US 1181136 A
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I. H. HAYDEN. STABILIZED PROIECTILE. APPLICATION FILED FEB. 26, I9I5.
Patented May 2,1916. 2 SHEETSSHEETI WITNESSES 1. H. HAYDEN. STABILIZED PROJECTILE. APPLICATION FILED FEB. 26, I915.
Patented May 2,1916.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 WITNESSES.
range of the rifle.
JOHN H. HAYDEN, 0F PELHAM MANOR, NEW YORK.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented May 2, 1916'.
Application filed February 26, 1915. Serial No. 10,677.
1 '0 all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN H. HAYDEN, a citizen of the United States of America, and a resident of Pelham Manor, county of lVestchester, State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Stabilized Projectiles,'.of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to ordnance, and particularly to stabilizing projectiles against tumbling in a vertical plane and deviation from their line of flight.
It has been suggested to provide helical rifiing bands within a gun barrel with which a projectile cooperates during its passage through the gun, in order that a rotation about its longitudinal axis may be imparted to the projectile as it starts on its flight, and whereby it may possess some of the properties of the gyroscope.
The manufacture of guns is very expensive, and the item of the cost of cutting the grooves within the barrel to provide the lands of the rifiing is largely the cause of the high total cost of -manufacture. Furthermore, the necessity for the presence of the rifiing bands within the rifle limits its useful life to a few more than 'a hundred shots, because every projectile in its passage tears away a part of the lands and the rifiing disappears. This is true regardless of'the efforts to perfect the design and the precision of manufacture without regard to increase of total cost. In other words, it is impossible to make a long-lived rifle at any cost.
The cost of a gun is greatly increased by the necessity of so designing its long barrel and its carriage that the severe torsional stresses set up in the barrel as it imparts rotation to the projectile will not tear oif the end of the barrel nor tear the barrel bodily from its support. The severity of the torsional stresses and the magnitude of the problem of designing a gun and its mounting to withstand them are readily apparent when one realizes that from 25% to more than 50% of the force of the powder charge is expended inimparting rotation to the projectile through the medium of rifiing bands. This waste of force of the .powder increasesmuch more rapidly than the range,
Furthermore, the caliber and range of a rifle are limited,'because it is impossible to provide'a-metal band on thereby absolutely limiting the a very large projectile which will take and hold the lands without stripping as the projectile passes through the gun.
To sum up, the method of imparting rotation to the projectile by the use of rifiing bands results in high cost of manufacture of un and carriage in the providing of rifiing bands and designing and mounting the barrel to withstand torsional stress, and a short life of the piece due to erosion of the bands and of the explosion chamber by the powder, in the inefficient use of the force generated by the powder charge which limits the'range' and in the limitation of the range and caliber of the gun, particularly when the total weight is limited, as on ships.
The object of my invention is to provide a projectile with a stabilizing means, so that it will not have to be rotated as a whole, and the rifiing within a gun, along with all its disadvantages and limiting factors, may be dispensed with and a long-lived large or small caliber smooth-bore gun may be made and mounted at a cost considerably less than the cost of making and mounting a rifle, and in such a gun the full explosive force of the powder may be used as projecting force. To this end, I mount a stabilizing :Wheel within a projectile, and provide means for imparting rotation to the stabilizing'wheel before the projectile starts on its flight and even after it is within the gun, and arrange the operating means for the stabilizing wheel so that it may be controlled, as to its actuation or as to the release of power stored up within it, from without the projectile. The stabilizing device is designed to alford the same stabilizing'eifect as the rotation of the projectile, and, .being within the projectile and properly positioned, the air pressure has no opportunity to retard it and decrease its efiect, andit i'smore efiicient due to the possibility of-locating it in the projectile so that its stabilizing effect may be most efliciently taken advantage of.
tile embodying my invention, this increase of drift is avoided, because the shell itself is not rotating. It is, therefore, seen that by the use of my invention great economy of installation and operation of a gun is obtained, with greater accuracy of operation and without the limitations of range and caliber imposed by the inadequacy of the method of stabilizing projectiles by the use of rifling.
Further objects and advantages of my invention will appear from the following detailed description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification and in which Figure 1 is a sectional view of a' gun, showing a projectile therein, partly broken away to show a stabilizing wheel mounted within the projectile in accordance with my invention; Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the projectile shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a partial sectional view of the stabilizing wheel and its operating mechanism, as shown in Figs. 2
and 7 Fig. 4 is a sectional view on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a partial section on the line 55 of Fig. 3; Fig. 6 is a sectional view of a gun, showing a modified formof projectile and powder casing therein; Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the projectile and its powder casing shown in Fig. 6; Fig. 8 is a sectional View on line 88 of Fig. 7; Fig. 9 is a sectional view on line 99 of Fig. 7; and Fig. 10 is a rear view of the projectile shown in Fig. 2.
