US 1179779 A
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H. w. ,uHL. STARTING AND LIGHTING SYSTEM.
t APPLICATION FILED NOV. I0, |914.
Patented Apr. 18, 1916.
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APPLICATION FILEDINOVI I0, 1914.
w/mfssfs TTOHNEY Unirnn sirnrns raranfr carica.
SLLB'TIIGi AND LIGHTING SYSTEM.
L 79,17 79. Specication of Lettersatent. Patented API. 1S, 1916.
l Application led November 10,'1914. vSerial No. 871,219.
To ailwhom it may concern: v netic lines and no current generated by the Be it known that I,l HENRY W. UHL, a l dynamo.4 The arrangement also is such that citizen of the United States, residing at when the engine of the vehicle increases itsv Freeport, county of Nassau, and Sta-teef speed, the speed' of one element of the dy- 60 New York, have invented'certain new and namo, such as the armature, relative to or useful improvements in Starting and Lightpast the other element, or field, does not cor` ing Systems, oi which' the following is a respondingly increase, the' relative movespecification. ment between the armature and field, as dis- My invention relates to improvements in tinguished from the absolute movement of 55 starting and lighting systems as applied either of these parts, being regulated autoparticularly to automobiles. Unitary s'ysn matCally, so that there may be as many, or tems or apparatus are in use in ,which an more, magnetic lines cut by the armature electric motor may be operated for startingwhen the vehicle engine is running at slow an automobile engine, and used as a dyna ",speed, or is idling, than when the engine is 7o ino when the engine is in operation orop.- tunning at high speed. These effects arcoberyating the lighting system Aof the vehicle -tained by my invention by. the employment `and charging batteries. lIn such devices, if of a mopor or dynamo apparatus in which directly connectedto the engine y-Wheel both'the armature and field magnet strucor other rotatable art of the engine to start ture are freely revolved under certain con- 7 the saine, a consi erable amount of torque ditions andone or the other is held or remust be developed at the outset to, over tarded inits rotation under other condicome the inertia of the movable parts, of tions.' When the device is used as a motor, the engine so that in such systems a motor current supplied to the windings thereof of consiredable power is required. in such causes one of its rotatable elements, as the 8O systems'also when the apparatus is used as armature, toA start and get up speed, the a dynamo for lighting. and otherpurposerwv other element, as the field magnet structure, diiiiculties are experienced in regulating the referred'to hereinafter briefly as the iield, voltage supplied to the lamps, under the being rotated in the opposite direction beconditions of varying speed of the engine cause of connections between the two. Ai- 85 and of the dynamo driven thereby. 1 ter this, braking means are applied'to retard My invention is directed to the provision and stop the rotation of one of these eleof an improved method and of apparatus ments, as the iield', the rotation of the other by which such method may be practised for element, the armature, for example, conovei'coming these and similar difficulties in tinuing, turning effect upon the shaft -con- 90 a simple 'and highly effective manner.- nected with the vehicle engine being applied In my invention, when the electrical deas the held part slows down, the latter then vices are supplied with current and used as forming an abutment about which the cona motor for starting the engine, a novel nections, referred to, between the field and method and means are provided for permitarmature, revolve, the rotation of these con- 95 ting the motor to attain a considerable 'nections serving to turn over the engine. As speed before any turning effectv is ,applied a result of this arrangement, turning effect thereby to the engine so that asmaller or upon the engine will be applied gradually, less powerful motor can be used than is the increasing as the held part slows down, case when a motor of usual construction and reaching' a 'maximum when it becomes 100 is directly connected to the engine, no mestationary.
chanical clutching devices being necessary Nhen the system is used for supplying in my construction between the engine and current to the lighting system or for other motor. When apparatus used in my method purposes, means and a method are provided is employed for furnishing current to lightfor regulating the relative movement of the`-105 ing systems, etc., an automatic control is field and the armature, one of these elements provided which regulates the electrical outbeing held when the engine is rotatingpat put at all speeds of the vehicle so that a -low speed and permitted movement inthe predetermined voltage will not be exceeded. saine direction as the other element when 'the The arrangement is such that when there 'engine speed is increased, themovement of 11o is no current in the external circuit of the the held element increasing as the speed of apparatus, there will be no cutting of magthe engine increases so that the spee4 of ro- 50 y pinion 2 in a hub formed on the casing 8,
tation of thevarmature relative to the field is` constantly adjusted in accordance with the vvariation in. speed of the engine to furnish current of; approximately constant voltage. While these end's may be attained by vari- .ous means-and with modifications in details of the method practised, the principle of operation will remain the same.
