulness attending these minor passageways, performing the useful function in my construction, and overcoming the great waste of space and expense incident to the present non-use of equivalent space. It will be understood, however, that the provision of these subordinate features of my invention is optional, and will depend largely upon the intended uses for which the structure may be designed, and the s ze thereof.

The improved details in the construction and arrangement of parts of a structure made in keeping with my invention, and capable of accomplishing the desired results to which I have made reference, will be apparent from the specific description hereinafter contained, when read in connection with the accompanying drawings forming part hereof, and wherein preferred embodiments of the invention are illustrated.

In the drawings: Figure 1 is an end view, partly in section of an elevated structure, Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same employed as a bridge, Fig. 3 is a plan View, in single formation, of the structure duplicated to present the suggested double formation of Fig. 1, Fig. at is a side elevation of a section of an elevated structure adapted to be supported from the ground or street, Fig.

5 is a side view, partly in section of a subway or tunnel, and, Fig. 6 is a sectional view through Fig. 5.

Referring more specifically to the drawings wherein the same reference characters designate like parts in the several series of views, and first with relation to Figs. 1, 2, and 3, A represents a series of frames formed of metal bars, or combinations of metal bars and wooden members, suitably joined and conveniently of rectangular outline, the same being spacedsuitable distances apart, in keeping with the length of structure desired, these frames being in either s'ngle or double formation, as will be clearly understood from a mere inspection of Figs. 1 and 3 of the drawings, the line of division between the double frames being constituted by vertical bars B; the purpose of a single frame, when used being in keeping with a single stretch of road, and the double frame in keeping with a double road serving as outgoing and return portions.

The frames are connected together longitudinally thereof by base bars C, top bars D, and sills C, and the sides are reinforced, and the various frames further rigidly united and braced by brace rods E arranged in criss-crcss fashion as illustrated; and usually the same criss-cross arrangement of brace rods will be employed to connect across the top of the structurewith the opposite longitudinal membersD thereof, as indicated at F. The upper members of the frames A also constitute transverse braces D.

The sills C to which I have just referred are arranged longitudinally of the structure and are firmly attached to the cross members of the frame on which the same rest, as clearly indicated in Figs. 1 and 6. These sills give added strength to the structure, assist in maintaining the frame members in their proper separated relation, and owing to the rigidity thereof will be found useful as supports for rails, in which connection, that is when the rails are securely fastened to the sills, both the sills and rails as combined elements will still further strengthen the completed device. The sills may be of any suitable material, for example, wooden parts or sections steel jacketed together so as to make the same continuous, but it is unnecessary in this case to disclose the specific construction of the sills or the connecting devices between the sections thereof.

The foregoing arrangement provides an unbroken inclosed and unyielding framework capable of bearing the supporting strains to which the same is to be subjected. The frames are still further strengthened laterally by intermediate cross bars or plates G fastened to the upright portions of the rectangular frames and extending through either a single frame. when, used alone, or

the base bars L of the frames constituting triangles, the characteristics of whichar'e entirely the double formation.

through both frames when used in The main road or traction ways are represented at H and J. Theseways are bordered by rectangular frames strongly reinpeculiarly appropriate in the combination, inthat the strength of the triangle and the distribution of the forces and strains throughout the same wlll serve to InfllIlt iilIl the structure in rigid and permanent operative condition. The base bars L operate in conjunction with the cross rods G, and top transverse bars D to tie the side members of the frame and render the same as rigid as necessary,other and asmany base bars,

either as partof or separate from the triangles being utilized wherever desired, the same being connected in an obvious manner to the longitudinal bars of theuframe and serving as adequate supports for thoseparts located between the triangles.

The orossbrace rods G are rigidly attached to the upwardly converging side members K of the triangles, and these brace rods are intended to serve another function, namely, as supports fora suitable road-bed M serviceable for slow-moving and rapidlymoving vehicles respectively, the necessity for special ways for which in elevated and bridge structureshas long been recognized.

Below the roadways B and within the some what narrower spaces betweentheupright members of the rectangular frame A and the inclined members of the triangles "K, I mount foot pathsor ways'M for pedestrians.

However, any or all of the spaces designated at 7, e, 9, 10,11, 12, 1a, 14., 15, 16, -17,and1 8, between the side members of the main framesand the inclined side members of the triangular portions, as well as the spaces' l9 and 20 beneaththe apices of the triangular portions may be utilized for any of thepurposes hereinbeforeoutlined or analogous purposes, as may be found expedient.