In large caliber guns, the common type of projectile comprises a hollow shell containing explosive, which is ignited by a percussion cap when the projectile strikes, and in Fig. 1 this projectile is shown positioned Within the barrel 2 of a smooth-bore gun, which has a powder chamber 3 behind the projectile 1, which is closed by the breech block 4 in the ordinary manner. The powder, which is placed within the chamber 3 in the usual manner, is ignited in any known way to provide a projecting force for the projectile. The projectile 1 comprises a shell having a chamber 5 closed at the back by a wall 6 which is screwed into the shell. In this wall is screwed the ordinary percussion fuse 7 of the type above described. Within the. chamber 5 there is mounted a stabilizing wheel 8 and its operating mechanism M, which may be of the spring motor type or any other type of motor which may be practically inclosed within this confined space and which may be employed to impart rotation to the stabilizing wheel 8 at a predetermined time. The stabilizing wheel 8 is mounted upon an axle 9, whose axis substantially coincides with the axis of the projectile, and which is mounted in roller bearings 10 and provided with a thrust bearing 11, so that it is given a forward velocity along with the projectile. Mounted on the hub of the stabilizing wheelie a gear 12, which meshes with an'overrunning gear 13, which comprises a gear ring 14 and a disk 15 connected together by an ordinary over-running clutch 16. The disk 15 is driven by the shaft 17, which receives its rotation from the operating mechanism M. It is thus seen that a great turning effort may be imparted to the stabilizing wheel for a short time, and when the power producing the turning effort is exhausted the driving mechanism will overrun and the stabilizing wheel will not be retarded. It is intended in this case that the driving mechanism shall comprise an energy-storing device of any known type,'for example,'a spring motor, and, in order that this energy may be released to impart a rotation to the shaft 17 at the desired time, so that the stabilizing wheel may have its maximum speed when the projectile starts on its flight, a trigger mechanism is provided to release the stored energy. The trigger mechanism comprises a shaft 18 driven by the operating mechanism, which shaft has mounted on it a gear 19, which meshes with the gear 20 mounted upon shaft 21. On the shaft 21 there is also mounted a ratchet wheel 22-, with which coiiperates' a ratchet or looking dog 23 mounted on a pivot 24 and held in place thereon by friction, so .that, when moved out of contact with the ratchet tooth 22, it will stay in that position, which results in the releasing of the ratchet tooth 22. The ratchet or dog 23 coiiperates with the ratchet tooth 22' on the ratchet wheel, and, in order to disengage it therefrom, a conical head 24 is provided on the operating rod 25, and the operating head is so positioned relatively to the ratchet or dog that an axial movement thereof will swing the ratchet or dog 23 about its pivot 24 to disengage it from the rod 25, so that a-pressure on plate 28 will move the conical head 24: axially to move the ratchetor dog 23. When powderis put into the chamber 3 behind the projectile, it is forced home by the breech block' or a ram, and it is intended thatthis final forcing home of the powder shall press upon the plate 28 and release the operating mechanism M to impart rotation to the stabilizing wheel 8. In order that the plate .28 may not be prematurely pressed, a lock 29 memes is slid under it'in-the groove 30, andthis is placed in its position in the gun.
In, Fig. 6 there is shown a projectile 31 of a smaller caliber, positioned in the barrel 32 of a smooth-bore gun of corresponding caliber. The powder charge is contained in a metallic case 33, and the rear of the gun barrel is closed by the usual breech block 342. In the rear of the case 33 is fixed an ordinary percussion cap 35 for igniting the projecting charge within the case. The projectile 31 is of the shrapnel type, and has a typical time-fuse head 36 for igniting the bursting charge 37 and scattering the shrap-. nel balls 38. Within the rear of the shell, in this case, the operating mechanism M is mounted to drive the stabilizing wheel 8, and
the operating -mechanism M is released in the same, manner as in the case of the largecaliber projectile above-described, except that the operating rod 25 is extended through the rear end of the case 33 and is protected by the tube 26' as it passes through the powder charge. Riveted on the rear of the'case isaplatec28', which cooperates with the end of the rod 25 to move it to release the operating mechanism, I as above-.descrlbed 1n connect1on with the large-caliber projectile. The plate 28 is locked from being swung to operate the rod 25' by a locking member 29', similar to the I looking member 29 above-described. The
plate 28', being on the rear QfthB powder case 33, is intended to be pressed down;
against the rear of the case by the breech block 34 when it is put in'closed position and the case 33 forced home,.so'that, in this case, the stabilizing-wheelqis started just as soon as the breech block isclosed.
While I have described my stabilizing device in detail and as comprising a stabilizing wheel driven-by a motor device, the motor device in the embodiment described beand that I shall not be limited to that embodiment of my invention wherein the operating mechanism and the releasing mechanism for the energy therein stored are positioned as specifically described.