In order that a clearer understanding of my invention may be had, attention is here-` by directed to the accompanying drawingsl forming part of this application and illustrating one form of apparatus, which 1 consider Well adapted for my purpose and by which my improved method may be carried In. the drawings Figure 1 represents a vertical longitudinal section Athrough apparatus which operates asia motor for starting and as a dynamo when the engine is in operation and it is desired to provide current for lighting, etc., Fig. 2 represents a transverse vertical section taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1, Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken on line 3 3 of Fig. 1, Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic representation of wiring connections,
'Fig 5 is a diagrammatic detail view illus- -trating means for starting the motor and subsequently applying a brake to the field casting, and Fig. 6 is an end view showing the machine connected to the y-wheel of an engine.
, Referring to the drawings in'my preferred form of construction, ay shaft 1 is provided carrying at its end thepinon 2 adapted to meshwith a gear on the fly-wheel or other rotatable part of the ,engine to drive the same when the machine operates as a mo- "'tor' and to receive power therefrom when the 'machine operates as a dynamo. A tubular armature shaft 3 surrounds shaft 1 and carries thereon the armature 4 which, is preferably shunt wound, in respect to the field winding, although other forms of winding may be used. 'The field 5 is mounted for rotation around theE armature. A brake -,band 6 is shown applied to thesur'face of 'the field- 5, being mounted within a depression 6 in the casing '8. A bearing is provided for shaft 1, as shown at 7 adjacent to which latter preferably is semi-cylindrical and surrounds and protects the lower half of the apparatus. The opposite end ofshaft 1 may be given a bearing a's illustrated at 9 Within the tubular armature shaft. The armature shaft is supported adjacent the end just referred to in a bearing 10 formed ina hub 11 of the casing or supporting member '8. The field member 5 is mounted to rotate about the armature shaft by meansof cast- I ings or suitable frames 12 and 13 at each end of the field member to which the eld member is secured as by screws or bolts 14. Members 12 and 13 have hub portions 115, 15
which are rotatablysupportedby suitable bearingsupon armature shaft 3.
-Agear llispsecured to the left hand 'end of armature shaft 3, referring to Fig. 1, by a key or other suitable means, and a spider 17 is secured to shaft l adjacent to the gear for example three, extending radially from l its hub 18 at the end of eachof which arms 1s mounted a ,stud 19 extending parallel to the armature shaft. On these studs, pinions 20 are mounted to freely rotate about the studs, pinions 20 meshing with gear 16.
16. The spider 17 has a number ofarms..-
An internal gear 21 is mounted for engage.-y
ment with pinions 20 at the outer peripheries of the latter. Internalgear 21 is pronular flange 2 2 which contacts the surface of Ia flange 23 formed on member 13, to which flange 22 is secured; A member 24, of cy- V lindrical form has a'hub 25 which is mount- `ed for rotation on'a suitable bearing 26 on shaft 1 adjacent to the bearing 7 of the shaft. Member 24 has an annular iange27 upon which the outer edge of internal gear 21 rests, bolts 28 extending through member 24, the flange 22 of gear 21 and into boss 23 of member 13, thus rigidly connecting gear 21 to the field member 5, .since the latter also is rigidly secured to member 13. It may be remarked, circular members 13 and 24, together with the inner surface of gear 2l form a closedchamber which mayf be partly filled with oil if desired to form a reservoir from which the various bearings may be lubricated. As shown, the machine has four brushes 29 which bear at intervals of ninety degrees upon the commutator 30, the two positive brushes contacting with collector ring. 3]., with which contact 32 engages, the latter being connected to the binding post 33. The two negative brushes are preferably grounded.
Any suitable means may be provided to operate the brake-band 6, when the field 5 is to be stopped or` retarded inthe opera- -vided with a radial outwardly extending antion ofthe device 'as a motor for starting the engine. A suitable arrangement is illustrated diagrammatically ,in Fig.v 5, in which a foot-lever 34 is connected by means of; bell-crank 35, link 36 and lever 37 with one end of the brake-band 6, and through levers nected thereto leading to theV battery or source of power by which the machine is energized when it is operated as a motor. In order to insure the oot-leverbeing applied with sufficient slowness to ena armature to get up speed'before the brake is applied, I 'prefer to employ a 'dash-pot or similar retarding device 43 into which the end of foot-lever 34 extends on the depression of the same.