The opposite ends ofthe structure when utilized as a bridge (Fig 2) may be sup ported upon suitable concrete foundations or embankments represented. in a general way at O at the opposite sides of the space to bespanned by. the bridge, and the bridge is additionally strengthened and anchored in place by cables I? passing around the upper portion of the .bridge structure,' preferably on bearings-near'the upper points of the triangles,-and other cables Q, passing below the bridge structure conveniently in grooves therefor formed-in the bottoms of the longitudinal base bars C, Suitableaw choring means, as indicated at B, being embedded in the concrete or other foundation.

S represents supporting bars extending downwardly below the central portion of the bridge and extending to the embankments to constitute the tension members of the structure, said tension members being ofany de sired number and beingsustained in position by braces or struts Textending therefrom to In lieu of or in addition to the struts T above defined, it will be clear that I may carry down the vertical members of the frame work to constitute supports T.X tending to the base of waterways or to suitable fiXed supporting surfaces where the structure is used'as an elevated roadway, said vertical extensions which may be properly designated supporting standards being represented by dotted lines in Fig. 2.

Assuming the Ways H and J to be approximately level with the surfaces from which the bridge leads, it is desirable to provide steps U leading to the foot paths N, at the opposite ends of the bridge, and gradually inclined approaches U extending from the ground surface upwardly to the road portions M of the bridge.

While in Fig. 2 I have shown the double formation of the bridge, for the sake of economy of space, I have illustrated in Fig. 3, buta single width frame, it being understood that in the double construction of the instance now being particularly defined, the showing of Fig. 3 is merely duplicated.

From the above description, it will be appreciated by persons skilled in this art that ina practicaLSimple, inexpensive manner, I have furnished a structure capable of service in many situations and under varying conditions, one that may be quickly assembled or taken apart. It may, as clearly illustrated, be used as a bridge alone or as a continuation of other systems; it may be satisfactorily employed as a road or traction way in traversing routes wherein the structure may rest directly, entirely or partially, upon the ground, or entirely or partially under-' ground or in water when suitably incased,

as will presently appear.

Instaneing the use of the invention in an overhead or commonly styled elevated system, I refer to Fig. 4 wherein the framework, with-slight modification, is illustrated at 21, the same being supported in proper raised position with reference to the ground or street surface 22 by suitable supporting standards 23 disp sed in'vertical line with the triangular portions 24 of the framework, the standards being suitably braced in any convenient manner, as by cross rods 25. The modification in this frame work to which I have just referred consists in bringing the triangular portions in closer relation, so that the adjacent inclined side members 24: are overlapped and secured together as at 25, to present the advantage of the additional strength to be derived therefrom, the

vertical division bars B in this instance 7 passing through the points of juncture of the cross triangular members, as clearly seen in Fig. 6.

An embedded or submerged tunnel or subway structure is illustrated in Fig. 5,also in detail Fig. 6,from which it will be noted that the framework is incased in a suitable tube or hermetically sealed casing or conduit 26 formed in sections interfitting, as at 27, and riveted together at 28. It will be appreciated that a subway formed in this manner will be of great strength, by reason of the triangular supporting members, and this additional example will serve to emphasize the rather universal application of my invention to roads and ways of the usually recognized types. As clearly shown in Fig. 5, the tube formation may rest upon the bottom of waterways or the same may be entirely embedded, or partially embedded in the earth and partially exposed, or entirely raised from the ground, as may be found advantageous in pursuing a level course for my mechanical or artificial road or way across the base of submerged territory; it being understood that when the tubular formation is supported in a submerged, but elevated position with reference to the bed of the waterway, the vertical portions of the frame members 21 are extended downwardly to suitable rigid resting points at said bed of the waterway, as indicated at 21, Fig. 5. Perhaps it will be found that in this last referred to embodiment of my invention, the various spaces formed within the framework may be best utilized for the ancillary purposes set forth in this specification, said spaces being denominated 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 3 1, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40, the main ways being indicated at 4:1 and 42. It will be instantly appreciated that by my arrangement in addition to the provision of a continuous rigid and integral structure, I make use of and render valuable these various spaces, which have heretofore been entirely wasted, and the saving in cost as compared to the making of independent conduits, etc., is ob-' viated.