I intend that my invention shall be considered as broadly defined by the claims and that I may be permitted to impart rotation I to the stabilizing wheel by any means which will come within the scope of,my invention as defined by theclaims.
I do not intend that I shall be confined to any particular energy-storing or energy-producing or imparting means, but that I shall be entitled to any such means as come within the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is as follows 1. In combination with a gun for projecting a-projectile through the air, an aerial projectile having a stabilizing wheel and means operative independently of the projectile-propelling force for actuating said stabilizing wheelQ 2. In combination with a gun for projecting a projectile through the 'air, an aerial projectile having a stabilizing wheel, means operative independently of the projectile propellingforce for actuating said stabilizin wheel, and means for setting said actuatlng means into operation.
3. In combination with a gun for projecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile having astabilizing-wheel, and means entirely inclosed within said projectile and operative independently of the projectile propelling force for actuating said stabilizingwheel.
4. In combination with a gun for projecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile having a stabilizing wheel, and means comprising an energy storing device and operative independently of the projectile propelling force for actuating said stabilizing wheel.
5. In combination with a gun for projecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile having a stabilizing means, means comprising an energy vstoring device and operative independently of the projectile propelling-force for actuating said stabilizing means, and means for releasing the stored energy from without said projectile.
6. 'In combination with a gun, for projecting a projectile through, the air, an aerial projectile having a/stabilizing' means, a motor. therefor operative independently of the force applied to said projectileto move it longitudinally, and means for putting said motor in operation from without said projectile. 1
7 combination with a gun for pro-.v jecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile adapted to be propelled through the air by an explosion within said gun,
said projectile being provided with a stabilizing wheel and means operative independently of the projectile-propelling force for actuating said stabilizing wheel.
8. II 1 combination, an aerial projectile havlng a stabilizing wheel therein, means for imparting rotation to said wheel, and
.means operative independently of said last named means and including a, gun for projecting sa d projectile through the air by the action" ofan explosion within the gun,
' energy stored therein.
11. In combination, an aerial projectile,
and stabilizing means including operating means therefor and entirely inclosed within .said projectile, said operating means comprising an energy-storing device and means for releasing the stored energy from without said projectile.
12. In combination, a projectile for a breachloading'gun, a stabilizing means and operating means therefor and within said projectile, said operating means comprising an energy-storing device and means for 'releasing the stored energy uponclosing the breech of the gun.
13. In combination, a gun having a removable breech block, a projectile therefor having within it a stabilizing means, and means for putting. said stabilizing means into operative condition upon replacing said breech block.
14. In combination, an aerial projectile, and stabilizing means including operating means therefor comprising an energystoring device and a connection between said stabilizing means and energy-storing device which permits said stabilizing means to overrun said operating means when the energy is exhausted, said stabilizing means and energy-storing device being entirely inclosed within said projectile, and means for releasing said stored energy'from without said projectile.
15. The combination with a gun having a v breech block, of a projectile therein, said projectile having a stabilizing device within.
and means for putting the stabilizing device into operative condition while the projectile is in position in the gun, said means extending through the explosion chamber and cooperating withthe breech block.
. 16. In combination, an aerial projectilefor a breech-loading gun, a stabilizing means, an operating means therefor, means for setting said operating means in motion, said last-named means being adapted to be actuated on ramming home the powder charge.
17. In combination, a projectile, a stabilizing means therefor, operating means for said stabilizing means, a .member extending through the rear of the projectile for setting said operating means in motion, a member mounted for motion with respect to the projectile and cooperating with said firstnamed member.
18. In combination, a projectile, a stabilizing device therefor, operating means for said stabilizing device, a powder casing for said projectile and a member extending through said casing for setting said operating means in motion and adapted to be actuated from without said casing.
19. In combination with a gun jecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile adapted to be propelled through the air by an explosion within said gun, said projectile being provided with a stabilizing device comprising a stabilizing wheel and means operative independently of the projectile-propelling force for actuating the said stabilizing wheel.
20. In combination with a gun for projecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile having a stabilizing means entirely inclosed therein, and means operative independently of the projectilepropelling force for actuating said stabilizing means.
21. In combination with a breech-loading gun for projecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile having a stabilizing 'wheel, means operative independently of the projectile propelling force for actuating said stabilizing wheel, and means for setting said actuating means into operation upon theclosing of the breech of the gun. I
'22. In combination with a gun for projecting a projectile through the air, an aerial projectile adapted to be propelled through-the air by the action of an explosion within said gun and having a stabilizing wheel, and a motor for said wheel operative independently of the force applied to said projectile to move it longitudinally. In testimony whereof, I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
I JOHN H. HAYDEN.
JOHN I. GnMPLE, A. PsoHmRER.