From the above, the operation of the device as a moto'r for starting the engine may be made clear. When current is supplied to the apparatus, the armature immediately starts revolving,
pinions 2O about their own axes and the latter rotate gear 21 and therefore also the field 5 in the opposite direction of rotation to that of the, armature 4. The inertia of the moving parts of the engine to which shaft 1 and spider17 are connectedwill pre vent rotation of spider 17 and pinions 20 about the axis of shaft 1 at this time. ions 20 revolve gear 21 at the same angular velocity as gear 16, but since gear 21 is larger and has a greater number of teeth than gear 16, the field will rotate a less number of revolutions per second than thej armature and in the opposite direction thereto.- In order now to vobtain a rotative effect upon the shaft 1, it is only necessary to hold either the field or against rotation or to retard the rotation thereof, whereupon the pinions 20, meshing to retard that case a different.
to above, preferably a series 'rection i'or starting. In principle,
16 and internal gear 21 will necessarily start rotation about shaft 1,`ro tating the same with them. The shaft 1 will be rotated in the same direction, which is the proper direction if either the. eld or the armature is stopped or retarded regardless of which one is stopped, if proper winding of the iield is used.' In the construction illustrated, the field being considered as shunt-wound, apply a brake-member to the field as stated and stop the same. The brake have been applied to the instead of the field, but in form of winding would for the field, than that referred winding, to obthe desired diit is only necessary to slow down and stop one of these elements while permitting the other to revolve, the element slowed down and stopped acting as an abutment, that is,
gear 16 or the gear 21 acting as an abutn ment about or within which the pinions 20 land spider 17 start revolving about theaxis of the spider to rotate shaft 1, and the power is applied gradually to shaft 1, since the tendency of spider 17 to revolve increases in proportion as the part which is held slows down.
with both gears member might armature shaft,
be employed tain rotation of the'engine in ble the nected and driven Jfrom 1 would act simply as devices gear 16 thereon rotates 'is practically Pin-V switch in the external circuit is open.
the armature for starting the engine,4
1 -tion ta rotating with either the ConsideringA now the voperation of the same, when the armature and field are operated so as to constitute the source of electrical energy for supplying the lighting system, etc., the gear 2 on shaft 1 being conthe engine fly-wheel, spider 17 revolves about its axis and pinions 20 thereon would revolve gears 16 and 21 together, that is, in the same direction if the armature and field were equally free to rotate, since in this case there would be nothing to cause pinions 2O to rotate about their own axes. 'In this case, pinions 20 v for connecting gears 16 and 21 together and these gears, and the armature and iield, would rotate together in the saine direction at the same number of revolutions pery second, so that there would be no magnetic lines cut by the armatureand no current generated. This the case, as will be pointed out, when there is no current' in the external ciras when it is not deand the appropriate n order for current to be generated, either the armature or the iield must be held stationary or retarded in its movement so that there is relative movement between the two result ing inthe cutting of magnetic lines.
As stated, my invention provides controlling means, such that one of these elements is held stationary or approximately cuit of the machine, sired to operate lights,
vso when the. engine is running at slow speed fthe voltage supplied as the engine speed increases, will not increase above a predetermined desired amount but will remain approximately constant. When the field, for example, is held against rotation pinions 2.0 will revolve about their own'axes, in addispider 17 about the 1 and the relative movement field is provided.
axis of shaft between the armature and Various means are possible whereby one` of the elements of the dynamo may be held or retarded in its rotation in the described manner. I prefer to use the method which I will now describe and which I consider well adapted for the purp ose. This comprises an electro-magnetic controlling device similar to an induction motor having a squirrelcage armature,
about the `internal gear 21. The stator of this device is represented at 44, this comprising a ring winding, which is connected in series with the circuit from the armature 4. The stator is held stationary as by means y of bolts 45 securing the same to a lug or lugs 46 on the interior o-` the casing' 8. This stator is so wound as to produce alternating north and south poles, the same as in an alwhich is mounted l being, for example, eight poles provided. The rotor 47 comprises a plurality of shortcircuited iron bars, thesame as in the usual 'slow speed, if the external circuit through thel stator 44 is closed, the influence of the stator upon the rotor holds theA latter against rotation and the revolution of the armature within the field supplies current of desired voltage to the external circuit.`
This is because the torque exerted bythe stator uponith rotor will be greater under these conditions than that exerted by the armature upon the field, because the radius of the stator is greater than that of the field,
- as the armature.