From the disclosures herein made, it will be obvious that I have presented a roadway which, owing to its various embodiments, will be capable of use to meet all conditions encountered in the building of systems of the character to which the invention relates in that although the several embodiments which I have defined may be used individually where desired, they may also be used collectively in a single system, said system including in its course undulating land por- ,tions, elevated portions as at street crossings, or through populated districts, and over farms; underground or subway portions in cities or elsewhere, bridges over waterways of limited width, and tunnel portions through relatively wide waters, in which latter connection the varying surface configuration'of the submerged bed or bottom of the waterway may be met in substantially the same manner as on land, and as suiii ciently indicated in Fig. 5 to impart the general or underlying idea involved.

While I have herein disclosed the pre ferred embodiment of my invention,it will be understood that the invention is still capable f of embodiment in other forms and devices without departing from the spirit thereof, all as may be in keeping with the hereto appended claims.

Having thus described the invention,what

is claimed is:

1. A way of the character described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members, and the lower ends of said'sides being secured to adjacent base portions atthe bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged roadway there within, substantially as and for the purpose described.

2. A way of the character described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members, and the lower ends of said sides being secured to adjacent baseportions at the bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged main roadway there within, in combination with transverse supporting and bracing members arranged below the apices of the inside frame portions and connected to the opposite side members thereof adapted to constitute a support for a supplemental roadway or the like above said enlarged way, substantially as and for the purpose described.

3. A way of thecharacter described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members, and the lower ends of said sides being secured to adjacent base portions at the bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged main roadway there within, in combination with transverse supporting and bracing members arranged below the apices of the inside frame portions and connected to the opposite side members thereof adapted to constitute a support for a supplemental roadway or the like above said enlarged way, and continuations of said transverse supporting and bracing members adapted to constitute additional supports and braces bridging the spaces between the opposite sides of the inside frame portions and the adjacent sides of the outside frame portions and secured to the latter, substantially as and for the purpose described.

t. A way of the character described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members, and the lower ends of said sides being secured to adjacent base portions at the bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged roadway there within, in combination with transverse supporting and bracing members disposed between one of the side members of the inside frame portion and'the adjacent side of the outside frame portion and adapted to constitute a support for a supplemental roadway or the like, substantially as and for the purpose described.

5. A way of the character described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members, and the lower ends of said sides being secured to adjacent base portions at the bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged roadway there within, in combination with a tubular casing inclosing and secured to said Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the converging,

structure, substantially as and for the purpose described.

6. A way of the character described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members, and the lower ends of said sides being secured to adjacent base portions at the bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged roadway there within, in combination with a similar structure alined transversely with said first mentioned structure having the adjacent inner sides of the triangular portions downwardly, and transverse supporting and bracing members secured to said sides and bridging the spacing therebetween adapted to constitute a support for a supplemental intermediate roadway or the like, substantially as and for the purpose described.

7. A way of the character described comprising relatively outside and inside frame portions, both extending substantially from the top to the bottom of the way, the inside frame portions including side members converging upwardly and having their apices secured to adjacent upper outside frame members and the lower ends of said sides being secured to adjacent base portions at the bottom of the way, to constitute a trussed triangular structure having an enlarged roadway there within, in combination with a similar structure alined transversely with said first mentioned structure having the adjacent inner sides of the triangular portions converging, and the lower terminals of said adjacent downwardly converging side a members crossing each other and being secured together at a point substantially above the bottom of the way, substantially as and for the purpose described.

In testimony whereof I hereunto aflix my signature in the presence of two witnesses.

THOMAS C. SPELLING.

Commissioner of Patents,

Washington, D. C.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3062340 *Apr 12, 1957Nov 6, 1962Mauritz Hunnebeck EmilGirder units and connecting members
US3808624 *Jul 15, 1971May 7, 1974Barkdull HBridge construction
US4017932 *Dec 13, 1974Apr 19, 1977Sergio LottoTemporary, modular, self-erecting bridge
US4649588 *Feb 5, 1986Mar 17, 1987Graham TaylorElevated bikeway
US4665829 *Jul 28, 1986May 19, 1987Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaGuideway construction and method of installation
Classifications
U.S. Classification14/4, 405/137, 14/3
Cooperative ClassificationE01D6/00