as illustrated, and because the iron of the stator and rotor will have 'more residual magnetismnthan that of the armature and field, because of the iiux-density of the stator having been carried to an excessively high degree, and also forthe reason that the rotor conductors are short-circuited while the armature wires are not. As, however, the speed of the`engine shaft is increased, the permeability of the iron of the stator decreases Aand there is an increasing magneti'c leakage from the stator because of the cross-section of the stator and rotor being intentionally made of small area. The cross-sections of the stator and rotor are so chosen that when the engine is running slowly, the permeability of the iron in the stator and rotor is practically the same as that of the iron in the field and armature of the dynamo, vbut as the desired voltage for the external circuit is approached, the iron of the stator and rotor approaches mag netic saturation.v The stator and rotorbeing nearer the saturation point than the armature and lield of the dynamo, airincrease of the current generated by the ma? chine traversing the stator windings results in only a small increase in'the magnetism of the stator as compared with that of the dynamo, as a result of which a point is reached at a predetermined voltage of output when the torque 'of the dynamo is'greater than that of the `controlling device so that the rotor begins to sli and rotates slowly, to gether with the tie d in the same direction As the speed of the engine increases, the slip of the rotor increases, so that the voltage of the external circuit is automatically regulated as described.
The electrical connections described are illustrated. diagrammatically in Fig. 4. When the device is operated as a motor for starting the-engine, the switch 48v in the vrotated from shaft 1 through pinions 20 and gears 16 as described, the switch 39, 40 is open and switch 48 is closed, the current generated by the machine passing through the statorl windings and supplying the lights, charging battery, etc., as desired. In Fig. 1 the conductor 51 is illustrated as connecting the armature with the stator windings, current being led from the stator windings to the external circuit through a connection at binding-post 52. When the device is operated as a motor, the statoris not included in the circuit.
In practice, the storage or charging battery 49, to be supplied with current, would be connected in parallel with the lamps 50, an auxiliary switch 48 being diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 4 in this connection, switch 48 beingfclosed when current is to -be supplied to the lights, and switch 48" closed when it is to be supplied to the battery. As stated, the armature 4 is preferably provided with four poles and is'shuntwound, two of the poles being grounded, as is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 4.
The top of the machine maybe covered Aby a light cover 53, which may be secured to the bottom casting 8 in any desired manner, as,
for example, by a hinge connection 54 or the like at one'side and a spring-clip or other suitable retaining device 55 at the other side of the machine, as illustrated in Fig. 2. In Fig. y6, the gear 56 on the fly-wheel of an engine to be started, when the machine is operated` as a motor, or to supply turning power to shaft l when the machine operates asv a dynamo,'is illustrated as in mesh with gear 2 on shaft 1. .f
From the above, the manner of practising the methods which I have referred to as comprising a part ofmy invention will be manifest: Generally speaking, my method of starting a motor or of applyingl torque to a rotatable member having considerable inertia, whichis to be started from rest, consists in rotating both the armature' and field of a motor in opposite directions, and in such a manner, that a part of each Vof the same will rotate at the same angular speed.l -After the rotatable elements have gotten up speed, one or the other of the same is re- .tarded and the, relative change in the rates .current which shall not exceed in voltage a predetermined amount, regardless ofthe l rotate in opposite and4 said elements amount. While the methods briefly escribed are efficiently carried out by meansv of the apparatus described, the same may be practised by other means than those described.
It is to be understood that my invention is vnot strictly lim'ted to the exact details of construction described 4in connection with my apparatus, but that my invention, as to apparatus and method, is as'broad as is indicated by the'a'ppended claims.
Having now particularly described my invention, what I claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent is as follows 1. In devices of the character described, the combinationof a pair of rotatable elements, namely, a rotatable armature, and a rotatable field, a shaft adapted to be connected to an engine means for causingthe armature and eld to directions when --current is supplied to the armature, brake 'means for retarding and stoppingv the rotation -lo'f one of the said elements,y when desired, and a member connected to said shaft', and so` connected to'said connecting means. as ltohave rotative effectl applied thereto by said connecting means when said brake means is applied, but not otherwise, substantially'as set OltlL. .IQ l 'i 2, In devicesof-the character described, the com ination of a dynamo or motor comprising a pair of rotatable an armature ,and a ieldfa have mechanical power taken i therefrom, when said elements `'operate asa motor, and to havemechanical power supplied thereto, when lsaid elements operate as a means for retarding at will the rotation of one of said elements,
one of said elements, When operating as a dynamo, and connections between said shaft v such that said elements operate in opposite directions and rotative effect is applied to said shaft from the unretarded element when the latter operates as a motor', and
l sameh direction at different speeds, and rotaset forth. l
tive effect is applied from said shaft to the element which is not retarded, when the latterv operates as a dynamo, substantially as 3. Indevices of the character described,
g5 the combination of a dynamo comprising a both - held or retarded,
to be started, connecting elements, namely, l
shaft adapted to dynamo,
when operating as 'a' "mctor, means for automatically retardmg tating said armature,
said elements rotate in the f nected to an engine of variablespeed, means for positively rotating both said elements' together in the same direction from said shaft when neither element is held or retarded, and for rotating either when the other is held or retarded, and means tending to hold one of said elements with an effectiveness which automatically decreases 'as the speed of said shaft increases, tially as set forth.
e. In devices of the combination of a pair of rotatable elements, ture and a ield, a nected to an engine of variable speed, means connected with both said elements for rotating said elements together from said shaft when neither element is held or retarded, and for rotating` either when the other is an external circuit, and devices actuated by current in said circuit, when the latter `is connected to said dynamo as a source, tending to hold one of said elements with an effectiveness which decreases as the speed of' said shaft increases, substantially as set forth.
5. In devices of the character described, the combination of a dynamo comprising a pair of rotatable elements, namely, an armatureand a field, a shaft adapted to be con nected to an engine of variable speed, an eX- ternal circuit, adapted to be connected to said dynamo as a source, means for rotating one of said elements from said shaft, and means actuatedby current in said circuit, when the latter is connected to said dynamo as a source, for holding said other element against `rotation so long as the speed of said. shaft does not exceed a predetermined rate, and thereafter permitting slip of said other element, substantially as set forth.
6. In devices of the character described, the combination of a dynamo comprising a rotatable field and a rotatable armature, an immovable coil, Wound to produce alternating north in series with the character described, dynamo comprising a namely, an armamember in inductive relation to said coil,
and secured to said field, an external'circuit coil, and means for rosubstantially as-set in Vseries with said forth.l
7; In devices, of the 'character described, the combination `of a dynamo comprising a rotatable field and a rotatable armature, an' immovable coil, wound to produce alternating north and south poles, in series with one of said dynamo elements, a rotatable shortcircuited member in inductive relation to said coil, and secured to said other element, an external circuitin series With said coil, and means for rotating said first element, substantially as set forth.
shaft adapted to be convsubstan- .the same, in series elements, a rotor element of type, 1n inductive relatlon to sald stator elei the combination of a dynamo comprising a rotatable eld and a rotatable armature, an limmovable-stator element, Wound as a ring with alternating opposite polarities around with one of said dynamo squirrel-cage l ment, and secured to the other of said dy- Atating said first-named an external circuit in series element, and means for rodynamo element,
namo elements, with said stator substantially as set forth.
9. Indevices of the character described,
pair of rotatable elements, namely, an armature and a field, a shaftadapted Ato be'connected to an engine of variable speed, meansv -for driving one of said elements therefrom,
and anelectric brake device ,comprising a n part 1n circuit with one of said dynamoelements and a part connected to rotate with the other dynamo element, said devices be'- ng arranged to exert a greater torque between its elements at certain predetermined speeds of said shaft than is exerted between said dynamo elements at such speeds, and
f to exert a less torque at greater speeds of said shaft, substantially asset forth.
10. In devices of the character described, the combination of a 'pair of'rotatable elements, comprising a rotatable armature and a lrotatable field, a gear rotatable with the armature, an internal gear surrounding said Copie: of this patent may be obtained for ve cents each, by addressing the first gear and rotatable dynamo comprising a With the field, a shaft to be driven coaxial with the 'armature7 a spider secured thereto having radial arms and pins on said arms extending between the faces of said gears, pinions freely rotatable on said pins and meshing with, both gears,` Aand means for retarding 'and holding one of said rotatable elements against rotation, substantially as set forth.
In devices of the combination of a pair of rotatable elements, comprising a rotatable armature and a rotatable eld, a gear rotatable with the armature, an internal gear surrounding said first gear and rotatable with the field, a shaft to be driven coaxial with the armature,
a member secured thereto having a pin expinion freely rotatable on said pin and meshing with both gears, and means comprising a lever, a switch, a brake-band, and connections for successively operating said switch and brake-band, from a single point of control for supplying current to said armature, when it is desired to operate the same as a motor, and for braking ythe lrotation of said field after said armature has gotten up speed, substantially as set forth.
This specication signed and witnessed this 4th day of November, 1914.
Y vHENRY W. UHL. Witnesses;
DYER SMITH, I. MoINTosiL Commissioner of Patents,
Washington, D. 0.."
the character described,.